|Nominative - Accusative|
|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Saso is derived from an older language, Proto - Saso. Saso grew from the romantic and poetic ideals of its predecessor. An interesting note about the title, Saso refers to a specific type of poetry. However, Saso does not translate literally into English because it is very hard to describe the style of poetry in a few words.
|Nasal||m /m/||n /n/|
|d /d/||k /k/
|Fricative||f /f/||w /θ/||
|Approximant||r /ɹ/||j /j/|
|Flap or tap||v /ⱱ/|
|Lateral app.||l /l/||ç /ʟ/|
|Close||i /i/||õ /u/|
|Near-close||í /ɪ/||ó /ʊ/|
|Close-mid||ã /e/||ô /ɵ/||o /o/|
|Mid||ê /ɛ̝/||û /ə/|
|Open-mid||ú /œ/||u /ʌ/|
|Near-open||a /æ/||ø /ɐ/|
Diphthongs and Digraphs
1. When followed by the letters i or ã, /g/ becomes /h/, similar to romance languages.
2. Some speakers sometimes swap /n/ for /ŋ/, especially when it is preceded by ã
3. If /z/ is followed by a diphthong, it becomes /s/.
4. /h/ is silent when followed by ã or o.
5. ê becomes i when preceded by v
6. When followed by m or p, a becomes ã.
7. /ʍ/ becomes /x/ when preceded by a long vowel.
8. When u is preceded by /g/ it is silent, and the g remains /g/
Syllables in Saso follow the pattern above. C is a consonant, Dg is a digraph, V is a vowel, and Dp is a Diphthong. If the syllable has a diphthong, the diphthong must be followed by a consonant. There may never be more than two consonants next to each other in a word. For a vowel to stand alone as a syllable, it must be e, ã, or o. A diphthong may stand alone only if it is ãi.
The letters j(/j/) or h(/h/) may never appear as the last letter of a word.
Stress is placed on the first short vowel of a word. If there is no short vowel, then it is placed on the first vowel of the word.
In Saso, stress is placed on a because it is the first short vowel.
In Sãso, stress is laced on ã because there are no short vowels, and it is the first vowel.
Parts of Speech
The part of speech a work occupies is determined through a prefix. The prefixes are listed below
|Part of Speech Prefixes|
|Verbs||a, i, ã, o, ê|
All verbs in Saso end in ãs. A verb in the infinitive is the only time a word will not have a prefix. The different verb endings have different verb conjugations. Verbs conjugate for person, number, tense, mood, and aspect. Below is the chart for verb conjugations for regular verbs. The infinitive is dropped when conjugating verbs. The suffix for every mood is the same. Saso uses suffixes to express tense, aspect, person, and number. Mood is expressed through a prefix.
|Present Perfect Continuous||iz||íz||oz||ãz||ôz||øz|
|Past Perfect Continuous||ug||og||ãg||õíg||ãíg||ig|
|Future Perfect Continuous||ãk||ik||ók||õk||ak||ik|
To indicate mood, verbs have a prefix attatached to them. A reflexive verb must also have a prefix
These prefixes conjugated to agree with the verb. The conjugations are listed below. The indicative and reflexive prefixes do not conjugate
An example of a fully conjugated verb is Onífãsis, IMP-build-2P-SNG.
Certain verbs are irregular in Saso. The most notable ones are nãgãs (to be), fazãs (to do), and powãs (to go). No verbs in Saso experience changes in affixes. Instead, they experience stem changes. While there are other irregular verbs in Saso, the ones below are the most common.
|Irregular Stem Changes|
Afãzuf - I used to do _
Negating a Verb
Negating a verb is more complex than in many other languages. There are many different ways for negating a verb in Saso. Each of the ways must then conjugate with the verb. These words take the ãí prefix. A few are listed below
|The verb was not completed /Is not happening (I did not shovel the snow/There is no snow)||sha|
|The verb is completed, but the goal isn't met (I shoveled, but didn't clear the snow)||vãí|
|The verb will not be completed (I will not shovel the snow)||zõi|
|The verb will be complete, but goal will not be met (I will shovel, but the snow won't be cleared)||fnãí|
|The verb is completed, but not to meet a goal or the verb will not be done for the goal (I shovled, but not to clear the snow/I will not shovel to clear the snow)||nãsi|
|The verb is not being completed (I am not shoveling the snow)||shã|
|Do not complete the verb/use in a command (Do not shovel the snow)||ve|
These words must decline to agree with the verb they negate. There are two letters to the conjugation. The first letter indicates tense.
|Negation Particle Declensions - Tense|
|Present Perfect Continuous||z|
|Past Perfect Continuos||l|
|Future Perfect Continuous||m|
The first letter is always a consonant, the second letter is always a vowel. Negation Particles do not decline for formality.
|Negation Particle Declensions - Person|
You did not build --> Ãíshaçê afãsow.
