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Name: Ritsushiku

Type: See Overview

Alignment: Transitive

Head Direction: Final

Number of genders: Four

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


The language of Ritsushiku doesn't have a fictional background. I heard from someone, not really sure from who, that your secound conlang would usually end up being a KSL. This is therefore aimed at wasting that KSL slot. Note that I am not making an intentional kitchen sink language, also being a practice at the same time.

Ritsushiku cannot be fit precisely into one language category, but at its basic it is synthetic, with verbs and nous derived from few roots, but it is also agglutinative, and sometimes has a tendency to overlap morphemes, and at top-level it can be considered polysynthetic.



Bilabial Labiode. Dental Alveol. Postalve. Retrofl. Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn. Epiglot. Glottal

p (p)

p' (p')

p̪ (ph) b̪ (b)

t (t)

t' (t')

d (d)

k (k)

g (g) q (q) ʔ ( ' )

p͡ɸ (pf)

b͡β (bf)

d͡ð (dd)

t͡s (c)

t͡s' (c')


t͡ʃ (tsh)

t͡ʃ' (t'sh)

d͡ʒ (tzh) t͡ɕ (tj) d͡ʑ (gj) t͡ɬ(tl)
Fricatives ɸ(fh) β (vh) f (f) v (v)

θ (th)

ð (dh) s (s) z (z) ʃ (sh) ʒ (zh) x (ch) ɣ (gh) χ (h)
Lateral Fric.
Nasals m (m) ɱ (mv)

n (n)

n̥ (ñ)

ɲ (ɲ) ŋ (ŋ)
Trills ʙ (br) r (r)
Flaps / taps
Glides Approxim. ʋ (w) ɹ (rr)

j (j)

ɥ (y)

Lateral Appr. l (l) λ (lj) ɬ (lh)
Co-art. approx.

Note that digraphs ("BR", "MV", "LH", etc.) are actual letters, with double letters represent allophones ("DD", "RR"). Also, when double apostrophes appear, it is not a double glottal stop ("T' ' "), but an ejective
followed by a glottal stop.


Front Near front Central Near back Back

i (i)

iː (ii)

y (u)
Near-close e (e) ʊ (ü)
Open-mid ɛ (ë) ʌ (ö) ɔ (o)
Near-open æ (ä)
Open ɑ (a)


Ritsushiku is a tonal language in which tones are phonemic, distinguishing between multiple tones, as listed:

High pitch - ˥ â
Rising pitch - ˧˥ á
Dropping pitch - ˧˩ à
Low pitch - ˩ ǎ
Neutral/Middle pitch - ˧ a

Umaluted letters are doubled, while the double /i/ gets two letters with the first holding the accent ("mîi" ).



Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adjectives Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Numbers Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Participles No No Yes No Yes No No No
Adverb Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


Example text[]