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Rarut asTaniq (/ˈɾaɾut asˈtaneq/, "tongue which is Taniq") is intended to be an exercise in what one could call the "Tolkien" method of conlanging; that is to say, to begin with a proto-language and apply a series of regular sound changes in order to produce a developed language with a specific sound. Rarut asTaniq, then, is to be the precursor of several daughter languages.

Proto-Talgic
*Rarut asTaniq
Type analytic/agglutinative
Alignment Active-Passive
Head direction First
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 4%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 13%
Words 86 of 500
Creator Dghmonwiskos


Classification and DialectsEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Velar Uvular
Nasal m n ŋ ɴ
Plosive p b t d k g q ɢ
Fricative s
Approximant β̃ ð̃ ɰ ɰ̃ ʁ ʁ̃
Flap or tap β ~ ⱱ ɾ (ɰ) (ʁ)

The language's consonants included some typologically uncommon ones, such as the voiced uvular plosive /ɢ/ and nasalised approximants. Most of these would later develop into more common sounds, often with differing outcomes depending on the position. It should be noted that the "flap" series is an inaccurate term; in truth, the only flap present is the alveolar /ɾ/, the other consonants of the series being pronounced as weak approximants, with a flapped realisation only occurring intervocalically (and only ever for the bilabial series). It is hypothesised that the alveolar flap developed itself from an approximant, most likely */ð/.

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
High i u
Near-high
High-mid
Mid (e) (o)
Low-mid
Near-low
Low a

Only the vowels /a/, /i/, and /u/ existed as phonemes in this language. However, [e] and [o] existed as allophones of /i/ and /u/, respectively, when adjacent to uvular consonants. There were no length distinctions in vowel sounds; a sequence of two identical vowels was always pronounced as two separate syllables. However, stressed vowels might be pronounced with some (non-contrasting) length; hence a word such as "taniq", meaning "speaks", would have pronounced as [ˈtaˑneq].ˈ

PhonotacticsEdit

The vast majority of roots appeared solely in the form CVCVC, with no restraints as to which consonants and vowels could appear. Consonant clusters were not permitted within roots, but could arise from affixation of grammatical or derivational markers, as well as in compound words. This meant that a maximum of two consonants could occur adjacent to one another. Pronominal and particle roots tended to be shorter, taking the form (C)V(C).

Stress is dynamic and predictable, with the first syllable of the first disyllabic root taking primary stress, and any following roots taking secondary stress on their first syllable. Thus the word "rarut", meaning "tongue" would be pronounced /ˈɾaɾut/, while the compound "rarutpuqim", meaning literally "tongue-skill" (i.e. poetry) would be pronounced /ˈɾaɾutˌpuqim/, and it's inflected form "añrarutpuqim" ("for poetry") would be pronounced /aŋˈɾaɾutˌpuqim/ (with no stress on the initial syllable as the prefixed root is not disyllabic).

Writing SystemEdit

Letter
Sound
Letter
Sound
Letter
Sound

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

All roots are split between those which are intrinsically active, and those which are passive. Nouns are conjugated differently depending on what type of root they are based on; for example, the root *bikuñ, meaning "child", is considered active and declines as follows:

Singular Plural
Active bikuñ ñabikuñ
Possessive bikuñ bi ñabikuñ bi
Genitive bikuñ ka ñabikuñ ka
Dative bikuñ su

ñabikuñ su

Essive bikuñ pik ñabikuñ pik
Comitative bikuñ am

ñabikuñ am

It is immediately notable that a passive case, to correspond to the active case seen on the table, is not present. This because that case, as well as other "corresponding" cases, are seen to belong to the "passive" class of roots. For example, a word like *kamañ, meaning "name", will be declined in a very different way.

Singular Plural
Passive kamañ uskamañ
Relational kamañ bi uskamañ bi
Ablative kamañ ka uskamañ ka
Allative kamañ su

uskamañ su

Locative kamañ pik uskamañ pik
Instrumental kamañ am

uskamañ am

Here we can see that the plural marker changes for passive nouns. It is perhaps better to see these markers, rather than as "active" and "passive plurals", as markers denoting "many different X" and "a group of X", respectively. Indeed, some nouns, such as *arag ("forest"), appear to act as plurals in their unmarked forms, requiring a special singulative marker *bu to denote individual members of a group (in this case, a single tree). Hence, the declension of a noun such as those would be:

Singular Plural
Passive buarag arag
Relational buarag bi arag bi
Ablative buarag ka arag ka
Allative buarag su

arag su

Locative buarag pik arag pik
Instrumental buarag am

arag am

Of course, the very nature of this system would seem to indicate that words for "child", "father", "animal" etc. were doomed to act as agents in every sentence in Proto-Talgic, just as words for "forest", "mountain", "knife" would be condemned to be passive. The way around this was to have passive and active markers that could be applied to each noun in order to express cases normally reserved to the opposite class. Hence, *vibikuñ referred to a specifically passive child, *arkamañ referred to a name as an agent, and *ararag referred to an active forest. Applying these markers would sometimes slightly change the meaning of the original noun; for example, *ǧutuňh, an active root, meant water as something more or less sentient, and was applied to rivers, rain, and as the name of a deity. The word *arǧutuňh, however, while still meaning water, generally referred to lakes, puddles, and the substance as used by humans. Whether or not the use of these passive/active markers was to denote semantic or grammatical nuance was presumably understood through context.

