Conlang

Shataranjan is the successor language of Old Shataranjan. Shataranjan is the main language of Shataranjans, inhabitants of the tidally-locked planet of Shataran, located around 500 light years from the Solar System.

There are two main dialects, the one spoken on the always bright side which eternally is illuminated by their star, and the other spoken in the darkness of the hemisphere facing against the star. As the two sides are constantly at war, the two dialects never became different languages, as a result of common interactions.

Shataranjan
Kheja-shataranotse
Type
Agglutinative-Polysynthetic
Alignment
Ergative-absolutive
Head direction
Head-Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



Changes compared to Old Shataranjan[]

Shataranjan has lost much of its oligosynthetic properties. It is now a polysynthetic language, having many new morphemes coming from the expansion of Shataranjan culture.

Phonology[]

The standard sound set is a combination of features of both dialects.

Consonants[]

Shataranjan's consonant set is dominated by affricates and fricatves, with a few stops and nasals. One of the distnctive features of Shataranjan is that it lacks approximants. Another important detail is the lack of labiodental consonants, as Shataranjans are unable to articulate such sounds.

Bilabial Alveolar Lateral alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Stop unvoiced p t k
voiced b d g
Affricate unvoiced ts ʈʂ kx
voiced dz ɖʐ ɟʝ ɢʁ
Fricative unvoiced ɸ s ɬ ʂ ç x χ
voiced β z ɮ ʐ ʝ ɣ ʁ

Vowels[]

Vowels come in pairs and have a long and short variant each.

Front Back
Close i(ː) u(ː)
Mid ɛ ɔ
Open a(ː)

Dialectal differences between sounds include:

Sun-facing Sun-opposing
χ, ʁ ʀ̥, ʀ
cʰ, ɟʰ c͡ç, ɟ͡ʝ
i, u ɪ, ʊ
e, o ɛ, ɔ

Phonotactics[]

The phonotactics are relatively simple. The most complex cluster possible is CCVCC, and a fricative cannot follow its equivalent affricate. Short vowels tend to appear more commontly before affricates.

Writing system and Transliteration[]

Writing[]

Shataranjan script.png

Shataranjan has an alphabetic writing system. The spelling is majorly phonemic, although there are some small irregularities. The main irregularity is the pronunciation on word-final <g>: it can have the value of either /g/ or /ɣ/, depending on etymology. One, however, can check the correct spelling between <g> and <gh> by declining the noun or conjugating the verb - the way the letter is pronounced before a vowel reveals the spelling.

Sun-facing Shataranjan uses a double underline diacritic to indicate a double vowel, while sun-opposing Shataranjan duplicates the vowel glyph.

There are two systems of transliteration of Shataranjan into Human languages, one Latin-based and the other Cyrillic-based.

Latin[]

m n ɲ ŋ p t k b d g ɸ s
m n ny, nh ng p t k b d g f s
ɬ ʂ ç x χ β z ɮ ʐ ʝ ɣ ʁ
lh sh cy, ch kh qh v z l zh j gh r

All affricates are created by combining the plosive and the fricative glyphs or digraphs. <t, d> take the place of ʈ an ɖ respectively, while <g> takes place of both ɟ and ɢ.

/ɲ/ and /ç/ are both written as <ny> and <cy> before a vowel, and <nh> and <ch> at the end of a word or before a consonant.

a ɛ, e i ɔ, o u
a e i o u

A long vowel is marked by duplication (e.g. /a/ = <a>; /aː/ = <aa>).

Cyrillic[]

m n ɲ ŋ p t k b d g ɸ s
м н нь нъ п т к б д г ф с
ɬ ʂ ç x χ β z ɮ ʐ ʝ ɣ ʁ
лъ ш хь х хъ в з л ж й йъ р

Affricates act the same as in the Latin transliteration, with the notable exception of gj = гь.

a ɛ e i ɔ, o u
а э е и о у

The cyrillic transliteration allows for the use of ю, я and sometimes ё after palatal consonants instead of ь+V, although the use of ё is sometimes discouraged.

Grammar[]

Shataranjan is a language with a high degree of inflection and agglutinative-polysynthetic morphology. It is an ergative language, meaning that it does not distinguish between the subject of an intransitive verb and the object of a transitive verb. It has a Verb-Subject-Object syntax.

Verbs[]

Verbs are the morphemes that start any sentence, since VSO is the syntactic order. Verbs only have 3 tenses - past, present and future, and additionally conjugate by number and person. It is important to note that the past and future tense suffixes - u(u)n and i(i)v - change vowel length based on plurality - if the number of the verb is singular and the final vowel is short, the suffix will have a long vowel, but in the opposite case, the vowel will shorten.

