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Name: Siitò

Type: Inflected/Agglutinative

Alignment: Accusative

Head Direction: Variable

Number of genders: Three

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Numbers No Yes Yes No No No No No
Participles Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No




The phonology of Siitò is very complex, with 16 vowels and 41 consonants (this is not including the possible affricates, which are phonemically distinct). There are also gradations of vowel length and a qualitative pitch accent that have both morphological and sometimes lexical implications. The phoneme inventory is as follows:

Bilabial Labiodental Labio-Velar Dental Alveolar Post-Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Pulmonic Inventory
Plosive p b t d c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ ɴ
Trill r ʀ
Trilled Affricate rʃ rʒ
Tap or Flap ɾ
Fricative f v ʍ θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ h
Affricate tθ dð ts dz tʃ dʒ cç ɟʝ kx ɡɣ
Lateral Fricative ɬ ɮ
Lateral Affricate tɬ dɮ kɬ ɡɮ
Approximant w ɹ j
Lateral Approximant l ʎ

  1. In cells with two symbols (or combinations), the first is voiceless, and the second its voiced counterpart.
  2. Shaded cells indicate unused points of articulation.



Front Central Back
Close i y ɨ u
Low Close ɪ ʏ
Close-mid e ø o
Low Close-mid ə
Open-mid ɛ œ ɔ
Low Open-mid æ
Open a ɑ
  1. In cells with two symbols, the first is unrounded and the second its rounded counterpart.
  2. Shaded cells indicate unused points of articulation.

The only diphthongs to exist in Siitò are those that represent a shift from unrounded to rounded vowel, or vice versa. (Example: eø̀ - so/therefore)
All vowels can be nasalized. This is indicated by the use of a tilde (~) over the noun in question. These are phonemically relevant, and therefore can change the morphological case of a word. They never affect a lexical change, however, because the nasalization does not carry down through the declension, and therefore even if two words were different in the nominative, they would be identical through the rest of the declension.
There are also gradations of vowel length, which are indicated two ways in the orthography:
  1. A vowel is long if its syllable bears a marked pitch accent or
  2. If it is doubled in the orthography of an unmarked syllable.
Short vowels are always unmarked and written only once.


a æ ɛ œ e ø ɪ ʏ i y ə ɨ ɑ ɔ o u
Complete Phonotactic Table
p + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
b + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
t + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
d + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
c + + + + + + + + + + + - + + + +
ɟ + + + + + + + + + + + - + + + +
k + + + + + + + + + + + - + - + +
g + + + + + + + + + + + - + - + +
q - - - - - - - - - - + + + + + +
ɢ - - - - - - - - - - + + + + + +
m + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
n + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
ɲ + + + + + + + + + + + - + + + +
ŋ + + + + + + + + + + + - + - + +
ɴ - - - - - - - - - - + + + + + +
r + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
ʀ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
ɾ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
f + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
v + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
θ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
ð + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
s + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
z + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
ʃ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
ʒ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
ç + + + + + + + + + + - + + + + +
ʝ + + + + + + + + + + - + + + + +
x + + + + + + + + + + - + + - + +
ɣ + + + + + + + + + + - + + - + +
χ + + + + + + + + + + - + + + + +
ʁ + + + + + + + + + + - + + + + +
h + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
ɬ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
ɮ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
ɹ + + + + + + + + + + - + + + + +
j + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
l + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
ʎ + + + + + + + + + + - + + + + +
ʍ + + + + + + + + + + - + + + + +
w + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
ts + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
dz + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + + + - + + + + +
ɟʝ + + + + + + + + + + - + + + + +
kx + + + + + + + + + + - + + - + +
ɡɣ + + + + + + + + + + - + + - + +
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
ɡɮ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

Phonotactic Rules[]

  1. Any vowel can precede any consonant.
  2. Consonant clusters may be three phonemes long, and affricates do count as two sounds.
  3. All words must end in a vowel or one of the two semivowels ([j] or [w]).
  4. The phoneme [ɾ] can only follow a vowel or a fricative (non-lateral).
  5. Any vowel can follow labials, labiodentals, dentals, alveolars, postalveolars, taps, trills, glottals, lateral fricatives, and [l]. This rule also applies to any affricate that includes these phonemes.
  6. Palatals, uvular fricatives, [ɹ], and [ʍ] cannot be followed by [ɨ]. This rule also applies to any affricate that includes these phonemes.
  7. Velars cannot be followed by [ɨ] or [ɔ]. This rule also applies to any affricates that includes these phonemes.
  8. Uvular stops cannot be followed by front vowels.
  9. When a morphological suffix that begins with a consonant or a semivowel is attached to a root which ends in more than one consonant, then a combining morpheme {ɪ} is added in between. If the root ends in the phoneme [ɾ], then the combining morpheme must be used. If the suffix begins with the phoneme [ɾ], then the combining morpheme is only used if the root ends in a non-fricative, pulmonic consonant. This suffix can never carry stress under any circumstances. (Example: The third person present forms of the verb "to be" - sesivù - are sesiχɾè and sesivɾè in the imperfective and perfective aspects, respectively. Since the personal ending -ɾè is preceded by a fricative in both cases, no combining morpheme is necessary. However when the progressive aspect is formed, it produces sesiɬɪɾè. Since the personal ending is this time preceded by a lateral fricative, the combining morpheme must be used.)

