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|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Shinsali (natively Icëlatam [it͡səlatam]) is a language isolate spoken natively by approximately 150,000 of the Shinsali people in the Shinsali Confederacy, an island nation in the Atlantic Ocean. It is a predominantly prefixing agglutinative language which has various polysynthetic tendencies.
Shinsali is a non-noun-incorporating polysynthetic-agglutinative language. Despite being head-final, the language uses postpositions. It is generally prefixing, however there are a few odd verbal suffixes. Word order is SOV in normal sentences, but VSO in relative clauses. Verbs decline for 14 aspects and 7 moods, but there is no morphological tense. Verbs can indicate deictal information as well on verbs of motion. Nouns decline as well, for case, number, definiteness, and possession.
|Plosive||p b||t d||c ɟ||k g||ʔ|
|Fricative||f v||s z||ɬ||ʃ||x ɣ||h|
- All consonants can occur as geminates. Word-initial and word-final geminate plosives are often realized as affricates.
- Vowels can form closing and opening diphthongs with /j/ and /w/.
- Allophonic long vowels can occur across syllable boundaries, but these can also be pronounced as a single short vowel or with hiatus.
Most phonemes are written the same as their IPA symbol. The ones that do not are listed in the table below. If a phoneme written as a digraph is to be geminated, only the first element of the digraph is doubled, as in ttj - /c:/. If /tc/ or any similar combination of sounds (i.e. those which would be written using the same character twice, not indicating gemination) is written with an x between the single grapheme and the digraph, but is not pronounced using a glottal stop.
The syllable structure is simple (C)(L/A)V(C). There are no consonant clusters other than syllble-initial consonant-liquid/approximant clusters.
Shinsali verbs are very complex. They are aspect- and mood-heavy, but have no morphological tense. Verbs of motion, as with many languages, are more complex than other verbs. In Shinsali, verbs of motion indicate deictic information as well as indicating the shape of the object in motion. Verbs are almost exlusively prefixing but verbs of motion take on suffixes to indicate other infomation, such as deictal suffixes and a suffix indicating the shape of the object in motion. The deictal prefixes are used to denote the relation of the speaker and the subject.
|miscellaneous prefixes||subject||direct object||object||aspect||mood||deictal prefixes||stem||deictal suffixes||shape suffix|
Verbs can take on miscellaneous prefixes, demonstrated in the table below:
|immi||forms relative clauses|
If there is a third-person suffix there must be a deictal prefix that indicates the relation of the speaker and a third-person object unless the object is invisible to the speaker and the adressee(s). There are standalone pronouns but they are only used with prepositions.
|Perfective||no||viewed as a simple whole|
|Progressive||la||viewed as ongoing and evo/lving|
|Stative||ju||viewed as ongoing but not evolving|
|Momentaneous||ro||takes place at one point in time|
|Inceptive||sanu||beginning of a new action|
|Inochiative||lhe||begininng of a new state|
|Terminative||wu||end of an action/state|
|Repetitive||gi||the action is repeated|
|Defective||my||the action almost happened|
|Intentional||najo||the action was intentional|
|Accidental||a||the action was an accident|
|Imminent||teja||the action will happen for sure|
Moods in Shinsali are unique in that every mood has a negative form, for example, the negative indicative translates to "not" in English, the negative imperative translates to "Don't ___!", and so on. However, there is no negative dubitative mood.
|Conditional||tto||za||event is dependant upon another conditional|
|Subjunctive||roi||wau||hypothetical statements, polite requests|
|Desiderative||iu||dy||expresses desires or hopes|
Deictal prefixes indicate the relation of a third-person subject to the speaker and are only used in the precense of a third-person subject.
|zo||visible to speaker (but not necessarily to adressee)|
|pai||invisible to speaker|
|wakai||visible to adressee only|
|llaf||invisible to both speaker and adressee|
The verb stem in the most simple part of a Shinsali verb. Multiple verbs in a list (ex: ____ and ____ and _____) or structures like (verb) to (verb) (such as ask to leave, need to cry, etc) are stacked serially in one verbal construction. Stative verbs also act as adjectives (e.g. to be blue, to be good).
Deictal suffixes are only used on verbs of motion and indicate motion. If any of these suffixes "take" an object, it goes in the prepositional case.
|kra||motion towards speaker|
|zuo||motion towards adressee|
|njau||motion away from speaker|
|tjë||motion away from adressee|
|jukosa||motion around the proximal area|
|naiwa||out of water|
|sëri||encircling an object|
|tasu||onto a vertical surface|
|kha||off of a vertical surface|
|kolmë||onto a horizontal surface|
|gau||off of a horizontal surface|
|gënla||upward or up something|
|kalni||downward or down something|
|walhni||from one area to another|
|sajkha||motion undetectable to humans|
Object shape suffixes
These are used for what is in motion. For example, in the sentence "i run" an animate classifier would be used because the object in motion is a first-person speaker. Sometimes they are used in place of an object if specifying it is unnecessary.
|(ë)n||animate object other than humans|
|(ë)la||inanimate object that doesnt fit any other category|
|wos||liquid (or container of)|
|asok||clothing or covering|
Nouns in Shinsali are inflected as well as verbs. Nouns decline for 5 cases, definiteness, plurality, and take on prefixes for posession.