You will not build --> Ãízõivê afãsím.
You will not build (Command) --> Ãívedê onífãsís
You are not building --> Ãíshã afãszín.
The passive voice is constructed by adding a conjugated form of the verb to be, followed by a conjugated form of the action. The passive voice is the only time 2 conjugated verbs will follow each other in Saso. However, there are some extra rules. The 2 verbs do not always conjugate the same way, to be agrees with the patient, and the action agrees with the agent.
The conjugation for to be is different in the passive voice. The suffixes are listed below. However, the conjugated form of the action is the same as in the active voice.
|To be in the passive voice|
No verb takes a prefix for moods. Instead, they take particle placed before to be, or attatched to the end of the action verb. This particle conjugates in the same way as the active voice. These take the ó prefix
There are no irregular verbs in the passive voice. Note that unlike in other languages, both verbs must still conjugate for number, person, tense, etc.
The verb phrase in the the passive voice is this, (particle) to be (negation particle) action (particle).
Negation particles are the same in the passive voice.
Nouns in Saso decline for number and case. Nouns in Saso are marked with the prefix ô. For example, ôfãs means building. The declensions are listed below. Informal speech does not mark the Nominative case. However, formal Saso marks all cases. There are 2 different sets of declensions, one for nouns that end in a consonant, and one for nouns that end in vowels.
|Noun Declensions - Consonants|
The following table is for nouns that end in a vowel
|Noun Declensions - Vowels|
To indicate a plural noun in Saso, one simply adds d for nouns that end in a consonat, and ã for nouns that end in a vowel. The reflexive marking is only added to pronouns. The dative case is also used for comparisons. Proper nouns in Saso are required to be marked with case and nunber. The marking goes before the proper noun, but not attatched to it. If Jack is the subject of the sentence, speakers of Saso are required to say e Jack. A noun that does not fit nicely into one of the above cases declines for the dative case. Nouns in postpositional phrases decline for the dative cases as well.
Nouns that end in g experience a stem change in the nominative case.
g --> gu
Nouns that end in z experience a stem change in the genitive, voactive, and locative cases.
z --> sz. (Ôfez --> Ôfeszãi). Note that the s and the z are in two separate syllables.
The following chart lists the pronouns.
|Pronouns in Saso|
|1st||2nd Inf||2nd For||3rd Inf||3rd For|
Pronouns decline for case by using the singlur side of the declension chart. Pronouns also require the ø prefix. While there are informal vs formal pronouns in Saso, verbs do not agree with formality. Saso is pro drop in the first and second pronouns, though a persons can always be used.
In sentences that have ambigous subjects, such as "It is 4:30," use the third person formal singular pronoun. This can be dropped if desired, leaving just "Is 4:30."
Demonstrative Pronouns are equivalent to this one, that one, these, or those. They decline like regular nouns, and take the ø prefix
A reflexive verb requires a reflexive pronoun. To make a pronouns reflexive, add an aê to the end. Øfosaê is a reflexive pronoun.
Direct object pronouns (pronouns in the accusative case) are placed before the conjugated verb. Indirect object pronouns (pronouns in the dative case) are placed after the conjugated verb. Direct object pronouns are attatched to the end of the infinitive verb. Indirect objects are attatched to the end of the infinitive verb, but placed after a direct object pronoun.
Creating a title, such as Alexander the Great or The Doctor requires a special marker to be placed before the word. To create a title, place fwo before before the title. Unlike in English, with The Doctor, the article is dropped.
The Doctor --> fwo ôdemoa.
Adjectives and Adverbs
Adjectives and Adverbs agree in number with the nouns they modify. Adjectives and Adverbs also agree in formality if they are modifying are pronoun. Adjectives agree in case with the noun they are modifying.