Pitch Accent and Tone[]

The Siitò language has a system of pitch accents and tonal differences that it uses to a great extent morphologically and sytactically. There are three levels of pitch, which sound like a musical triad (C, E, and G, for instance). The pitches are indicated through the use of two accent markings in the orthography.
The base pitch is in the middle. Orthographically, it is unmarked, as most syllables exist on this pitch. The base pitch is also the only one to have both short and long vowels. Any unaccented syllable with only one vowel is always short, and it is long if the vowel is doubled.
The low pitch is marked with a grave accent ( ` ), and is always long.
The high pitch is marked with an acute accent ( ´ ), and is always long.
There is also a third accent mark, but it marks a tonal difference. The use of the circumflex ( ˆ ) indicates that the pitch of the syllable starts high, but by its end it has fallen to base pitch. While technically this indicates a tone, and not a shift, the three accents operate together closely and inseparably in the morphology.
Note: When the letter and phoneme [ɪ] is marked orthographically as carrying the pitch accent, in hand writing it is marked with the same accents as any other letter. However, since often in type it appears identical to the phoneme [i] (e.g. í vs.ɪ́), it is often represented with different markings. High pitch is shown as ɪ̋, low pitch as ɪ̏, and the falling tone as ɪ̂̂. This makes it easily contrasted. It should be kept in mind that on some computers this will not be an issue, and the accent differences will simply be redundant.


The morphology of Siitò is very complex, though extraordinarily regular. While there are many forms of any word to learn, once the rules are known, declension and conjugation is very easy.


Nouns in Siito decline in fifteen cases, in three numbers, and in three genders. Each gender is determined by the final vowel in a word:
  1. Masculine nouns end in a back vowel or [w].
  2. Feminine nouns end in a front vowel or [j].
  3. Neuter nouns end in a central vowel.
Each of these genders is split into two paradigms, based on the characteristics of the vowel that ends the word in the nominative case.
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Final Vowels in Noun Paradigms
Paradigm 1 Ends in [ɑ] or [ɔ] Ends in an unrounded vowel or [j] Ends in [ə]
Paradigm 2 Ends in [o], [u], or [w] Ends in a rounded vowel Ends in [ɨ]

Noun Cases[]

Siitò is fully declined in fifteen cases, each of which performs a specific syntactic function.
Case Function
Noun Cases and Functions
Nominative This is the basic case, giving the true, undeclined name of a noun.
Accusative This case is used to indicate the direct object of a sentence.
Genitive This case is used to indicate origins or possession.
Dative This case is used to show the indirect object of a sentence.
Instrumental This case is used to indicate the instrument of an action, or cooperation.
Locative This case is used to show the location of the subject relative to others, things, etc.
Vocative This case is used when addressing someone or something.
Interrogative This case is special in that it changes the subject of an interrogative sentence.
Comparative This case is used when comparing the subject to something or someone else.
Ablative This case is used to indicate movement away from someone, something, a location, etc.
Allative This case is used to indicate movement toward someone, something, a location, etc
Temporal This case is used only with time constructions.
Causal This case is used to indicate the cause of a certain outcome or action.
Semblative This case is used to indicate that two things and/or people are similar or alike.
Partitive This case is used to indicate a part of a whole, or a group.

Declension Paradigms[]

