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Rangyayo or Rangyan (琅野語; /ɾaŋ.ja.jɔ/) is the native language of the Rangyan people and an official language of the Kingdom of Rangya, an island nation in East Asia. It is classified as a language isolate, with proposed ties to the hypothetical Altaic language family. Rangyayo is notable for its mixed-logographic and featural orthography, its agglutinative grammar, and its organic mixture of native and Sinitic vocabulary.
| Name: Rangyayo
Head Direction: Final
Number of genders: 0
Rangyan is the national language and one of the two official languages (together with English) of the Kingdom of Rangya. The standard form of the Rangyan language is called "standard language" (pyotsunyo; 標準語; /pjɔ.tsun.jɔ/), which was initially based on the Ponto dialect (ponto pangyen; 本島方言; /pɔn.tɔ.paŋ.jɛn/) on the main island. The standard Rangyan is taught in schools and used on news and in official communications. The regulatory body for Rangyan is the National Institute of the Rangyan Language (kokrip kokyo wen; 国立国語院; /kɔk̚ .ɾip.kɔk̚ .jɔ.wɛn/), which is a special body of the Rangyan Ministry of Culture, Education, Science and Technology (munkokhwagi-bu; 文教科技部; /mun.kɔ.kʰwa.gi.bu/).
There are three main dialects spoken in Rangya. They are
- Ponto dialect (ponto pangyen; 本島方言; ), the initial basis of Standard Rangyan
- Jakang dialect (jakang pangyen; 茶岡方言; ), and
- Dukhyu dialect (dukhyu pangyen; 豆丘方言; ).
The formation of dialects is due to the long history of internal isolation of the population living on isolated islands in Rangya. Dialects typically differ in terms of pitch accent, inflectional morphology, vocabulary, and particle usage.
Kuiyungyo or Kuiyung Creole (kuiyungyo; 帰融語; /kuɪ.jʊŋ.jɔ/), meaning "a mixed language", is a creole language derived mainly from Dutch, Rangyan, English and Indonesian, which was originally spoken by the Kuiyung community of the Dutch colony of Rangya. It is now considered as a critically endangered language spoken only by very few people in Rangya and in the Kuiyung diaspora.
The following are phonemic transcriptions of Rangyan consonants.
|Plosive||plain||p b||t d||k g|
- /ŋ/ appears only in the syllable coda.
- /s, z/ are palatalised [ɕ, ʑ] before /i, j/
- /h/ is palatalised [ç] before /i, j/; and is bilabialised [ɸ] before /u, w/
- /ts, dz, tsʰ/ are palatalised [tɕ, dʑ, tɕʰ] before /i, j/
- /ɾ/ is an alveolar flap [ɾ] in the syllable onset; and is [l] in the syllable coda.
- /i/ is pronounced /ɪ/ before velar codas /ŋ, k̚/
- /u/ is /ʊ/ before velar codas /ŋ, k̚/
In the Rangyan language, because semivowels /j/ and /w/ may follow consonants in initial position in a word, which no other consonant can do, and perhaps due also to yenmun orthography, which transcribes them as vowels, they are sometimes considered to be elements of diphthongs and triphthongs rather than separate consonant phonemes.
- /ju/ is pronounced /jʊ/ before velar codas /ŋ, k̚/
- /uɪ/ is a falling diphthong [uɪ] after a consonant in an open syllable; and is a rising diphthong [wi] when it is a syllable of its own or in a closed syllable.
Rangyan consonants have two principal positional allophones: initial and final. The initial form is found at the beginning of a syllable and the final form is found at the end of a syllable.
All plosives [p, t, k] are unreleased [p̚, t̚, k̚] at the end of a syllable. Final [ɾ] is a liquid [l].
Rangyan syllable structure is maximally CgVC, where the first C is the initial consonant; g is a semivowel glide /j/ or /w/; V is a vowel; the second C is a coda. Any consonant but /ŋ/ may occur initially, whereas only /m, n, ŋ, p, t, k, s, l/ may occur finally.
Below is the table of all syllable finals (gVC) in Rangyan.
- pronounced [wi] when it is a syllable of its own or before codas /n, t̚, s, l/; and pronounced [wɪ] before codas /ŋ, k̚/
- pronounced [uɪ] after an onset in an open syllable.
Additional finals /wam/, /wɛm/, /wap/, /wɛp/ can be found in foreign loanwords.
Traditionally, the Rangyan language has had strong vowel harmony; that is, in pre-modern Rangyan, not only did the inflectional and derivational affixes change in accordance to the main root vowel, but native words also adhered to vowel harmony. However, this rule is no longer observed strictly in modern Rangyan. In modern Rangyan, it is only applied in certain cases such as onomatopoeia and interjections.