Adjectives take the ãi prefix Adverbs do not agree in case, only in number and person with the verb. Note how the declensions are the same as the declensions for the nominative case of adjective declensions. Due to the prefix system of Saso, suffixes are often times reused between different parts of speech.
Adverbs take the u prefix. Adjectives are placed after the noun they modify. Adverbs are placed after the verb they modify.
Nouns do not decline for definiteness; articles do instead. Articles take the adjective prefix of ãi. Articles are different from all other adjectives in that they do not decline for case. They do not agree with the noun in case.
Articles are placed before the nouns the describe
Demonstrative adjectives are this, that, these, and those. Notice how the roots are the exact same as the demonstrative pronouns. Demonstrative adjectives agree in number and case with the nouns they describe. Ço and çox decline using the singular formal adjective declensions; zo and zox decline using the plural adjective declensions. Demonstratives are placed after the noun they describe
To use an adjective in a comparative, the following declensions are used. The object of the comparison, and the adjective used in the compariosn are in the dative case.
|A lot more than||si|
|A lot less than||sê|
Comparisons in Saso are formed very different than from English. The structure of a comparison is VSOA, where A is the adjective that is being used in the comparison.
In English we say This house is prettier than that house. In Saso we say Is this house that house prettier than.
Forming gerunds is quite simple in Saso. Simply leave the verb in the inifinitve, add on the prefix for a noun, and decline it like a noun.
sasãs is to write poetry. To make this into a gerund, One simply adds Î to the verb, making it Îsasãs. This can then be declined.
Saso has 3 main postpositions. These postpostion serve different puproses. Roughly speaking, one indicates purpose, one indicates cause, and one is used for the other contexts.
A more in depth chart outlining the functions of the postpositions are listed below.
|Uses of postpositions|
Purpose, deadlines, employment, employment
Cause, opinion, time, duration, through, destination
|Means of communication, location, over/under something||nãí|
While the ones listed above are the main ones, there are more postpositions. The table below lists other commonly encountered postpositions.
|Other Saso postpositions|
|on / on top of||ãis|
To agree with a plural noun, add ãi to the end of the postposition. Postpositions also take the n prefix if the start wth a vowel, or í if they start with a consonant. To form a postpositional phrase, the object of the phrase is placed first, followed by any adjectives, and finally the postposition. If in English, we say around the red house, in Saso it becomes the house red around. The object of the postpositional phrase should be declined for the dative case. An interesting note, while cases get rid of the need for many of the postpositions from English, some Saso speakers still use them.
Postpositional phrases are always placed at the end of a setence
Other Parts of Speech.
The supine shows the purpose of an action. In the sentence, I shovelled to clear the snow, to clear reprsenets the supine. The infinitive form a verb represents the supine, and is placed after the conjugated verb.
I went to build the building --> Apojuw fãsãs øfos ãk ôfãsvã.
The particple is the adjective form of a verb.In the sentence, The building is closed, closed is the particple. While there are many different types of participles in Saso, they are formed the same way. Add the adjective prefix onto the infinitive form of the verb. The infinitve ending is dropped. A suffix is then added to represent the type of desired participle. The suffixes for the most common types of participles found in Saso are listed below.
Participles decline like adjectives do. Add the adjective declension after the declension of the participle.
The three different participles have different uses in Saso. The past participle is used to describe the previous states of objects. The office was closed, closed is the past participle. The present participle is used to describe objects in the present tense, as well as the states of objects in the perfect aspects in all tenses. The office is closed, closed is the present participle. The office would have been closed, closed is also the present participle. The future pariticple is used to describe the state of objects in the future. The office will be closed, closed is the future participle. The future participle is used in the subjunctive mood. I wish the office would be closed, closed is the future participle
Past Participle example
The office was closed --> Aniguãw ãk ôflãís ãisirsêsa.
Present Participle example
The office is closed --> Anãjos ãk ôflãís ãisirsêsa.
The office would have been closed --> Aneguãr ãk ôflãís ãisirãva
Future Particple example
The office will be closed --> Anãguóm ãk ôflãís ãisirela.
I hope the office is closed --> Inãjos ãk ôflãís ãisirila.
