Shataranjan, also referred to as Classical Shataranjan in order to distinguish it from Old Shataranjan, was the language of Shataranjans, inhabitants of the tidally-locked planet of Shataran, located around 500 light years from the Solar System.

There are two main descendants, the one spoken on the always bright side which is eternally illuminated by their star, and the other spoken in the darkness of the hemisphere facing against the star.

šātarānan mā
Head direction
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



The consonant inventory in noteworthy for having a retroflex series of sounds, no labiodentals and a contrast between voiced and voiceless bilabial trills. All nasals and occlusives can be geminated.

Bilabial Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
plain sibilant plain
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Occlusive unv. p t ts ʈʂ k
v. b d dz ɖʐ g
Continuant unv. ɸ ɬ s ʂ ɕ ç x h
v. w l z ɻ ʑ j
Trill ʙ̥, ʙ


Front Central Back
short long short long short long
High i u
Mid e o
Low a


The syllable structure is (C)(L)V(L)(C).


If diacritics are not available, carons, acutes and macrons may be substituted with v, y and doubling the vowel, respectively (č = cv, ś = sy, ū = uu). /ŋ, ɬ, ç/ may be transcribed with the digraphs <ng>, <hl> and <hy>, respectively.

m n ɲ ŋ p t ts ʈʂ k b d dz ɖʐ g ɸ ɬ s ʂ ɕ
m n ń ŋ p t c č ć k b d dz g f ł s š ś
ç x h w l z ɻ ʑ j ʙ̥ ʙ i e a o u
ç x h w l z r ź j pr br i e a o u ī ē ā ō ū


Shataranjan is a predominantly agglutinative language with some fusional traits. It is notable for having evidentiality and a system of classifiers.


Verbs in Shataranjan are highly inflected, similar to Old Shataranjan. Verbs conjugate for mood, evidentiality, aspect, tense, person and number.

Singular Plural
1P 2P 3P 1P 2P 3P
Indicative Firsthand evidence Present jund juda jut judńo jućo judźo
Progressive judun judu jud juduńo juduśo judujo
Imperfective judnin judni juńdź judnińo judniśo judnijo
Perfective judźunne judźuna judźun judźunńo judźuńśo judźuńo
Future juddan juddā judda juddāńo juddāśo juddājo
Indirect evidence Present judźutxan judźutxā judźutxa judźutxańo judźutxaśo judźutxajo
Progressive judźutxaun judźutxau judźutxu judźutxauńo judźutxauśo judźutxaujo
Imperfective judźutxanin judźutxani judźutxań judźutxanińo judźutxaniśo judźutxanijo
Perfective judźutxajunne judźutxajuna judźutxajun judźutxajunńo judźutxajuńśo judźutxajuńo
Future judźutxadan judźutxadā judźutxada judźutxadāńo judźutxadāśo judźutxadājo
Conditional Firsthand evidence Present jutxan jutxā jutxa jutxańo jutxaśo jutxajo
Progressive jutxaun jutxau jutxu jutxauńo jutxauśo jutxaujo
Imperfective jutxanin jutxani jutxań jutxanińo jutxaniśo jutxanijo
Perfective jutxajunne jutxajuna jutxajun jutxajunńo jutxajuńśo jutxajuńo
Future jutxadan jutxadā jutxada jutxadāńo jutxadāśo jutxadājo
Indirect evidence Present jutfenz jutfeza jutfes jutfezńo jutfeśo jutfeźo
Progressive jutfezun jutfezu jutfez jutfezuńo jutfezuśo jutfezujo
Imperfective jutfeznin jutfezni jutfeńdź jutfeznińo jutfezniśo jutfeznijo
Perfective jutfeźunne jutfeźuna jutfeźun jutfeźunńo jutfeźuńśo jutfeźuńo
Future jutfezdan jutfezdā jutfezda jutfezdāńo jutfezdāśo jutfezdājo
Imperative Direct order Present judźund judźuda judźut judźudńo judźućo judźudźo
Progressive judźudun judźudu judźud judźuduńo judźuduśo judźudujo
Imperfective judźudnin judźudni judźund judźudnińo judźudniśo judźudnijo
Perfective judźudźunne judźudźuna judźudźun judźudźunńo judźudźuńśo judźudźuńo
Future judźuddan judźuddā judźudda judźuddāńo judźuddāśo judźuddājo
Indirect order Present judźutfenz judźutfeza judźutfes judźutfezńo judźutfeśo judźutfeźo
Progressive judźutfezun judźutfezu judźutfez judźutfezuńo judźutfezuśo judźutfezujo
Imperfective judźutfeznin judźutfezni judźutfeńdź judźutfeznińo judźutfezniśo judźutfeznijo
Perfective judźutfeźunne judźutfeźuna judźutfeźun judźutfeźunńo judźutfeźuńśo judźutfeźuńo
Future judźutfezdan judźutfezdā judźutfezda judźutfezdāńo judźutfezdāśo judźutfezdājo
Yes/No interrogative Present jutćint jutćita jutćit jutćidńo jutćićo jutćijo
Progressive jutćitun jutćitu jutćit jutćituńo jutćituśo jutćitujo
Imperfective jutćidnin jutćidni jutćińć jutćidnińo jutćidniśo jutćidnijo
Perfective jutćićunne jutćićuna jutćićun jutćićunńo jutćićiśo jutćićijo
Future jutćiddan jutćiddā jutćidda jutćiddāńo jutćiddāśo jutćiddājo
Wh-interrogative Present juteun jutewa juteu juteuńo juteuśo juteujo
Progressive jutēun jutēwa jutēu jutēuńo jutēwśo jutēujo
Imperfective juteunin juteuni juteuń juteunińo juteuniśo juteunijo
Perfective juteujunne juteujuna juteujun juteujunńo juteujuńśo juteujuńo
Future juteudan juteudā juteuda juteudāńo juteudāśo juteudājo

Verbs of motion[]

Shataranjan does not have a verb that covers the function of "to go" in all of its senses, instead the manner by which the action is carried out must be specified by the type of the verb.

Shataranjan verb English translation
nār to walk
to run
fetʼ to sail


Shataranjan has inherited Old Shataranjan's system of classifiers. A classifier takes case marking that would normally be placed on the noun, while the noun itself takes a partitive case ending.

Classifier Usage
niŋ generic
zeu people (Shataranjans)
łuŋ soldiers
large animals
rīs small animals
čār weapons/tools
xim livable buildings
dles tribes, villages
cāu flat objects
wort plants
meu groups of living beings
nōn groups of smaller objects
bi written documents


See Shataranjan/Vocabulary.

Most words in Shataranjan are formed by derivation and compounding, however sometimes new meanings are given to a word by applying a classifier different from the one commonly used to it.

Shataranjan has obtained numerous loanwords from substrate languages that used to be spoken in the territories of the Empire. It has also been influenced by Urasranamah vocabulary, having a substantial amount of loanwords from that literary language.

Example text[]