There are three classes of vowels in Rangyan: positive, negative and neutral. The vowel classes loosely follow the vowel heights. Exchanging positive vowels with negative vowels usually creates different nuances of meaning, with positive vowels sounding fast, hot, dry, hard, solid, focused or aggressive, and negative vowels sounding slow, cold, wet, soft, insubstantial, diffuse or tranquil.
|Positive||a, ɔ||ja, wa, aɪ, jɔ, ɔɪ||jaɪ, waɪ|
|Negative||ɛ, u||jɛ, wɛ, eɪ, ju, uɪ~wɪ||jeɪ, weɪ|
Rangyan pitch accent can be presented with a two-pitch-level model. In this representation, each syllable is either high (H) or low (L) in pitch.
- If the accent is on the first syllable, then the first syllable is high-pitched and the others are low: HLL...
- If the accent is on a syllable other than the first, then the first syllable is low, the following syllables up to and including the accented one are high, and the rest are low: LHLL..., LHHLL..., LHHHLL...
- If the word does not have an accent, the first syllable is low and the others are high: LHH... This high pitch spreads to unaccented grammatical particles that attach to the end of the word, whereas these would have a low pitch when attached to an accented word.
Examples are given in the table below. The number before each pitch pattern tells you the syllable where the last high pitch is.
|Pitch pattern||Sample word||Meaning|
Word classes and phrase classes
Rangyan has no grammatical number, gender or articles. Thus, Rangyan nouns are non-inflecting. The noun iku (犬; /i.ku/) can be translated as "dog", "dogs", "a dog", "the dog", "some dogs" and so forth, depending on context. However, as part of the extensive pair of grammatical systems that Rangyan possesses for honorification and politeness, nouns too can be modified. Nouns take politeness prefix ya- (야; /ja/) to produce their respectful forms. A few examples are given in the following table.
|kao (夫; /ka.ɔ/)||ya-kao (야夫; /ja.ka.ɔ/)||husband|
|nori (名; /nɔ.ɾi/)||ya-nori (야名; /ja.nɔ.ɾi/)||name|
|bu (目; /bu/)||ya-bu (야目; /ja.bu/)||eye|
|hiku (毛; /çi.ku/)||ya-hiku (야毛; /ja.çi.ku/)||hair (on body)|
Rangyan does not differentiate between count and mass nouns. A small number of nouns have collectives formed by reduplication, for example, oro (人; /ɔ.ɾɔ/) "person" and orooro (人々; /ɔ.ɾɔ.ɔ.ɾɔ/) "people". However, reduplication is not productive. Words in Rangyan referring to more than one of something are collectives, not plurals. Orooro, for example, means "a lot of people" or "people in general". It is never used to mean "two people". A phrase like rangya tu orooro (琅野두人々; /ɾaŋ.ja tu ɔ.ɾɔ.ɔ.ɾɔ/) would be taken to mean "the people of Rangya", or "the population of Rangya", not "two people from Rangya" or even "a few people from Rangya".
Lacking grammatical number, the noun haya (鳥; /ha.ja/) may refer to a single bird or several birds. Where number is important, it can be indicated by providing a quantity (often with a counter word). For example, both pu ik tu haya (２翼두鳥; /pu ɪk̚ tu ha.ja/) and haya i ik (鳥二翼; /ha.ja i ɪk̚/), or simply pu haya (２鳥; /pu ha.ja/), mean two birds.
|khi 我; 키||both||plain||often written in yenmun by women|
|kigomi 기꼬미||both||humble||the most formal polite version|
|ube 婢; 우뻐||female||humble||sometimes written in yenmun for a more feminine feel|
|ebi 汝; 어삐||both||plain||female singular you|
|anemi 아너미||both||very respectful|
|anerumi 아너루미||both||very respectful||the most formal polite version|
|soka 君||both||respectful||male singular you|
|imme 임머; 媛||both||respectful||female singular you; often written in yenmun|
|oda 오따||male||plain||slang version of hoda used by men; rarely used in written Rangyan|
|suki 伊; 수기||both||plain||she; sometimes written in yenmun for a more feminine feel|
|asoda 아소따||both||very respectful|
|asobeda 아소뻐따||both||very respectful||the most formal polite version|
Suffixes are added to pronouns to make them collective, for example, kigomi-te (기꼬미더; /ki.gɔ.mi.tɛ/) "we" and asobeda-nun (아소뻐따눈; /a.sɔ.bɛ.da.nun/) "they".
|te 더; 等||both||plain|
|added to plain or humble forms of pronouns|
usually written in yenmun (khite 我더); sometimes in hanji if appended to pronouns written in hanji (morate 吾等); almost never in hanji for pronouns in yenmun (kigomite 기꼬미더)
|nun 눈; 輩||both||respectful||added to respectful forms of pronouns|
usually in hanji (sokanun 君輩) unless appended to pronouns written in yenmun (aneruminun 아너루미눈)
Rangyan has three reflexive pronouns jishin, jiki and osu, all meaning "self". However, there are subtle differences in usage among the three reflexive pronouns.