(Note: Wherever a morpheme is in parentheses, it is only used to decline single syllable words. All words in brackets are translations of the nominative.)
Masculine Declension[]
Case Ending Singular/Plural Ending Dual Example 1 Singular Example 1 Dual Example 1 Plural Example 2 Singular Example 2 Dual Example 2 Plural
Masculine Paradigm 1
Nominative -ɑ or -ɔ -(n)ɑrʃi bɑ́ [shirt] bɑ́nɑrʃi [two shirts] bɑ̀ [shirts] beɾêvɔ [ocean] beɾêvɑrʃi [two oceans] bêɾevɔ [oceans]
Accusative -(j)õ -(n)ɑxu bɑ́jõ bɑ́nɑxu bɑ̀jõ beɾêvõ beɾêvɑxu bêɾevõ
Genitive -(j)jɛ -(n)ẽ bɑ́jjɛ bɑ́nẽ bɑ̀jjɛ beɾêvjɛ beɾêvẽ bêɾevjɛ
Dative -(j)œ̃ -(n)ɛsə bɑ́jœ̃ bɑ́nɛsə bɑ̀jœ̃ beɾêvœ̃ beɾêvɛsə bêɾevœ̃
Instrumental -(j)ynɪ -(n)alo bɑ́jynɪ bɑ́nalo bɑ̀jynɪ beɾêvynɪ beɾêvalo bêɾevynɪ
Locative -(j)ə̃ -(n)œʒũ bɑ́jə̃ bɑ́nœʒũ bɑ̀jə̃ beɾêvə̃ beɾêvœʒũ bêɾevə̃
Vocative -(j)ɪ -(n)ɑʁɛ bɑ́jɪ bɑ́nɑʁɛ bɑ̀jɪ beɾêvɪ beɾêvɑʁɛ bêɾevɪ
Interrogative (change in pitch accent) -(n)ony bɑ̂ bɑ́nony bɑ́ beɾèvɔ beɾêvony bèɾevɔ
Comparative -(j)uŋa -(n)ũ bɑ́juŋa bɑ́nũ bɑ̀juŋa beɾêvuŋa beɾêvũ bêɾevuŋa
Ablative -(j)ɨ -(n)ɨnɑ bɑ́jɨ bɑ́nɨnɑ bɑ̀jɨ beɾêvɨ beɾêvɨnɑ bêɾevɨ
Allative -(j)uθõ -(n)otɪ bɑ́juθõ bɑ́notɪ bɑ̀juθõ beɾêvuθõ beɾêvotɪ bêɾevuθõ
Temporal -(j)õnə -(n)oŋu bɑ́jõnə bɑ́noŋu bɑ̀jõnə beɾêvõnə beɾêvoŋu bêɾevõnə
Causal -(j)eɬu -(n)ɪznə bɑ́jeɬu bɑ́nɪznə bɑ̀jeɬu beɾêveɬu beɾêvɪznə bêɾeveɬu
Semblative -(j)iɲa -(n)æɬu bɑ́jiɲa bɑ́næɬu bɑ̀jiɲa beɾêviɲa beɾêvæɬu bêɾeviɲa
Partitive (change in pitch accent) -(n)upɑ bɑ̀ bɑ́nupɑ bɑ̂ beɾévɔ beɾêvupɑ béɾevɔ