Definiteness and plurality
Definiteness and plurality are indicated fusionally in a single prefix. If a posessive prefix is used alongside a plural prefix, the definite prefix is used.
Shinsali has standalone pronouns, but they are rarely used outside of the genitive and prepositional cases due to pronominal indication on verbs. However, they are commonly used alongside pronominal prefixes for emphasis. The pronouns below are in the nominative case but can take on case prefixes.
The reflexive pronoun in Shinsali is the word "ang" which can be translated as self. It takes on the corresponding posessive prefix to indicate person, such as "zamang" which means "myself".
Adverbs, adjectives, and stative verbs are not distinct in Shinsali. However, they agree with the case of the noun they modify given that a modifier is being used as an adjective and use the same exact case prefix. Case prefixes come before a comparative or superlative prefix, given that one is present. They directly preceed the noun or verb they modify. Comparison is demonstrated on the modifier amatj (fast) below.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, article 1
Sha tjanaj sakkalaj ghanna ëmapuwanchaaj ëmëinapuasshomaajalh yma öllafjynaggzasaisit. Ëmasshettjaviaj ëmsaungas yma öparauav, allhas offovrot ëmssonakh yma öllafsalyinavvo.
ʃa canaj sakkalaj ɣanna əmapuwant͡ʃaaj əməinapuaʃʃɔmaajaɬ ɨma øllafjɨnaggzasaisit. əmaʃʃeccaviaj əmsauŋas ɨma øparauav, aɬɬas ɔffɔvrɔt əmssɔnax ɨma øllafsalɨinavvɔ.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, article 2
Gahaia isxsha isëinasshomaajalhaj isëingharumsakkal, immiönojansaaizhan kënas ëmahaizhan nja, immijuanlajus gjavad, batan, adkenat, asshitam, sikyvtjauakkha sënma wosalöf, jyvsiksosomta, ghajin, egjaco, asshjynaggasshomaajalhajakkha sënma untalo, öpaovmannat. Sënajzha, ëmtamnövang jau sanjajagghaso offtjanaj offtogjaz offromeha atsikyvtjau, atsikokhouolofakkha, atenwassaj atuntalo lhanjy wotejakaijansasaham, sikgharumsakkal, sanjajynavakromeha, sikasshwocëkaijansatjauakkha, offasshavartjau jyvasshashted wocëttojansame.
|Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.|
|everyone DAT-all DAT-DEF.PL-right-and DAT-DEF.PL-freedom, REL-3PL_NOM-PERF-abstract_noun-declare this PREP-declaration in, REL-PROG-disregard race, color, gender, language, religion, ADJ-politics-or other opinion, nationality, social_class, property, birthright-or other status, 3PL_NOM-3PL_DAT-deserve. distinction, PREP-DEF-basis on PTCP-consider GEN-person GEN-native GEN-country ACC-ADJ-politics, ACC-ADJ-jurisdiction-or, ACC-international ACC-status also 3SG_NOM-IMM-NEG-abstract_noun-make, ADJ-freedom, PTCP-trust_country, ADJ-NMNZ-3SG_NOM-3SG_ACC-NEG_IND-abstact_noun-govern-or GEN-NMZ-self-govern state_of-NMZ-limit 3SG_NOM-3SG_ACC-COND-abstract_noun-be.|
|gahaia isʃa isəinaʃʃɔmaajaɬaj isəiŋharumsakkal, immiønɔjansaaizhan kənas əmahaizhan ɲa, immijuanlajus ɟavad, batan, adkenat, aʃʃitam, sikɨvcauaxxa sənma wɔsaløf, jɨvsiksɔsɔmta, ɣajin, eɟat͡sɔ, aʃʃjɨnaggaʃʃɔmaajaɬajaxxa sənma untalɔ, øpaɔvmannat. sənajzha, əmtamnøvaŋ jau saɲajaɣɣasɔ ɔffcanaj ɔfftɔɟaz ɔffrɔmeha atsikɨvcau, atsikɔxɔuɔlɔfakxa, atenwassaj atuntalɔ ɬaɲɨ wɔtejakaijansasaham, sikɣarumsakkal, saɲajɨnavakrɔmeha, sikaʃʃwɔt͡səkaijansacauaxxa, ɔffaʃʃavarcau jɨvaʃʃaʃted wɔt͡səttɔjansame.|