- jishin (自身; /dʑi.ɕin/) tends to take a local antecedent and is used more often for first person antecedents;
- jiki (自己; /dʑi.ki/) takes long-distance antecedents much more than local ones;
- osu (己; /ɔ.su/) is less used than the other two and takes local and long-distance antecedents equally well. The antecedent to which it refers can be inferred by context, which is generally the subject of the sentence.
|khi1 wi jishin2 ye kyoterü||我1위自身2여護르。||I1 protect myself2.|
|hoda1 wi jishin2 ye kyoterü||彼1위自身2여護르。||He1 protects himself2.|
The examples below demonstrate the difference in usage between jishin and jiki.
|khi1 wi hoda wa jiki tu2 tobe ye kinuwei||我1위彼와自己두2冊여予누웨。||I1 gave him my own2 book.|
|khi wi hoda1 wa jishin tu2 tobe ye kinuwei||我위彼1와自身두2冊여予누웨。||I gave him1 his own2 book.|
|hoda1 wi khi wa jiki tu2 tobe ye kinuwei||彼1위我와自己두2冊여予누웨。||He1 gave me his own2 book.|
|hoda wi khi1 wa jishin tu2 tobe ye kinuwei||彼위我1와自身두2冊여予누웨。||He gave me1 my own2 book.|
Verbs are the most complex lexical category in Rangyan. Their structure when used as the predicate of a clause is verb stem + up to six suffixes, and can be illustrated with this table.
- indicative :
- causative (-iss-):
- deliberative (-ams-): asks whether the speaker should do something
e.g. "Shall I go to the market?"
- hortative (-uk-): express plea, insistence, imploring, self-encouragement, intent, purpose or consequence
e.g. "Let us"
- imperative (-es-): expresses commands or requests
e.g. "Paul, do your homework now"
e.g. "Do not go!"
- necessitative (-us-):
- obligative (-atts-): signals the speaker's estimation of the necessity that the proposition expressed
e.g. You must do as I say.
e.g. She has to leave.
- permissive (-oh-): indicates that the action is permitted by the speaker
e.g. You may have another cookie.
- desiderative (-ag-): expresses wishes and desires
- optative (-eik-): expresses hopes
- assumptive (-ich-): indicates that the statement is assumed to be true, because it usually is under similar circumstances
e.g. They'll be on holiday at the moment.
That'll be the postman.
- dubitative (-air-): expresses doubt or uncertainty
e.g. Someone seems to be coming here.
- potential (-ints-): indicates that, in the opinion of the speaker, the action or occurrence is considered likely
- subjunctive (-oir-):
- tentative (-eng-):
- conditional (-üg-): express a proposition whose validity is dependent on some condition, possibly counterfactual
e.g. If I win, he will be disappointed
This is a conjugation table for the verb yabü (食쁘; /ja.bʉ/) "eat". Honorific and mood are not included to keep the table shorter.
|Verb stem + Conjugation||Meaning|
|present progressive||yabanü||食빠느||is eating|
|past progressive||yabanuwei||食빠누웨||was eating|
|future progressive||yabanioi||食빠니외||will be eating|
|present perfect||yabotü||食뽀드||have eaten|
|past perfect||yabotuwei||食뽀두웨||had eaten|
|future perfect||yabotioi||食뽀디외||will have eaten|
|passive present||yabemü||食뻐므||is eaten|
|passive past||yabemuwei||食뻐무웨||was eaten|
|passive future||yabemioi||食뻐미외||will be eaten|
|passive present progressive||yabemanü||食뻐마느||is being eaten|
|passive past progressive||yabemanuwei||食뻐마누웨||was being eaten|
|passive future progressive||yabemanioi||食뻐마니외||will be being eaten|
|passive present perfect||yabemotü||食뻐모드||have been eaten|
|passive past perfect||yabemotuwei||食뻐모두웨||had been eaten|
|passive future perfect||yabemotioi||食뻐모디외||will have been eaten|
|negative present||yabomü||食뽀므||do not eat|
|negative past||yabomuwei||食뽀무웨||did not eat|
|negative future||yabomioi||食뽀미외||will not eat|
|negative present progressive||yabomanü||食뽀마느||is not eating|
|negative past progressive||yabomanuwei||食뽀마누웨||was not eating|
|negative future progressive||yabomanioi||食뽀마니외||will not be eating|
|negative present perfect||yabomotü||食뽀모드||have not eaten|
|negative past perfect||yabomotuwei||食뽀모두웨||had not eaten|
|negative future perfect||yabomotioi||食뽀모디외||will not have eaten|
|negative passive present||yabomemü||食뽀머므||is not eaten|
|negative passive past||yabomemuwei||食뽀머무웨||was not eaten|
|negative passive future||yabomemioi||食뽀머미외||will not be eaten|
|negative passive present progressive||yabomemanü||食뽀머마느||is not being eaten|
|negative passive past progressive||yabomemanuwei||食뽀머마누웨||was not being eaten|
|negative passive future progressive||yabomemanioi||食뽀머마니외||will not be being eaten|
|negative passive present perfect||yabomemotü||食뽀머모드||have not been eaten|
|negative passive past perfect||yabomemotuwei||食뽀머모두웨||had not been eaten|
|negative passive future perfect||yabomemotioi||食뽀머모디외||will have not been eaten|
Rangyan has many compound verbs, reflecting the agglutinative nature of the language. A Rangyan compound verb is a multi-word compound that acts as a single verb. The main component of the compound is a verb in its conjunctive participial form, which carries most of the semantics of the compound, and determines its arguments. The other component is a vector, which carries any conjugations, indicating tense, mood, or aspect, but provides only fine shades of meaning.
