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Nouns decline according to...
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Shinsali (natively Icëlatam [it͡səlatam]) is a language isolate spoken natively by approximately 150,000 of the Shinsali people in the Shinsali Confederacy, an island nation in the Atlantic Ocean. It is a predominantly prefixing agglutinative language which has various polysynthetic tendencies.
Shinsali is a non-noun-incorporating polysynthetic-agglutinative language. Despite being head-final, the language uses postpositions. It is generally prefixing, however there are a few odd verbal suffixes. Word order is SOV in normal sentences, but VSO in relative clauses. Verbs decline for 14 aspects and 7 moods, but there is no morphological tense. Verbs can indicate deictal information as well on verbs of motion. Nouns decline as well, for case, number, definiteness, and possession.
Most phonemes are written the same as their IPA symbol. The ones that do not are listed in the table below. If a phoneme written as a digraph is to be geminated, only the first element of the digraph is doubled, as in ttj - /c:/. If /tc/ or any similar combination of sounds (i.e. those which would be written using the same character twice, not indicating gemination) is written with an x between the single grapheme and the digraph, but is not pronounced using a glottal stop.
Shinsali verbs are very complex. They are aspect- and mood-heavy, but have no morphological tense. Verbs of motion, as with many languages, are more complex than other verbs. In Shinsali, verbs of motion indicate deictic information as well as indicating the shape of the object in motion. Verbs are almost exlusively prefixing but verbs of motion take on suffixes to indicate other infomation, such as deictal suffixes and a suffix indicating the shape of the object in motion. The deictal prefixes are used to denote the relation of the speaker and the subject.
If there is a third-person suffix there must be a deictal prefix that indicates the relation of the speaker and a third-person object unless the object is invisible to the speaker and the adressee(s). There are standalone pronouns but they are only used with prepositions.
Moods in Shinsali are unique in that every mood has a negative form, for example, the negative indicative translates to "not" in English, the negative imperative translates to "Don't ___!", and so on. However, there is no negative dubitative mood.
The verb stem in the most simple part of a Shinsali verb. Multiple verbs in a list (ex: ____ and ____ and _____) or structures like (verb) to (verb) (such as ask to leave, need to cry, etc) are stacked serially in one verbal construction. Stative verbs also act as adjectives (e.g. to be blue, to be good).
These are used for what is in motion. For example, in the sentence "i run" an animate classifier would be used because the object in motion is a first-person speaker. Sometimes they are used in place of an object if specifying it is unnecessary.
animate object other than humans
inanimate object that doesnt fit any other category
Shinsali has standalone pronouns, but they are rarely used outside of the genitive and prepositional cases due to pronominal indication on verbs. However, they are commonly used alongside pronominal prefixes for emphasis. The pronouns below are in the nominative case but can take on case prefixes.
Adverbs, adjectives, and stative verbs are not distinct in Shinsali. However, they agree with the case of the noun they modify given that a modifier is being used as an adjective and use the same exact case prefix. Case prefixes come before a comparative or superlative prefix, given that one is present. They directly preceed the noun or verb they modify. Comparison is demonstrated on the modifier amatj (fast) below.
Sha tjanaj sakkalaj ghanna ëmapuwanchaaj ëmëinapuasshomaajalh yma öllafjynaggzasaisit. Ëmasshettjaviaj ëmsaungas yma öparauav, allhas offovrot ëmssonakh yma öllafsalyinavvo.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
all person free-and equal PREP-3PL-dignity-and PREP-DEF.PL-3PL-NOM-2SG_NOM-3SG_DAT-be_entitled with 3PL_NOM-not_visible-be_born-motion_through_something-human. PREP-NOM-think-and PREP-conscience with 3PL_NOM-3PL_DAT-endow, and GEN-brother PREP-spirit with 3PL_NOM-not_visible-be_obliged-intermarry.
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.
everyone DAT-all DAT-DEF.PL-right-and DAT-DEF.PL-freedom, REL-3PL_NOM-PERF-abstract_noun-declare this PREP-declaration in, REL-PROG-disregard race, color, gender, language, religion, ADJ-politics-or other opinion, nationality, social_class, property, birthright-or other status, 3PL_NOM-3PL_DAT-deserve. distinction, PREP-DEF-basis on PTCP-consider GEN-person GEN-native GEN-country ACC-ADJ-politics, ACC-ADJ-jurisdiction-or, ACC-international ACC-status also 3SG_NOM-IMM-NEG-abstract_noun-make, ADJ-freedom, PTCP-trust_country, ADJ-NMNZ-3SG_NOM-3SG_ACC-NEG_IND-abstact_noun-govern-or GEN-NMZ-self-govern state_of-NMZ-limit 3SG_NOM-3SG_ACC-COND-abstract_noun-be.