Case Ending Singular/Plural Ending Dual Example 1 Singular Example 1 Dual Example 1 Plural Example 2 Singular Example 2 Dual Example 2 Plural
Masculine Paradigm 2
Nominative -o or -u -(n)ɑrʃi hinò [man] hinɑ̀rʃi [two men] hìno [men] lû [tree] lûnɑrʃi [two trees] lú [trees]
Accusative -(j)ɑ -(n)ɑxu hinɑ̀ hinɑ̀xu hìnɑ lûjɑ lûnɑxu lújɑ
Genitive -(j)i -(n)ẽ hinì hinẽ̀ hìni lûji lûnẽ lúji
Dative -(j)ɛ -(n)ɛsə hinɛ̀ hinɛ̀sə hìnɛ lûjɛ lûnɛsə lújɛ
Instrumental -(j)ɪtsə -(n)alo hinɪ̏tsə hinàlo hìnɪtsə lûjɪtsə lûnalo lújɪtsə
Locative -(j)æ -(n)œʒũ hinæ̀ hinœ̀ʒũ hìnæ lûjæ lûnœʒũ lújæ
Vocative -(j)ɪ -(n)ɑʁɛ hinɪ̏ hinɑ̀ʁɛ hìnɪ lûjɪ lûnɑʁɛ lújɪ
Interrogative (change in pitch accent) -(n)ony hinó hinòny híno lûnony
Comparative -(j)ɪku -(n)ũ hinɪ̏ku hinũ̀ hìnɪku lûjɪku lûnũ lújiku
Ablative -(j)ni -(n)ɨnɑ hinnì hinɨ̀nɑ hìnni lûjni lûnɨnɑ lújni
Allative -(j)ø -(n)otɪ hinø̀ hinòtɪ hìnø lûjø lûnotɪ lújø
Temporal -(j)ũkə -(n)oŋu hinũ̀kə hinòŋu hìnũkə lûjũkə lûnoŋu lújũkə
Causal -(j)iɣy -(n)ɪznə hinìɣy hinɪ̀znə hìniɣy lûjiɣy lûnɪznə lújiɣy
Semblative -(j)oɢɨ -(n)æɬu hinòɢɨ hinæ̀ɬu hìnoɢɨ lûjoɢɨ lûnæɬu lújoɢɨ
Partitive (change in pitch accent) -(n)upɑ hinô hinùpɑ hîno lûnupɑ
Feminine Declension[]
Case Ending Singular/Plural Ending Dual Example 1 Singular Example 1 Dual Example 1 Plural Example 2 Singular Example 2 Dual Example 2 Plural
Feminine Declension 1
Nominative -a, -æ, -ɛ, -e, -ɪ, or -i -(n)uhi ɑvɾé [woman] ɑvɾúhi [two women] ɑ́vɾe [women] ʃtí [stage] ʃtínuhi [two stages] ʃtì [stages]
Accusative -(w)u -(n)e ɑvɾú ɑvɾé ɑ́vɾu ʃtíwu ʃtíne ʃtìwu
Genitive -(w)ẽ -(n)ɪʃɪ ɑvɾẽ́ ɑvɾɪ̋ʃɪ ɑ́vɾẽ ʃtíwẽ ʃtínɪʃɪ ʃtìwẽ
Dative -(w)onə -(n)ɛnu ɑvɾónə ɑvɾɛ́nu ɑ́vɾonə ʃtíwonə ʃtínɛnu ʃtìwonə
Instrumental -(w)iʃu -(n)awy ɑvɾíʃu ɑvɾáwy ɑ́vɾiʃu ʃtíwiʃu ʃtínawy ʃtìwiʃu
Locative -(w)jɛ -(n)ølo ɑvɾɪjɛ́ ɑvɾǿlo ɑ́vɾɪjɛ ʃtíwjɛ ʃtínølo ʃtìwjɛ
Vocative -(w)ɛdzo -(n)ɛʃə ɑvɾɛ́dzo ɑvɾɛ́ʃə ɑ́vɾɛdzo ʃtíwɛdzo ʃtínɛʃə ʃtìwɛdzo
Interrogative (change in pitch accent) -(n)ũ ɑvɾê ɑvɾṹ ɑ̂vɾe ʃtî ʃtínũ ʃtí
Comparative -(w)aʃi -(n)ɔ ɑvɾáʃi ɑvɾɔ́ ɑ́vɾaʃi ʃtíwaʃi ʃtínɔ ʃtìwaʃi
Ablative -(w)eto -(n)eɹe ɑvɾéto ɑvɾéɹe ɑ́vɾeto ʃtíweto ʃtíneɹe ʃtìweto
Allative -(w)ɑcy -(n)æçi ɑvɾɑ́cy ɑvɾǽçi ɑ́vɾɑcy ʃtíwɑcy ʃtínæçi ʃtìwacy
Temporal -(w)ɪɴə -(n)ɛɴə ɑvɾɪ̋ɴə ɑvɾɛ́ɴə ɑ́vɾɪɴə ʃtíwɪɴə ʃtínɛɴə ʃtìwɪɴə
Causal -(w)uwæ -(n)aʍo ɑvɾúwæ ɑvɾáʍo ɑ́vɾuwæ ʃtíwuwæ ʃtínaʍo ʃtìwuwæ
Semblative -(w)ɛtʃɑ -(n)idɮu ɑvɾɛ́tʃɑ ɑvɾídɮu ɑ́vɾɛtʃɑ ʃtíwɛtʃɑ ʃtínidɮu ʃtìwɛtʃɑ
Partitive (change in pitch accent) -(n)ɛ̃ ɑvɾè ɑvɾɛ̃́ ɑ̀vɾe ʃtì ʃtínẽ ʃtî