For example, in yuttsubirü (讀주始르; /jut̚.tsu.bi.ɾʉ/) "start reading", the vector verb birü (始르; /bi.ɾʉ/) "start" changes according to tense, mood, aspect, and the like, while the main verb yuttsü (讀즈; /jut̚.tsʉ/) "read" stays in its conjunctive participial form yuttsu (讀주; /jut̚.tsu/) "reading" and remains unchanged.
A Rangyan attributive verb is a verb which modifies (gives the attributes of) a noun as an attributive, rather than expressing an independent idea as a predicate. Unlike English, Rangyan allows regular verbs to be attributive. In Rangyan, predicative verbs come at the end of the clause, after the nouns, while attributive verbs come before the noun. These are equivalent to relative clauses in English as Rangyan does not have relative pronouns like "who", "which", or "when".
ne oro wi dotuwei (너人위来두웨; /nɛ ɔ.ɾɔ wi dɔt̚.tu.weɪ/)
"That person came."
ne dotuweit oro wi (너来두웯人위; /nɛ dɔt̚.tu.weɪt̚ ɔ.ɾɔ wi/)
"That person who came"
The Rangyan copula rü (르; /ɾʉ/) is a verb-like word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement). Rangyan sentences with rü most often equate one thing with another, that is, they are of the form "A is B".
khi wi ontso rü (我위兵르; /kʰi wi ɔn.tsɔ ɾʉ/)
"I am a soldier."
Copula rü can also link predicative adjectives to the noun or pronoun they modify.
muse wi ha'i rü (雪위白이르; /musɛ wi ha.i ɾʉ/)
"Snow is white."
Demonstratives and indefinite
Demonstratives occur in the i-, ne-, and ko- series. The i- (proximal) series refers to things closer to the speaker than the hearer, the ne- (mesial) series for things closer to the hearer, and the ko- (distal) series for things distant to both the speaker and the hearer. With ma-, demonstratives turn into the corresponding interrogative form.
that over there
|Thing (-ko)||iko 이고|
that one over there
|Person (-we)||iwe 이워|
that person over there
|Place (-su)||isu 이수|
|Time (-tsa)||itsa 이자|
at that other time
|Manner (-ne)||ine 이너|
in this manner
in that manner
in that other manner
|Quantity (-do)||ido 이또|
this many / much
that many / much
in that other quantity
how many / much
|Kind (-chi)||ichi 이치|
like that other kind
what kind of
|Reason (-ka)||maka 마가|
Demonstratives limit, and therefore precede, nouns; thus i maro (이石; /i ma.ɾɔ/) for "this stone", ne maro (너石; /nɛ ma.ɾɔ/) for "that stone", and ko maro (고石; /kɔ ma.ɾɔ/) for "that stone over there".
All Rangyan adjectives end in -i, for example, kho'i (大이; /kʰɔ.i/) "big" and hyogi (重끼; /çjɔ.gi/) "heavy". Their syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun, giving more information about the noun or referent of pronoun. In Rangyan, adjectives form an open class of words, that is, it is relatively common for new adjectives to be formed via such processes as derivation.
A given occurrence of a Rangyan adjective can generally be classified into one of the two major kinds of uses:
- Attributive adjectives are part of the noun phrase headed by the noun they modify, for example, kho'i is an attributive adjective in kho'i haku (大이牛; /kʰɔ.i ha.ku/) "big cow". Since Rangyan is a head-final language, attributive adjectives always precede their nouns.
- Predicative adjectives are linked via a copula to the noun or pronoun they modify, for example, kho'i is a predicate adjective in haku wi kho'i rü (牛위大이르; /ha.ku wi kʰɔ.i ɾʉ/) "cow is big".
In Rangyan language, attributive adjectives usually occur in this default order, with other orders being permissible:
- intensifier (adverb of degree)
- proper adjective (e.g. nationality, origin, material)
- noun adjunct (noun used as adjective)
- head noun
i wa'i nitsi gani haya (이良이小지赤니鳥; /i wa.i ni.tsi ga.ni ha.ja/)
"this good small red bird"
|Dem.||Intensifier||Opinion||Size||Age||Shape||Colour||Proper adj.||Noun adjunct||Head noun|
Rangyan adjectives, unlike their English counterparts, do not have a comparative form. To compare two things (NP1 and NP2), the noun phrase being compared (NP2), together with the postpositional comparative particle pe, are placed between the subject noun phrase (NP1) and the predicative adjective in a sentence ended with a copula.
ne iku wi i haya pe kho'i rü (너犬위이鳥버大이르; /nɛ i.ku wi i ha.ja pɛ kʰɔ.i ɾʉ/)
"That dog is bigger than this bird."
