Head direction
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

Classification and Dialects[]



Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal [m] [n] [ŋ] [ʔ]
Plosive [p] [b] [t] [d] [k] [g] [q]
Fricative [ɸ] [β] [v] [s] [ʃ] [h]
Affricate [ts]
Approximant [j]
Trill [r]
Lateral fric. [ɬ]
Lateral app. [l]


Front Central Back
Close [i] [u]
Near-close [e] [o]
Open [a]


If the gemination is not morphological, alike consonants are divided by shva.

Writing System[]

Letter Aa Bb Bh bh Dd Ee Gg Hh Ii Kk Ll Lh lh Mm Nn
Sound [a] [b] [β] [d] [e] [g] [h] [i] [k] [l] [ɬ] [m] [n]
Letter Ng ng Oo Pp Ff Qq Rr Ss Sh sh Tt Uu Vv Yy '
Sound [ŋ] [o] [p] [ɸ] [q] [r] [s] [ʃ] [t] [u] [v] [j] [ʔ]


The basis of Satra' morphology is the root of a word, which consists in most cases of two open syllables, to which prefixes, suffixes and infixes are connected for word formation and inflection.The gemination of root vowels and the second consonant is also implied. For example, from root si.lhu (learn, study) words siqlhu (student), esiqlhu (teacher) siitlhu (school), ksitlhu (ignorance), sitlhuf (to study) are derived.


Nouns are distinguished by having -t- or -q- as an infix and can be divided according to "models' in which they are formed:

1)the "actor" model. Characterized by infix -q-. Examples: riqshu (lit. the one who passes, warrior), riqtu (a cook)

2)the "being" model. Formed by infix -i-. Is used to form the names of animals, plants etc. eg. moise the one who delights (nightingale).

3)the "place" model. Formed by gemination of the first vowel and infix -t-, e.g. hiitna (lit. a place for living, house)

4)the "instrument" model. Formed by infix -q- and gemination of the second vowel. E.g. lheqyuu (lit. a means of walking, transport)

5)the "name of an action" model. Formed by infix -t- and is employed as gerund. The accusative of such nouns is used as infinitive, while the locative as a participle. Qatrif qatrili, shtuunkug. (Playing games, they didn't think about him.)

6)the "light" model, which has no infixes and bears no specific meaning, e.g. reti (fire), liha evil.

Nouns are not divided into any classes, thus their declension is standart.

Singular Plural
Nominative siqnu siqnun
Accusative siqnun siqnu
Dative siqnuts siqnutsli
Locative siqnuf siqnuli
Instrumentative siqnuh siqnuhi
Ablative siqanu siqinu

The nouns also tend to contain personal markers quite frequently. Personal markers precede the case ending.

Singular Plural Incognital
1st deetbhok deetbho' deetbhong
2nd deetbhot deebhoti
3rd deetbhor deetbhori*

*deetbho - grief, sorrow, from de.bho - to worry.


Incognital is a category of personal markers, that is presented alongside with number in tables due to convenience. It is used to represend situations when subject/object is unknown. It's use in someway reminds of who-like pronouns in many other languages. Thus, deetbhong may be translated as "whose sorrow?" "For emphasis, though, a separate words are used.

Personal Pronouns.[]

The use of pronouns in Satra' is rather rare; they are implied mostly for emphasis. Their structure consists of element lu- with respective personal markers.

Singular Plural Incognital
1st luk lu' lung?
2nd lut luti
3rd lur luri


The verbs in Satra' are conjugated acc. to their subject and object. The verb forms in the following table are presented with both object and subject marker of the respective form, e.g. linbhis (he killed him)

Singular Plural Incognital
1st lilbhik lirbhir Lingbhing
2nd liybhit lishbhish
3rd linbhis limbhig

Note, that in 1pp and 2pp the subject and object markers differ only in their position.

Tence and Aspect.[]

Strictly speaking, Satra' has only two tenses - Past and Present. The present tense is not marked, whereas in past the first vowel of the root is geminated. Ling'n riitut? - what have you cooked?

There is another form, which is sometimes called Future, but it is not necessarily so. It expresses rather assumption or hope and is formed by geminating the second vowel. Ling'n rituut... I wonder if/I hope that you cook something.


Passive forms of the verbs are made by agglutinating prefixes n-, m-, t- which do not seem to follow any distribution pattern. Mpalfes satra'.(Our language is made by me). Note that the object marker in this case denotes the agent, and vise versa.

Causative voice is formed by prefix tsi-, si, of which the latter is used in the past tense. Thus, from (eat) we can form tsiminu (feed). Causative and passive prefixes can be combined to make causative-passive, like, from te.ra. (beat) nsitenrak (I was made to beat him).

Intensive voice is formed by prefix 'e-, which can merge with other prefixes, making ne-, me-, te- for passive, tse-, se- for causative, me- for reciprocal. Nsitenrak from the previous paragraph can be made into nsetenrak (I was made to beat him harshly) or nesitenrak (I was violently made to beat him).

Impersonal voice is used for describing situation where subject is not defined. It is forming by geminating the first consonant of the second root syllable, kelle - (one, someone, everybody) pour(s). If the object is needed, the vowel of the first syllable is inserted between the object marker and the next syllable (kenelle). The only exception is the verb 'i.ra. (take) which inserts 'o' instead (inorra). Lhalaqqa Te - My name is Te (they call me Te).



Example text[]