The verb be - dzelh - will be used as an example for conjugation.

Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Present dzelhegh dzelhet dzelhev dzelheegh dzelheet dzelheev
Past dzelhuunegh dzelhuunet dzelhuunev dzelhuneegh dzelhuneet dzelhuneev
Future dzelhiivegh dzelhiivet dzelhiivev dzelhiveegh dzelhiveet dzelhiveev

To create the imperfective aspect, one adds -oopf at the end of a verb before the agent.

Nouns[]

Nouns are inflected according to case and number. Shataranjan has four cases: Ergative, Absolutive, Dative and Genitive. The plural form of a noun is formed by gemating the final vowel of the root word. There is a total of three declensions for each ending of a noun.

1st declension[]

The first declension applies to nouns ending in a consonant, commonly a fricative or a nasal. While the ergative is formed by simply the root word, to form the absolutive one adds -o at the end of the word, with another suffix being added to form the dative form (-ji) and the genitive form (-tse). The plural form is formed by geminating the vowel preceeding the final consonant in the ergative form, instead of the -o.

Singular Plural
Ergative ketshar ketshaar
Absolutive ketsharo ketshaaro
Dative ketsharoji ketshaaroji
Genitive ketsharotse ketshaarotse

2nd declension[]

The second declension applies to nouns ending in -a or -e. As with the first declension, the absolutive form has an -o at its end, however it replaces the -a or -e ending and is the vowel duplicated to form the plural of the word. Dative and genitive work exactly the same as in the first declension.

Singular Plural
Ergative qhaate qhaatee
Absolutive qhaato qhaatoo
Dative qhaatoji qhaatooji
Genitive qhaatotse qhaatootse

3rd declension[]

The third declension applies to nouns ending in -i. Unlike the first two declensions, the absolutive is formed by replacing the final -i with -u, but as in the second declension, -u is geminated to form a plural. As with the previous two declensions, dative and genitive cases are formed by adding -ji and -tse at the end of the absolutive form of the word, respectively.

Singular Plural
Ergative ebvi ebvii
Absolutive ebvu ebvuu
Dative ebvuji ebvuuji
Genitive ebvutse ebvuutse

Pronouns[]

Pronouns decline in a similar fashion to nouns, with the notable difference of the 2nd person pronoun's dative and genitive form ending in -(e)eji and -(e)etse instead of -(o)oji and -(o)otse.

Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Ergative cyaz kkhe lom cyaaz kkhee loom
Absolutive cyazo kkho lomo cyaazo kkhoo loomo
Dative cyazoji kkheji lomoji cyaazoji kkheeji loomoji
Genitive cyazotse kkhetse lomotse cyaazotse kheetse loomotse

Adjectives[]

Adjectives decline by case and number as well, following the same declension pattern as nouns with the same ending, instead of according to nouns they refer to. They have a comparative and superlative form. The comparative form is formed by adding the prefix pfo- (if the adjective starts with a consonant) or pf- (if it starts with a vowel) to mean "more", while "less" is formed with the prefixes qqha- or qqh-, depending on the starting letter of the adjective. The superlative form is formed by adding the prefix etlha- or etlh-, again depending on whether the adjective starts with a vowel or not.

Singular Plural
Ergative shaati shaatii
Absolutive shaatu shaatuu
Dative shaatuji shaatuuji
Genitive shaatutse shaatuutse

Syntax[]

Shataranjan is an agglutinative-polysynthetic language. Its form of polysynthesis is based on the hierarcy of parts-of-speech - that means, the head and its subordinate morphemes are subjected to being united into one word. As such, one sentence usually only has 2 to 5 words even having a high number of morphemes. Adjectives, adpositions and determiners are incorporated into the subject or the object along with the noun. Adverbs and occasionally pronouns are incorporated into the verb along with the corresponding verb form. Note that pronouns are separated from the verb by a Shataranjan punctuation sign, transcribed with a dash.

The language follows a VSO (Verb-Subject-Object) word order. Because of this and the ergative-absolutive alignment, a sentence always starts with a verb and ends with an absolutive part-of-speech.

Lexicon[]

See Shataranjan/Vocabulary.

Example sentence[]

dzelhev-lom ketsharoshaatu

джэлъэв-лом кэтшарошаату

be.PRS.SG.3-3SG.ERG weapon.SING.ABS-black.SING.ABS

lit. "It is a black weapon".