Rangyan adjectives also lack a superlative form. The adverb tsum (줌; /tsum/) "most" is placed before adjectives for superlative degree of comparison.
ne iku wi tsum kho'i rü (너犬위줌大이르; /nɛ i.ku wi tsum kʰɔ.i ɾʉ/)
"That dog is the biggest."
An adverb is any word that modifies verbs, adjectives, clauses, sentences and other adverbs. Not all but many Rangyan adverbs are formed by adding -m to adjectives. For example, nepi (怒비; /nɛ.pi/; "angry") yields nepim (怒빔; /ne.pim/; "angrily") and wa'i (良이; /wa.i/; "good") yields wa'im (良임; /wa.im/ "well"). This derivation is quite productive but there are a few adjectives from which adverbs may not be derived.
Particles in Rangyan are postpositional, as they immediately follow the modified component.
|wi 위||韋||nominative case; subject|
|wei 웨||衞||additive case; inclusive subject|
|ye 여||曳||accusative case; direct object|
|wa 와||哇洼||dative case; indirect object|
|tu 두||覩都妬||genitive case; possession|
|yo 요||舁妤||instrumental case; by means of|
|ti 디||氐||locative case; location|
|hi 히||呬||allative case; direction|
|yu 유||庾喩愈||ablative case; from|
|to 도||忉朷||up to; until; as far as; indicates a time or place as a limit|
|ta 다||多||conjunction; and|
|tai 대||帶||moreover; and|
|kwe 궈||圭邽||concerning; about|
|gwa 꽈||瘸||but; however|
|khui 퀴||巋虧||thanks to|
|mo 모||芼皃氂||interrogation; question|
|ho 호||号毫||tag question; asks agreement or confirmation|
|re 러||豊||emphasis; certainty|
|yei 예||曀曵||indirect speech; reported speech|
Sound symbolic words
Sound symbolic words or mimetic words occur more often in Rangyan than in English. They are found in formal as well as vernacular language.
These words cannot all be considered onomatopoeia. Many mimetic words in Rangyan are for things that do not make any noise originally.
Mimetic words can be classified into three main categories:
- Phonomime or onomatopoeia (isengzhi 擬声詞 or iimzhi 擬音詞): words that mimic actual sounds; isengzhi refers to sounds made by living things, while iimzhi refers to sounds made by inanimate objects;
- Phenomime (ithaizhi 擬態詞): mimetic words to represent non-auditory senses;
- Psychomime (ijengzhi 擬情詞): mimetic words that represent psychological states or bodily feelings.
In Rangyan grammar, sound symbolic words function as adverbs, and most of them can be applied to only a handful of verbs or adjectives (heads).
|puppup 붑붑||nü 느 "do"||beat fast with a throbbing heart|
|khingringkhangrang 킹링캉랑||nü 느 "do"||make clinking sounds; cling-clang|
|tingringtongrong 딩링동롱||nü 느 "do"||make tinkling sounds; jingle-jangle|
|piripara 비리바라||yerü 言르 "talk"||chatter away; rattle on; talk endlessly|
|kirikuru 기리구루||yerü 言르 "talk"||talk in an indistinct manner|
The system of Rangyan numerals is the system of number names used in the Rangyan language. The Rangyan numerals in writing are entirely based on the Chinese numerals and the grouping of large numbers follow the Chinese tradition of grouping by myriads (10000) rather than thousands (1000). Two sets of pronunciations for the numerals exist in Rangyan: one is based on Sino-Rangyan readings of the Chinese characters and the other is based on the native Rangyan readings.
The distinction between the two sets of numerals is very important. Everything that can be counted will use one of the two sets, but seldom both. For example, the native Rangyan numerals are used for the hours while the Sino-Rangyan numerals are used to denote the minute of time, therefore, jopu-zhi uzhipruk-pun (１２時５６分) means "12:56". The native Rangyan numerals are also used for the five-minute interval of time khük (刻; /kʰək̚/), therefore, he-zhi me-khük (８時１刻) means "8:05" while he-zhi cho-khük (８時３刻) means "8:15".
When denoting the age of a person, one will use yumpi (歳; /jum.pi/) for the native Rangyan numerals, and sei (歳; /seɪ/) for Sino-Rangyan. For example, chojohe yumpi (３８歳) and samzhippat sei (三十八歳) both mean "thirty-eight years old".
There are two ways of writing the numbers in Rangyan, in Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3) or in Chinese numerals (一, 二, 三). The Arabic numerals are more often used in horizontal writing, and the Chinese numerals are more common in vertical writing.
|0||零 / 〇||moi||reng|
The number 4 is considered unlucky in Rangyan, as 4, pronounced shi in Sino-Rangyan, is a homophone for death (死). The number 13 is sometimes considered unlucky, though this is a carryover from Western tradition.
In large numbers, elements are combined from largest to smallest, and zeros are implied.
|11||十一||jo me||zhip it|
|17||十七||jo ju||zhip chit|
|151||百五十一||sottso tha-jo me||pak u-zhip it|
|302||三百二||cho-sottso pu||sam-pak i|
|469||四百六十九||ke-sottso che-jo kon||shi-pak ruk-zhip kyu|
|2025||二千二十五||pu-hattso pu-jo tha||i-chen i-zhip u|
Rangyan has a traditional system of numerals for decimal fractions.