Case Ending Singular/Plural Ending Dual Example 1 Singular Example 1 Dual Example 1 Plural Example 2 Singular Example 2 Dual Example 2 Plural
Feminine Declension 2
Nominative -œ, -ø, -ʏ, or -y -(n)uhi ròky [bird] ròkuhi [two birds] rokỳ [birds] pø̀ [feather] pø̀nuhi [two feathers] pø̂ [feathers]
Accusative -(w)i -(n)e ròki ròke rokì pø̀wi pø̀ne pø̂wi
Genitive -(w)eʀe -(n)ɪʃɪ ròkeʀe ròkɪʃɪ rokèʀe pø̀weʀe pø̀nɪʃɪ pø̂weʀe
Dative -(w)ərʒi -(n)ɛnu ròkərʒi ròkɛnu rokə̀rʒi pø̀wərʒi pø̀nɛnu pø̂wərʒi
Instrumental -(w)ifo -(n)awy ròkifo ròkawy rokìfo pø̀wifo pø̀nawy pø̂wifo
Locative -(w)urə̃ -(n)ølo ròkurə̃ ròkølo rokùrə̃ pø̀wurə̃ pø̀nølo pø̂wurə̃
Vocative -(w)ɪju -(n)ɛʃə ròkɪju ròkɛʃə rokɪ̏ju pø̀wɪju pø̀nɛʃə pø̂wɪju
Interrogative (change in pitch accent) -(n)ũ róky ròkũ roký pǿ pø̀nũ pø̀
Comparative -(w)õnɪ -(n)ɔ ròkõnɪ ròkɔ rokõnɪ pø̀wõnɪ pø̀nɔ pø̂wõnɪ
Ablative -(w)inu -(n)eɹe ròkinu ròkeɹe rokìnu pø̀winu pø̀neɹe pø̂winu
Allative -(w)ʏhɛ -(n)æçi ròkʏhɛ ròkæçi rokʏ̀hɛ pø̀wʏhɛ pø̀næçi pø̂wʏhɛ
Temporal -(w)oɾõ -(n)ɛɴə ròkoɾõ ròkɛɴə rokòɾõ pø̀woɾõ pø̀nɛɴə pø̂woɾõ
Causal -(w)adʒy -(n)aʍo ròkadʒy ròkaʍo rokàdʒy pø̀wadʒy pø̀naʍo pø̂wadʒy
Semblative -(w)ɪtɬo -(n)idɮu ròkɪtɬo ròkidɮu rokɪ̏tɬo pø̀wɪtɬo pø̀nidɮu pø̂wɪtɬo
Partitive (change in pitch accent) -(n)ɛ̃ rôky ròkɛ̃ rokŷ pø̂ pø̀nɛ̃ pǿ
Neuter Declension[]
Case Ending Singular/Plural Ending Dual Example 1 Singular Example 1 Dual Example 1 Plural Example 2 Singular Example 2 Dual Example 2 Plural
Neuter Declension 1
Nominative -(n)y cótə [heaven] cóty [two heavens] cotə́ [heavens] ʃə̂ [clock] ʃə̂ny [two clocks] ʃə́ [clocks]
Accusative -(ʃ)õ -(n)ɪka cótõ cótɪka cotṍ ʃə̂ʃõ ʃə̂nɪka ʃə́ʃõ
Genitive -(ŋ)ɛnɪ -(n)æ cótɛnɪ cótæ cotɛ́nɪ ʃə̂ŋɛnɪ ʃə̂næ ʃə́ŋɛnɪ
Dative -(v)ũ -(n)iɹo cótũ cótiɹo cotṹ ʃə̂vũ ʃə̂niɹo ʃə́vũ
Instrumental -(b)ɑɑ -(n)ø cótɑɑ cótø cotɑ́ɑ ʃə̂bɑɑ ʃə̂nø ʃə́bɑɑ
Locative -(k)ɛʒy -(n)eχu cótɛʒy cóteχu cotɛ́ʒy ʃə̂keʒy ʃə̂neχu ʃə́keʒy
Vocative (same as nominative) (same as nominative) cótə cóty cotə́ ʃə̂ ʃə̂ny ʃə́
Interrogative (change in pitch accent) -(n)etʃə côtə cótetʃə cotə̂ ʃə̀ ʃə̂netʃə ʃə̂
Comparative -(ɟ)oɾõ -(n)ɪmo cótoɾõ cótɪmo cotóɾõ ʃə̂ɟoɾõ ʃə̂nɪmo ʃə́ɟoɾõ
Ablative -(ɡ)iʁɑ -(n)œxɪ cótiʁɑ cótœxɪ cotíʁɑ ʃə̂ɡiʁɑ ʃə̂nœxɪ ʃə́ɡiʁɑ
Allative -(tɬ)ɪfø -(n)ɪvɑ cótɪfø cótɪvɑ cotɪ̋fø ʃə̂tɬɪfø ʃə̂nɪvɑ ʃə́tɬɪfø
Temporal -(ʃt)eqɨ -(n)ipɨ cóteqɨ cótipɨ cotéqɨ ʃə̂ʃteqɨ ʃə̂nipɨ ʃə́ʃteqɨ
Causal -(s)æki -(n)ɔ cótæki cótɔ cotǽki ʃə̂sæki ʃə̂nɔ ʃə́sæki
Semblative -(v)ʏɢo -(n)omə cótʏɢo cótomə cotʏ́ɢo ʃə̂vʏɢo ʃə̂nomə ʃə́vʏɢo
Partitive (change in pitch accent) -(n)adɮo còtə cótadɮo cotə̀ ʃə́ ʃə̂nadɮo ʃə̀