Numbers in Saso are very simple, are stated the same as in English. Numbers do not require a prefix
|Numbers 0 - 9|
To expres numbers in powers of ten, use the following chart.
|Powers of 10|
|1.000 (10 ^ 3)||ru|
|1.000.000 (10 ^ 6)||xi|
|1.000.000.000 (10 ^ 9)||zê|
Note that Saso uses a . for a comma, and a , for a decimal point. To write a number in Saso, expand the number, then write out the parts. 450 --> four hundreds five tens --> fwê jãi ja ji.
19 --> ji wõi (ten nine)
34.000 --> keu je fwê ru (three ten four thousand)
2.234.341 --> flãi qe flãi jãi kiu ji fwê ru kiu jãi fwê ji fãi (two millions, two hundreds three tens four thousands, three hundreds four tens one.)
There are two different parts to the time system in Saso, the time like 4:30, and time like yesterday, last year, etc.
To express minutes and hours, add on suffixes to the number system in Saso. Minutes are written before the hour. The prefix is always added on to the last number.
4:30 --> Keu jedã fwêda
It is 4:30 --> Anãjos øfãse keu jedã fwêda
To express phrases such as today, next week, yesterday, etc, use the following system of suffixes.
Add on the suffixes to words such as day, night, year, etc.
Night - ômãí
Tonight - ômãíl
Tomorrow night - ômãív
Last Night - ômãís
Different types of sentences may be marked using particles. The unmarked sentence is a performing action, i.e. He is running. Informal Saso also does not mark a command, though formal Saso does. Several of the most common particles are listed below. Particles are marked with the ó prefix. They do not decline.
|Statement of a Scientific Fact||si|
|Statement of a General Truth||sê|
|Stating an Emotion||wê|
Saso is a (P)VS(O) language. The particle, if needed, is placed first, follwed by the verb, then the subject. After the subject, any other phrases are added to the sentence.
The most basic sentence in Saso is a VS sentence. In English one might say I build. In Saso, one would say Afãses øfos, literally build I.
More Complex Sentences.
A more complex sentence has 1 or more object in it. If English, one might say I build the building, somone in Saso would say Afãsis øfos ãk ôfãsvã. In a sentnece that has both a direct and indirect object, the indirect object is always placed after the direct object.
I want to build the building for Suzy --> Ifãsis øfos ãk ôfãsvã u Suzy.
The interrogative sentence, or question, always starts with the fõ particle. Words such as, What, who, where, and why, come before the verb. These words take the interrogative prefix of i
An interrogative sentece is fored the same way as a normal sentence, the only difference is the addition of a particle at the fron of the sentence.
Why did you build the building? --> Fõ íça afãsís ãk ôfãsvã?
Creating a complex sentence is slightly different from in English. Subordinate clauses also maintain as VSO order, with the subordinate conjugation at the end of the phrase. For example, because he went becomes went he because. Common subordiate words are listed below. Conjugtions are marked with the eu prefix
|Common Subordinate Words|
Subodinate clauses are placed at the end of the sentence.
While we were going to the store, I saw a man --> Asãísis rãk ôjumasvã eunosh apojõív ãk ôfãgu ífli.
Lit: Saw I a man, while going we the store to.
Saso allows for compound sentences. The are threated like to separate sentences, however they are joined by sã. This goes before the first word of the second sentence. It also takes the eu prefix.
He is tall and he is good --> Anãjos ôfisi ãíxasi eusã anãjos ôfisi ãivoã.
Lit: Is he tall and is he good.
|37||man (adult male)||—|
|38||man (human being)||—|
Translated: Sê alistøs ek ôvligui.
Literal: Sing some birds
[General Truth] [indicative]sing[present][plural][3rd] some[indefinite][plural] [noun]birds[plural][nominative].
The cow jumped over the moon
Akênãw ãk ôsmif ãk ôlõm õnãí
Literal: Jumped the cow the moon over
[indicative]jumped[past][singular][3rd] the[definite][singular] [noun]cow[singular][nominative] the[definite][singular] [noun]moon[singular][dative] [postposition]over[singular]
Let it go (From Frozen)
The snow glows white on the mountain tonight, not a footprint to be seen.
Avilos ãk ôzos ãíwosã ômãílu ãk ôdõmu nãis, ósã nãgøl shadãí sãísos rik ôfõsosã
Lit: Glows the snow white tonight the mountain on, are not seen some footprints (by some).