This system, however, is not often seen in modern usage except for representing decimal fractions of rate or discount. For example, cho-pun u-ri heirün (三分五厘減른) "35% discount". Instead, decimal fractions are typically written with either Chinese numerals (in vertical writing) or Arabic numerals (in horizontal writing), preceded by a decimal point, and are read as successive digits, as in Western convention. Note that, in written form, they can be combined with either the traditional system of expressing numerals (42.195 四十二・一九五), in which powers of ten are written, or with the place value system, which uses zero (50.04 五〇・〇四). In both cases, however, the reading follows the traditional system (kejopu tem me kon tha for 42.195; thajo tem moi ke for 50.04).
To construct a fraction, the denominator is written first, followed by pun tu (分두) "parts of" and then the numerator. This is the opposite of how fractions are read in English, which is numerator first. Each half of the fraction is written the same as a whole number. Mixed numbers are written with the whole-number part first, followed by ta (다; /ta/) "and", then the fractional part.
|2/3||三分두二||cho-pun tu pu|
|3 5/6||三다六分두五||cho ta che-pun tu tha|
Ordinal numbers are formed by adding tai (第; /taɪ/) "sequence" before Sino-Rangyan numerals and by adding hin (힌; /çin/) after native Rangyan numerals.
Negative numbers are formed by adding byu (負; /bju/) "negative" before the number.
As with Chinese numerals, there exists in Rangyan a separate set of hanji for numerals called daishyuji (大数字; /daɪ.ɕju.dʑi/) used in legal and financial documents to prevent unscrupulous individuals from adding a stroke or two, turning a one into a two or a three. The formal numbers are identical to the Chinese formal numbers except for minor stroke variations. In some cases, the digit 1 is explicitly written like 壱佰壱拾 for 110, as opposed to 百十 in common writing.
In Rangyan, counter words can be used along with numbers to count things, actions, and events.
Unlike Japanese, Korean and Chinese, Rangyan numerals, if possible, can quantify nouns without counter words. Therefore to express the idea "two birds" in Rangyan one can either say pu ik tu haya ２翼두鳥 (lit. "two wing's bird"), haya i ik 鳥二翼 (lit. "bird two wing") or simply pu haya ２鳥 ("two bird"). Notice that native Rangyan number is used if the number comes before the head noun, while Sino-Rangyan number comes after the head noun. And here haya 鳥 means "bird", pu / i 二 is the number 2, and ik 翼 is the counter for birds. These counters are not independent words and always appear with a number (or question word) before them. If the number is unknown, a question word is used, most often ma 마, as in mameng 마名 "how many guests?", or maya 마夜 "how many nights?".
This is a selective list of some of the more commonly used counter words.
|个||ka||general measure word, used when there is no specific counter|
|名||meng||polite counter word for people (lit. means "name")|
|面||men||mirrors, boards for board games|
|杯||pai||cups and glasses of drink|
Sentence and clause patterns
Rangyan does not employ relative pronouns to relate relative clauses to their antecedents. Instead, the relative clause directly modifies the noun phrase as an attributive verb, occupying the same syntactic space as an attributive adjective (before the noun phrase).
aso wi ne dotuweit oro ye bumuwei (아소위너来두웯人여見무웨; /a.sɔ wi nɛ dɔt̚.tu.weɪt̚ ɔ.ɾɔ jɛ bu.mu.weɪ/)
"He saw that person who came."
Direct speech is a sentence (or several sentences) that reports speech or thought in its original form, as phrased by the first speaker. In Rangyan, it is enclosed in quotation marks. The cited speaker is either mentioned or implied.
khi wi ajaboti ye yabanü aso wi yeruwei (「我위朝膳여食빠느。」아소위言루웨; /kʰi wi a.dza.bɔ.ti jɛ ja.ba.nʉ a.sɔ wi jɛ.ɾu.weɪ/)
" 'I am eating breakfast,' he said."
|Direct speech statement|
In Rangyan, indirect speech is not enclosed in quotation marks, and does not phrase the reported statement or question the way the original speaker did; instead, person is changed when the person speaking and the person quoting the speech are different.
aso wi ajaboti ye yabanü yei aso wi yeruwei (아소위朝膳여食빠느예아소위言루웨; /a.sɔ wi a.dza.bɔ.ti jɛ ja.ba.nʉ jeɪ a.sɔ wi jɛ.ɾu.weɪ/)
"He said that he is* eating breakfast."
|Indirect speech statement||Particle|
The modern Rangyan writing system uses two main scripts:
- Hanji (漢字; /han.dʑi/), ideographs from Chinese characters, and
- Yenmun (諺文; 연문; /jɛn.mun/), a Korean phonemic alphabet organised into syllabic blocks that make up words.
To a lesser extent, modern written Rangyan also uses the Latin alphabet. Examples include abbreviations such as "CD" and "DVD".