Case Ending Singular/Plural Ending Dual Example 1 Singular Example 1 Dual Example 1 Plural Example 2 Singular Example 2 Dual Example 2 Plural
Neuter Declension 2
Nominative -(n)ɑ dɮípɑɾɨ [light] dɮípɑɾɑ [two lights] dɮipɑɾɨ́ [lights] tɨ̂ [mountain] tɨ̂nɑ [two mountains] tɨ́ [mountains]
Accusative -(ʃ)i -(n)o dɮípɑɾi dɮípɑɾo dɮipɑɾí tɨ̂ʃi tɨ̂no tɨ́ʃi
Genitive -(ŋ)u -(n)ø dɮípɑɾu dɮípɑɾø dɮipɑɾú tɨ̂ŋu tɨ̂nø tɨ́ŋu
Dative -(v)e -(n)ɪ dɮípɑɾe dɮípɑɾɪ dɮipɑɾé tɨ̂ve tɨ̂nɪ tɨ́ve
Instrumental -(b)œ -(n)oɾo dɮípɑɾœ dɮípɑɾoɾo dɮipɑɾœ́ tɨ̂bœ tɨ̂noɾo tɨ́bœ
Locative -(k)æ -(n)azə dɮípɑɾæ dɮípɑɾazə dɮipɑɾǽ tɨ̂kæ tɨ̂nazə tɨ́kæ
Vocative (same as nominative) (same as nominative) dɮípɑɾɨ dɮípɑɾɑ dɮipɑɾɨ́ tɨ̂ tɨ̂nɑ tɨ́
Interrogative (change in pitch accent) -(n)œ dɮîpɑɾɨ dɮípɑɾœ dɮipɑɾɨ̂ tɨ̀ tɨ̂nœ tɨ̂
Comparative -(ɟ)ɛ -(n)ɪku dɮípɑɾɛ dɮípɑɾɪku dɮipɑɾɛ́ tɨ̂ɟɛ tɨ̂nɪku tɨ́ɟɛ
Ablative -(ɡ)oɲɪ -(n)æbɔ dɮípɑɾoɲɪ dɮípɑɾæbɔ dɮipɑɾóɲɪ tɨ̂ɡoɲɪ tɨ̂næbɔ tɨ́ɡoɲɪ
Allative -(tɬ)a -(n)ive dɮípɑɾa dɮípɑɾive dɮipɑɾá tɨ̂tɬa tɨ̂nive tɨ́tɬa
Temporal -(ʃt)ũ -(n)yɡa dɮípɑɾũ dɮípɑɾyɡa dɮipɑɾṹ tɨ̂ʃtũ tɨ̂nyɡa tɨ́ʃtũ
Causal -(s)ɑ̃ -(n)oʀe dɮípɑɾɑ̃ dɮípɑɾoʀe dɮipɑɾɑ̃́ tɨ̂sɑ̃ tɨ̂noʀe tɨ́sɑ̃
Semblative -(v)enɔ -(n)uzɛ dɮípɑɾenɔ dɮípɑɾuzɛ dɮipɑɾénɔ tɨ̂venɔ tɨ̂nuzɛ tɨ́venɔ
Partitive (change in pitch accent) -(n)õ dɮìpɑɾɨ dɮípɑɾõ dɮipɑɾɨ̀ tɨ́ tɨ̂nõ tɨ̀

Notes on Nominal Morphology[]

Formation of the Plural[]

In polysyllabic words, the plural is formed by means of a stress shift to another syllable. If the word has two syllables, the stress simply shifts to the other syllable. If the word has three or more syllables, then the stress shifts back one syllable, unless it is initial, in which case it shifts to the final syllable.

Example: Since the stress in the word beɾêvɔ [ocean] is in the middle syllable, when the plural is formed it shifts back to the initial syllable, becoming bêɾevɔ [oceans]. Dɮípɑɾɨ [light] has initial stress, so to form the plural the stress is shifted to the final syllable, which provides dɮipɑɾɨ́ [lights]. The word cótə [heaven] has two syllables, so in the plural the stress is shifted to the other syllable, and it becomes cotə́ [heavens].

Monosyllabic words form the plural through a mutation of the pitch accent along a certain pattern, which is as follows: ( ^ ) --> ( ´ ), ( ´ ) --> ( ` ), ( ` ) --> ( ^ ).

Example: To form the plural of the word tɨ̂ [mountain], the pitch accent mutates from high falling tone to high pitch, which gives tɨ́ [mountains].
(Note: Since this pitch mutation is also used to form the partitive case in nouns, the partitive singular and nominative plural of monosyllabic are always identical.)
Formation of the Dual[]

The dual number is generally more regular in formation than the singular and plural. In the masculine and feminine genders, there exists only one set of dual endings for each gender. However, the neuter dual endings are different between the two paradigms.

In order to form the dual of monosyllabic words, a combining morpheme {n} is used in every gender and in every case.

On the Interrogative and Partitive Cases[]

The interrogative and partitive cases are formed by means of mutations of the pitch accent, which is invariable from gender to gender.