VerbsEdit

SyntaxEdit

LexiconEdit

No. English Taniq
1 I ki (animate); miki (inanimate)
2 you (singular) nu (animate); unu (inanimate)
3 he/she/it da (animate and inanimate)
4 we kiña; mikiña
5 you (plural) nuña; unuña
6 they daña
7 this mi
8 that u (medial); da (distal)
9 here nami
10 there nau; nada
11 who
12 what unda
13 where nauñ
14 when uñvaqir
15 how uñburis
16 not si
17 all dakimh
18 many vakun
19 some tadañ
20 few sikun
21 other dadañ
22 one urum (single); miñar (together)
23 two panuk (apart); quniñ (a pair)
24 three imunh
25 four tutuk
26 five ñhirud
27 big vamhuk
28 long bamim
29 wide gudus
30 thick ñapar
31 heavy butur
32 small miñhis
33 short ñhinip
34 narrow kukap
35 thin siñik
36 woman ñamuñ
37 man (adult male) tiǧhut
38 man (human being) taniq
39 child bikuň
40 wife tañim
41 husband ǧiñad
42 mother mamam
43 father papap
44 animal subat
45 fish nhanup
46 bird qapim
47 dog qupar
48 louse karugh
49 snake ghisan
50 worm vivumh
51 tree
52 forest
53 stick
54 fruit
55 seed
56 leaf
57 root
58 bark (of a tree)
59 flower
60 grass
61 rope
62 skin
63 meat
64 blood
65 bone
66 fat (noun)
67 egg
68 horn
69 tail
70 feather
71 hair
72 head
73 ear
74 eye
75 nose
76 mouth
77 tooth
78 tongue (organ) rarut
79 fingernail
80 foot
81 leg
82 knee
83 hand ñhirud
84 wing
85 belly nanhar
86 guts
87 neck
88 back
89 breast
90 heart
91 liver
92 to drink
93 to eat
94 to bite
95 to suck mamum
96 to spit pituñ
97 to vomit baraǧ
98 to blow vuvur
99 to breathe ghighun
100 to laugh qaqaǧh
101 to see
102 to hear
103 to know puqim
104 to think
105 to smell
106 to fear
107 to sleep sisuv
108 to live
109 to die
110 to kill
111 to fight
112 to hunt
113 to hit
114 to cut tutuk
115 to split
116 to stab
117 to scratch kirik
118 to dig
119 to swim
120 to fly
121 to walk
122 to come nunug
123 to lie (as in a bed)
124 to sit
125 to stand
126 to turn (intransitive)
127 to fall
128 to give
129 to hold
130 to squeeze
131 to rub
132 to wash
133 to wipe
134 to pull
135 to push
136 to throw
137 to tie
138 to sew
139 to count
140 to say i-taniq
141 to sing karagh
142 to play
143 to float
144 to flow
145 to freeze
146 to swell
147 sun
148 moon
149 star
150 water ǧutuňh
151 rain
152 river
153 lake
154 sea
155 salt
156 stone
157 sand
158 dust
159 earth
160 cloud
161 fog
162 sky manid
163 wind
164 snow
165 ice
166 smoke
167 fire
168 ash
169 to burn
170 road
171 mountain
172 red
173 green
174 yellow
175 white
176 black
177 night barad
178 day
179 year
180 warm
181 cold
182 full
183 new
184 old
185 good vagham
186 bad
187 rotten
188 dirty
189 straight
190 round
191 sharp (as a knife) baruq
192 dull (as a knife)
193 smooth
194 wet ǧutuňh
195 dry kighap
196 correct
197 near ñimip
198 far ñadat
199 right
200 left
201 at
202 in na
203 with
204 and
205 if
206 because
207 name kamañ
208 to rule saquq

Example Text Edit

Kiŋamad (as) taniq.

Translation: I-being (who) sentient = I am a sentient being, I am Taniq, I am human

Our Father who art in heaven, hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done, on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread; and forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive those who trespass against us; and lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil.

father(voc) which-us(gen), which-sky(loc), name(pass) which-you(gen) hallow(imp, pass). which-rule(stat) come(imp, stat).

Papap as-nakiña, asnamanid, rakamañ asnaunu ghunitik.

[ˈpapap ˌasnaˈkiŋa] [ˌasnaˈmanid] [raˈkamaŋ ˌasnaˈunu ɰuˈnitik]

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