Romanised Rangyan, called romaji (로마字; /ɾɔ.ma.dʑi/), is frequently used by foreign students of Rangyan, who have not yet mastered the two main scripts, and by native speakers for computer input.
Usage of scripts
Yenmun is a phonemic alphabet organized into syllabic blocks. Each block consists of at least two of the 24 yenmun letters (jimu), with at least one each of the 14 consonants and 10 vowels. These syllabic blocks can be written horizontally from left to right as well as vertically from top to bottom in columns from right to left. Originally, the alphabet had several additional letters for pre-modern Korean, however, these letters have never been used in Rangyan.
Jimu (字母; 찌무; /dʑi.mu/) are the units that make up the yenmun alphabet. Ji means letter or character, and mo means mother, so the name suggests that the jimu are the building-blocks of the script.
There are 39 jimu, of which 24 are equivalent to letters of the Latin alphabet. The other 15 jimu are clusters of two or sometimes three of these letters. Of the 24 simple jimu, 14 are consonants (tsiim; 子音; /tɕi.im/; "child sounds") and 10 are vowels (muim; 母音; /mu.im/; "mother sounds"). 5 of the simple consonant letters are doubled to form the five voiced consonants (see below). The 10 basic vowel jimu can be combined to form 10 more complex ones. Here is a summary:
- 14 simple consonant letters: ㄱ, ㅋ, ㅇ, ㄷ, ㅌ, ㄴ, ㅂ, ㅍ, ㅁ, ㅈ, ㅊ, ㅅ, ㅎ, ㄹ
- 5 double letters (voiced): ㄲ, ㄸ, ㅃ, ㅉ, ㅆ
- 6 simple vowel letters: ㅏ, ㅓ, ㅗ, ㅜ, ㅡ, ㅣ
- 4 simple iotized vowel letters (semi consonant-semi vowel): ㅑ, ㅕ, ㅛ, ㅠ
- 10 compound letters: ㅐ, ㅒ, ㅔ, ㅖ, ㅘ, ㅙ, ㅚ, ㅝ, ㅞ, ㅟ
Four of the simple vowel jimu are derived by means of a short stroke to signify iotation (a preceding i sound): ㅑ /ja/, ㅕ /jɛ/, ㅛ /jɔ/, and ㅠ /ju/. These four are counted as part of the 24 simple jimu because the iotating stroke taken out of context does not represent /j/. In fact, there is no separate jimu for /j/.
Of the simple consonants, ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅍ, and ㅊ are aspirated derivatives of ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, and ㅈ, respectively, formed by combining the unaspirated letters with an extra stroke.
The doubled letters are ㄲ, ㄸ, ㅃ, ㅉ, ㅆ. Double jimu do not represent geminate consonants, but rather a voiced phonation.
The alphabetical order of yenmun does not mix consonants and vowels as Western alphabets do. Rather, the order is that of the Indic type, first velar consonants, then coronals, labials, sibilants, etc. However, the vowels come after the consonants rather than before them as in the Indic systems.
The consonantal order of yenmun in 1446 in the document titled Funmintsengim (訓民正音; /ɸun.min.tsɛŋ.im/) "The Proper Sounds for the Instruction of the People" was,
ㄱ ㅋ ㆁ ㄷ ㅌ ㄴ ㅂ ㅍ ㅁ ㅈ ㅊ ㅅ ㆆ ㅎ ㅇ ㄹ ㅿ
and the order of vowels was,
ㆍ ㅡ ㅣ ㅗ ㅏ ㅜ ㅓ ㅛ ㅑ ㅠ ㅕ
Modern Rangyan order
In the Rangyan order, double jimu are placed immediately after their single counterparts. No distinction is made between silent and nasal ㅇ:
ㄱ ㄲ ㅋ ㅇ ㄷ ㄸ ㅌ ㄴ ㅂ ㅃ ㅍ ㅁ ㅈ ㅉ ㅊ ㅅ ㅆ ㅎ ㄹ ㅏ ㅐ ㅑ ㅒ ㅓ ㅔ ㅕ ㅖ ㅗ ㅘ ㅙ ㅚ ㅛ ㅜ ㅝ ㅞ ㅟ ㅠ ㅡ ㅣ
The modern monophthongal vowels come first, with the derived forms interspersed according to their form: first added i, then iotized, then iotized with added i. Diphthongs and triphthongs beginning with w are ordered according to their spelling, as ㅏ or ㅓ plus a second vowel, not as separate digraphs.
The order of the final jimu is,
(null) ㄱ ㅇ ㄷ ㄴ ㅂ ㅁ ㅅ ㄹ
"Null" stands for no final jimu.