Interrogative:( ^ ) --> ( ` ), ( ` ) --> ( ´ ), ( ´ ) --> ( ^ )
Partitive: ( ^ ) --> ( ´ ), ( ´ ) --> ( ` ), ( ` ) --> ( ^ )
Declension of Monosyllabic Words[]

All monosyllabic words take the same endings as any polysyllabic word when declined into another case. However, they must make use of a combining morpheme in the singular and plural, which varies from gender to gender. Masculine nouns utilize {j}, and feminine nouns utilize {w}. The neuter gender combining morphemes are irregular, varying from case to case, and they must simply be learned.


Personal Pronouns[]

There are thirteen personal pronous in the Siitò language. In the singular, there are first, second, and third person pronouns. There are actually three third person singular pronouns, one for each gender. In the dual, it is the first person which has more than one pronoun, as there is an inclusive/exclusive distinction present (e.g. the inclusive pronoun refers to the both the speaker and the one being addressed, whereas the exclusive one refers to the speaker along with someone other than the addressee). Second and third person dual only have one pronoun each. The plural operates in the same fashion as the dual, with two first person pronouns indicating an inclusive/exclusive distinction, along with second and third person pronouns.

As with nouns, the final vowel of the nominative indicates along what paradigm the pronouns will be declined. Unlike nouns though, these do not actually indicate gender (excepting, of course, the third person singular pronouns). Any adjective combined with a pronoun will describe the true grammatical gender of the subject, not that indicated by the ending of the pronoun.

Declension of Personal Pronouns[]
Case 1st Person Singular 2nd Person Singular 3rd Person Singular Male 3rd Person Singular Female 3rd Person Singular Neuter
Personal Pronominal Declension: Singular
Nominative ʀõ̀ vésɪ kiðɾò kiðɾì kiðɾə̀
Accusative ʀõ̀jɑ vésu kiðɾɑ̀ kiðɾù kiðɾõ̀
Genitive ʀõ̀ji vésẽ kiðɾì kiðɾẽ̀ kiðɾɛ̀nɪ
Dative ʀõ̀jɛ vésonə kiðɾɛ̀ kiðɾònə kiðɾũ̀
Instrumental ʀõ̀jɪtsə vésiʃu kiðɾɪ̏tsə kiðɾìʃu kiðɾɑ̀ɑ
Locative ʀõ̀jæ vésjɛ kiðɾæ̀ kiðɾɪjɛ̀ kiðɾɛ̀ʒy
Vocative ʀõ̀jɪ vésɛdzo kiðɾɪ̏ kiðɾɛ̀dzo kiðɾɪ̏*
Interrogative ʀṍ vêsɪ kiðɾó kiðɾí kiðɾə́
Comparative ʀõ̀jɪku vésaʃi kiðɾɪ̏ku kiðɾàʃi kiðɾòɾõ
Ablative ʀõ̀jni véseto kiðɾɪnì kiðɾèto kiðɾìʁɑ
Allative ʀõ̀jø vésɑcy kiðɾø̀ kiðɾɑ̀cy kiðɾɪ̏fø
Temporal ʀõ̀jũkə vésɪɴə kiðɾũ̀kə kiðɾɪ̏ɴə kiðɾèqɨ
Causal ʀõ̀jiɣy vésuwæ kiðɾìɣy kiðɾùwæ kiðɾæ̀ki
Semblative ʀõ̀joɢɨ vésɛtʃɑ kiðɾòɢɨ kiðɾɛ̀tʃɑ kiðɾʏ̀ɢo
Partitive ʀõ̂ vèsɪ kiðɾô kiðɾî kiðɾə̂

*Irregular form

Case 1st Person Dual Inclusive 1st Person Dual Exclusive 2nd Person Dual 3rd Person Dual
Personal Pronominal Declension: Dual
Nominative mɛntɑ̀jɑ mentìjo ɮûɡɪna bɔ́jɛʃo
Accusative mɛntɑ̀jõ mentìjɑ ɮûɡɪnu bɔ́jɛʃɑ
Genitive mɛntɑ̀jjɛ mentìji ɮûɡɪnẽ bɔ́jɛʃi
Dative mɛntɑ̀jœ̃ mentìjɛ ɮûɡɪnonə bɔ́jɛʃɛ
Instrumental mɛntɑ̀jynɪ mentìjɪtsə ɮûɡɪniʃu bɔ́jɛʃɪtsə
Locative mɛntɑ̀jə̃ mentìjæ ɮûɡɪnjɛ bɔ́jɛʃæ
Vocative mɛntɑ̀jɪ mentìjɪ ɮûɡɪnɛdzo bɔ́jɛʃɪ
Interrogative mɛntɑ́jɑ mentíjo ɮùɡɪna bɔ̂jɛʃo
Comparative mɛntɑ̀juŋa mentìjɪku ɮûɡɪnaʃi bɔ́jɛʃɪku
Ablative mɛntɑ̀jɨ mentìjni ɮûɡɪneto bɔ́jɛʃni
Allative mɛntɑ̀juθõ mentìjø ɮûɡɪnɑcy bɔ́jɛʃø
Temporal mɛntɑ̀jõnə mentìjũkə ɮûɡɪnɪɴə bɔ́jɛʃũkə
Causal mɛntɑ̀jeɬu mentìjiɣy ɮûɡɪnuwæ bɔ́jɛʃiɣy
Semblative mɛntɑ̀jiɲa mentìjoɢɨ ɮûɡɪnɛtʃɑ bɔ́jɛʃoɢɨ
Partitive mɛntɑ̂jɑ mentîjo ɮúɡɪna bɔ̀jɛʃo

