Nominal Structure[]

Like verbs, nouns have a series of slots into which certain affixes can be placed. They are all suffixes and show case, position, direction, number, definiteness, size, and possession.

An overview of the suffixes would be:

Slot 1: Stem

Slot 2: Measure

Slot 3: Case-Number

Slot 4: Possession

Slot 1 – The Stem[]

The stem may undergo a number of different mutations but only I-mutation makes a semantic difference.

I-mutation – This causes the noun to show plurality.

Plural mutation – This also causes the noun the show plurality. It is quite rare that a word will not be able to undergo at least one of these.

Stem weakening I - This creates the genitive stem in the singular.

Stem weakening II – This creates the stative stem.

Stem Strengthening – This creates the locative stem. This strengthening also applies to stem ending in “-i” and “-e” but not “-j” and long plosives. The stem must also undergo aspirant mutation to form the locative stem fully.

To create the genitive stem and stative stem in the plural, the plural stem undergoes the two stem weakening processes above.

The form a noun takes to show the collective form, “a group of...”, “a flock of sheep,” etc. is the plural stem with singular suffixes. For example, “swáma” vs. “swámbe” - “because of a herd of cows” vs. “because of cows”. The dual number is formed in the opposite fashion, using the singular stem with plural suffixes. This means that the nominative singular and dual are identical, as it is with the plural and collective, but are different in other cases, e.g. “súma” vs. “súmbe” “because of a cow” vs. “because of two cows”. The dual form may also me the default plural for nouns which come in pairs, e.g. eyes, but only in non-nominative cases. The fact that the collective is written as a singular means that a new collective can be formed from it, so, for example, you may have “sú” (cow), “swá” (a herd of cows) and “swé” (many herds of cows) and further to “swí” or if “swia” depending on how far one wishes to take the meaning of the word, but cases of more than two collective forms are very, very rare.

Definiteness is shown only in stems which can undergo consonantal a-affection so a vocalic stem can never be marked for definiteness, in the nominative stem at least. All stems undergo a-affection so say the genitive stem must be formed before a-affection is applied (e.g. -t>-d>-dz)

Slot 2 – Measure[]

The suffixes of slot 2 give an overview of the size of the object in relation to its general sized counterpart. There are suffixes for height, length, width, and a combination of all of these. Two suffixes at the most can be placed in this slot because using three would be a redundant process. This slot actually extends the original stem creating a new one. It is this "suffix" which undergoes the necessary mutations for stem alteration, not the basic stem.

-od – This suffix appears after labial consonants and is the suffix meaning “generally larger”, e.g. “lap – laugh” > “lapodi – hysterical laugh”.

-i – This suffix also appears after labial consonants and means “generally smaller”, e.g. “lap – laugh” > “lepfi – chuckle”.

-uc – This suffix appears after dental consonants and means “generally bigger”, e.g. “pat – bath” > “patuc – swimming pool”.

-es – This suffix also appears after dental consonants and means “generally smaller”, e.g. “pat – bath” > “pećes – wash basin”.

-op – This suffix appears after velar consonants and means “generally bigger”, e.g. “toc – dog” > “tųcop” – big dog (class of dogs, like a Great Dane)”.

-el – This suffix also appears after velar consonants and means “generally smaller”, e.g. “toc – dog” > “tœćel – puppy”.

-ot – This suffix appears after sibilants and means “generally bigger”, e.g. “cússi – ghost” > “cóssot - Demon”.

-et - This suffix also appears after sibilants and means “generally smaller”, e.g. “cússi – ghost” > “cúśśet –little ghost, spirit”.

-ac – This suffix appears after r and l and means “generally bigger”, e.g. “úr – house” > óźac – mansion”.

-em – This suffix appears after r and l and means “generally smaller”, e.g. “úr – house” > “úśem – cottage”. The -e- in this suffix does not cause i-affection of vowels or the letter -l-, as would be expected.