Direction of writing
Written language reforms
There are a number of methods of rendering Rangyan in Roman letters. The Mackenzie method of romanisation makkhenzhi-sik romaji (막컨씨式로마字; /mak̚.kʰɛn.ʑi.sɪk̚ ɾɔ.ma.dʑi/), designed for English speakers, is a de facto standard widely used inside and outside Rangya.
|Mackenzie||k||g||kh||(null)||t||d||th||n||p||b||ph||m||ts||j||ch||s, sh||z, zh||h, f||r|
The Sokolov method of cyrillisation sokorop-sik kirilji (소고롭式기릴字; /sɔ.kɔ.ɾɔp̚.sɪk̚ ki.ɾil.dʑi/), designed for Russian speakers, is the official standard of rendering Rangyan in Cyrillic letters.
Süngkwetkatsya (僧訣假借; /sʉŋ.kwɛt̚.ka.tɕja/), also known as Kagakatsya (迦伽假借; /ka.ga.ka.tɕja/) after the first two syllables, is an archaic writing system that represents the Rangyan language in hanji. It was mainly used by Rangyan monks to render Buddhist sutras written in Sanskrit into understandable Rangyan, and occasionally used by government officials as a tool to comprehend texts written in Classical Chinese.
The süngkwetkatsya script employs hanji for their phonetic value rather than their meaning to indicate Rangyan verb endings and other grammatical markers that are different in Rangyan from Chinese. Several hanji can represent the same sound, the choice of which to use often being decided for stylistic reasons. And this made both the meaning and pronunciation difficult to parse, and was one reason why the system was gradually abandoned, to be replaced with yenmun originated from Korea, in the late 15th century. In this respect, it faced problems analogous to those that confronted early efforts to represent the Japanese and Korean language with hanji, due to grammatical differences between these languages and Chinese.
Below is the table of süngkwetkatsya where one character represents one syllable.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Article 1)
"All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights."
mogi oro wi bomün yu jiyu'i rü tai tsonyem ta gwenri ti bengtüng'i rü.
"They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood."
oro wi riseng ta rangshim ye thenpyuim kibemotü tai dungpo tu tsengjin yo mobim hangdungnusü.
"This language was once featured."
i yoyen wi kum zhyokainemuweiya
"Thanks to its level of quality, plausibility and usage capabilities, it has been voted as featured."
phimtsit ta khashinseng ta khayongseng tu suibeng khui, iko wi düksik tsoi ritsemotüya.
The Tower of Babel (Genesis 11: 1-9)
- Now the whole earth had one language and the same words.
kokotsan, mogi oro wi bomi yoyen ye yeranuweiya.
"At that time, all mankind was speaking the same language."
- And as people migrated from the east, they found a plain in the land of Shinar and settled there.
orooro wi tungpang yu thinnuwei ton, shinal tu gada ti bengya ye kabuuttuwei tai kosu ti jorujimuweiya.
"When people moved from the east, (they) found a plain in the land of Shinar and settled there."
- And they said to one another, "Come, let us make bricks, and burn them thoroughly." And they had brick for stone, and bitumen for mortar.
- Then they said, "Come, let us build ourselves a city and a tower with its top in the heavens, and let us make a name for ourselves, lest we be dispersed over the face of the whole earth."
- And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of man had built.
- And the Lord said, "Behold, they are one people, and they have all one language, and this is only the beginning of what they will do. And nothing that they propose to do will now be impossible for them.
- Come, let us go down and there confuse their language, so that they may not understand one another's speech."
- So the Lord dispersed them from there over the face of all the earth, and they left off building the city.
- Therefore its name was called Babel, because there the Lord confused the language of all the earth. And from there the Lord dispersed them over the face of all the earth.
The Analects of Confucius
- Confucius said: "To learn and then practise it time and again is a pleasure, is it not? To have friends come from afar to share each other learning is a pleasure, is it not? To be unperturbed when not appreciated by others is gentlemanly, is it not?"
子韋言楞「學布伊皋曳罧習瞢、棟悅伊窂瞢芼。友韋遠忞處庾來登、棟喜氐窂瞢芼。識窂麛瞢典怒保瞢、棟君子窂瞢芼。」(written in Süngkwetkatsya)
Tsi wi yerü, "Bopu iko ye shim samü, tum patsui romü mo? Eke wi hüminhen yu dotü, tum hatti romü mo? Naromemü ten nepomü, tum kuntsi romü mo?"
- Confucius said:"To learn without thinking, one will be lost in his learning. To think without learning, one will be imperilled."
Tsi wi yerü, "Bopü ten upomü, immopün ti nalrü. Upü ten bopomü, numsu ti nalrü."
- Confucius said: "While your parents are alive, do not journey afar. If a journey has to be made, your direction must be told."
Tsi wi yerü, "Tsokoüwi wi jaiseinü, hümim yusonomü. Hümim yusonügattsü, yuso tu hen ye yottattsü."
- Rangyayo/List_of_Zangyong_Hanji (List of Frequently Used Characters in Rangyayo)
- IPA for Rangyayo
- Rangyayo audio sample 01 on Youtube
- Rangyayo audio sample 02 on Youtube
- Rangyayo featured in Conlangery #05: Scripts and Writing on Conlangery Podcast
- Discussion of Rangyayo on Zompist bboard
- Discussion of Rangyayo on Polish Conlanger forum
- Online Rangyayo Input Method