-rd – This suffix appears after vowels and means “generally bigger”, e.g. “sa – cat” > “sardi – big cat”. It appears as -ḑ in quick speech as well as in informal writing, so “sardi” may appear as “saḑi” instead.

-l – This suffix also appears after vowels and means “generally smaller”, e.g. “sa – cat” > “sal – kitten”.

The above suffixes can be seen as augmentative and diminutive suffixes.

The other sets of suffixes are not dependent on the final sound of the stem and are limited to a single dimension. The [] vowels are used after C-clusters only.

-[o]g – bigger in height, e.g. “úrgi – skyscraper”.

-[e]s – smaller in height, e.g. “úrs~úş – bungalow”.

-[a]rc – wider, e.g.

-[i]t – thinner, e.g.

-[a]ng – longer, e.g. “snéjang – dragon”.

-[i]l – shorter, e.g. “snéjil – worm”.

It should be noted that the affection caused by the suffixes' vowels are marked by pronunciation. This is because these words are technically new, having formed through a derivational suffix.

Slot 3 – Case-Number[]

The suffixes for case and number are attached to the eight different stems formed in slot 1. Singular suffixes are attached to singular stems and plural suffixes are attached to plural stems so these pairs will be discussed as pairs. The suffixed will be discussed according to their stems. The definite suffix does not create a new stem.

I Nominative Stem[]

-i/e, -i/e – These are the nominative suffixes of the general gender and represent the subject of the verb. “-e” is used with collective nouns and “-i” with singular.

-o, -o – These are the male nominative suffixes.

-a, -a – These are the female nominative suffixes.

-n, -ndi – These are the accusative suffixes and represent the (direct) object of the verb.

-t, -ði – These are the dative suffixes and represent the indirect object of dynamic verbs and the direct objects of stative verbs.

-ma, -mbe – These are the causal suffixes and they represent the cause of the verbs performance.

-mi, -mbi - These are the passive suffixes used with the passive voice. They represent the "by..." construct.

-V, -Vi – These are the vocative suffixes and represent the English “Oh...”. The V is the last vowel of the stem, so this suffix may be the same as the nominative or “-u”.

Singular Plural
nominative -/i/e[i]
nom (male) -o
nom (fem) -a
accusative -n
dative -tði
causal -ma
passive -mi
vocative -V

II Genitive Stem[]

-l, -lli – These are the genitive suffixes and are translated as “of...” or "...'s"

-s -st – These are the benefactive suffixes and are translated as “for (the benefit of)...”.

-sca, -sće – These suffixes translate as “in (regards to)” and “about” as in “talk about”.

-se, -sti – These are the distributive suffixes and are translated as “per...”.

-u, -au – These are the partitive suffixes and are translated as “a number of ...”. The number can be specified. It can also be used when an object is actually part of the noun in question like “armo poǵium – the arm of my body”, hence the term “partitive”. The partitive also marks atelic verb meaning, showing that the verb may or may not have been fully completed, as opposed to fully completed, e.g. "I shot the bear (dead)" (telic) vs. "I shot at the bear (but am not telling whether or not it is dead)" (atelic).

-le, -lli – These are the instrumental suffixes and represent the object used in the performance of the verb.

-tu, -ðau – These are the comitative suffixes and they represent the object (usually people) that also participated in the action, e.g. “iéra zëëmindi sinditum – I play games with my sibling.”

-cta, -cse – These are the sociative suffixes and show that the verb was performed within the range of a sense or in the company of the noun in question.

-it, -iði – These are the anti-instrumental suffixes and show what was not used in the performance of the verb.

-ssi, -si – These are the anti-comitative suffixes and show what did not participate in the action.

-lca, -lge – These are the anti-sociative suffixes and show that the action was performed outside the senses of the noun.

Singular Plural
genitive w.-l
benefactive w.-s
regardive w.-scaće
distributive w.-se
partitive w.-u
instrumental w.-le
comitative w.-tuðau
sociative w.-cta
anti-instrumental w.+I-itði
anti-comitative w.-ssi
anti-sociative w.-lca

III Stative Stem[]

-tta, -te – These show that something is currently in a state of being.

-ta, -ðe – These show that the object's state of being is moving away from its original state.

-ja, -je – These show that the object's state of being is moving towards a new state.

-cca, -ce – These mark the location of the beginning of a journey.

-ca, -śe – These mark the location of the end of a journey.

-ga, -he – These mark the cause of the journey or the object of a search.

-pa, -ve - These mark the comparative case. It shows likeness or comparison to the marked noun. The exact use varies but is usually used in examples like "something tastes like/similar to a fish" where fish would be in the comparative case.

-ba, -fe - These mark the equative case. Similar to the comparative case, is marks likeness to the object it marks. It usually forms nouns or adjectives like "arrowlike". It is mainly used to form complex adjectives which would replace entire subordinate clauses like "the man, who is king-like" which would then become "the king-like man".

Singular Plural
stat. 2.-tta
stat.from 2.-taðe 2.I-ja
loc.init. 2.-cca
loc.end 2.-caśe
loc.caus. 2.-ga
comp. 2.-
equ. 2.-

IV Locative Stem[]

The locative, movement and temporal suffixes will be listed in order of position, movement to, movement from and movement along.

-sa/ste, -sta/śte, -ssa/se, -śa/ge – These are the interior suffixes relate to the inside of the noun.

-la/lle, -lda/lte, -lla/le, -lsa/lde – These are the surface suffixes and relate to the noun's surface.

-na/nde, -nda/nte, -nna/ne, -nsa/nde – These are the exterior suffixes and relate to the area around the noun. Also used as the general suffixes of position a movement.

-ra/(se), -rda/(te), -rra/(de), -rsa/(je) – These are the temporal suffixes and relate to time. They mean, respectively, “at…” or “on/in this…”, “until…” or “up to…”, “as of…” or “from…” and “between… and…” In quick speech, the “non-locative” temporal cases are usually made retroflex becoming -ḑa -ŗa and -şa. When used with the temporal demonstratives it can add meaning off “after” and “before”. The temporal suffixes can also be used with nouns that represent events.

The non-temporal locative cases can be given a slightly temporal meaning by adding -r to the end, e.g. "lihînaśar" means "throughout life", "during life" or "in life" implying a movement through the time of life.

It can be seen that all of the plural suffixes belonging to all stems are a result of consonantal and vocalic plural mutations. The difference, though, is not marked on the vowel by means of diacritics. This has been the preferred method because it allows the stem to be clearly defined and identified in writing.

Singular Plural
in(side) s.-sa
in(to) s.-staśte
out (of) s.-ssa
through s.-śa
on s.-la
on(to) s.-lda
off (of) s.-lla
along s.-lsa
at s.-na
towards s.-nda
away (from) s.-nna
past s.-nsa
“at…” or “on/in this…” s.-ra
“until…” or “up to…” s.-rda
“as of…” or “from…” s.-rra
“between… and…” s.-rsa

More specific prepositions in English are indicated by combinations of the locative case suffixes and postpositions which give the general positionon the noun, derived from the surface locative prepositions of English, such as "pochem" meaning "bottom" which when combined with the suffix -na/-nde means "under".

Slot 4 – Possessive Suffixes[]

The possessive suffixes, when used alone, show possession by an already established noun which has been replaced by a pronoun, therefore they mean “my”, “our”, “your”, “his/her/its” and “their”. When used in combination with the definite article they take the meaning of “... own”.

-[i]m – This means “my”, e.g. “tocim – my dog.”

-[i]t – This means “your (singular)”, e.g. “sat – your cat.”

-[i]c – This means “his”, “her” and “its”, as gender is rarely marked in Sangi, e.g. “úric – her house.”

-[i]p – This means “our”, e.g. “tuśip – our dogs.”

-[i]s – This means “your (plural)”, e.g. “pwállus – your own books.”

-[i]j – This means “their”, e.g. “lanij – their country.”

The -[i]- infixes are epenthetic and cannot cause i-affection.