Case 1st Person Plural Inclusive 1st Person Plural Exclusive 2nd Person Plural 3rd Person Plural
Personal Pronominal Declension: Plural
Nominative ɲǽ oŋõ̀ zɛnôvə xìdoɾo
Accusative ɲǽwu oŋɑ̀ zɛnôvõ xìdoɾɑ
Genitive ɲǽwẽ oŋì zɛnôvɛnɪ xìdoɾi
Dative ɲǽwonə oŋɛ̀ zɛnôvũ xìdoɾɛ
Instrumental ɲǽwɪʃu oŋɪ̏tsə zɛnôvɑɑ xìdoɾɪtsə
Locative ɲǽwjɛ oŋæ̀ zɛnôvɛʒy xìdoɾæ
Vocative ɲǽwɛdzo oŋɪ̏ zɛnôvɪ* xìdoɾɪ
Interrogative ɲæ̂ oŋṍ zɛnòvə xídoɾo
Comparative ɲǽwaʃi oŋɪ̏ku zɛnôvoɾõ xìdoɾɪku
Ablative ɲǽweto oŋnì zɛnôviʁɑ xìdoɾoni*
Allative ɲǽwɑcy oŋø̀ zɛnôvɪfø xìdoɾø
Temporal ɲǽwɪɴə oŋũ̀kə zɛnôveqɨ xìdoɾũkə
Causal ɲǽwuwæ oŋìɣy zɛnôvæki xìdoɾiɣy
Semblative ɲǽwɛtʃɑ oŋòɢɨ zɛnôvʏɢo xìdoɾoɢɨ
Partitive ɲæ̀ oŋõ̂ zɛnóvə xîdoɾo

*Irregular form

Notes on Personal Pronouns[]

There are a few irregularities in the declension of personal pronouns. The first is the vocative case forms of the neuter third person singular pronoun kiðɾə̀ and the second person plural pronoun zɛnôvə. Since both of these follow a neuter declension paradigm, one would expect the vocative case forms to be identical with the nominative, as in all neuter nouns. However, these pronouns take the vocative morpheme {ɪ}, borrowed from the masculine gender, producing the forms kiðɾɪ̏ and zɛnôvɪ.

The other is the ablative case form of the third person plural pronoun xìdoɾo. Instead of taking the expected form of *xìdoɾɪni, it simply attaches the ablative morpheme {ni} to the end of the nominative of the word.

Dummy Pronoun[]

The Siitò language also utilizes a dummy pronoun, kiðɾɑ̀. This is used when a pronoun is needed grammatically, but no real subject is semantically required for understanding. The English language makes use of a similar device in the sentence "It is raining." The subject it does not actually take the place of a noun as the subject of the sentence, but it is required for the sentence to sound correct.

Siitò makes use of the dummy pronoun in a few different cases. The first is similar to the English usage, in that there are several ways to say that it is raining. The first two ways do not require the dummy pronoun, as they translate as, "Rain is falling (kɛ̂lnɔʁiɬɪɾe ɡɑ̀ɲo.)," and, "The sky is raining (ɡɑɲóviɬɪɾe χiʒõ.)." However, there is a third way to say this that does use the dummy pronoun. It would translate simply as, "It is raining (ɡɑɲóviɬɪɾe kiðɾɑ̀.)," and is essentially a one-to-one correspondence with English. Another major way that the dummy pronoun is used is with the causal case. On the occasion that the explanation of a causal relationship requires an entire clause to lay out, then the dummy pronoun, along with the conjunction mɛpò, is used in the causal case (kiðɾèɬu) to introduce the causal clause. Example: From Genesis 11:9 - "eø̀, sesivɾè stɛ́ni ɑ̃trèsi Bɑ́bɛlɪ, kiðɾèɬu, mɛpò zɛ̀tɑ rɑ̀ɡuʒɑvɾe míθonu lóɾɪ zìɾiji Vɛtɑ́ɾino;..." ("Therefore its name is called Babel, because there the Lord confused the language of all the earth;..."). The closest translation into English would be "because of it, that."

Declension of the Dummy Pronoun[]
Case Declension
Dummy Pronoun Declension
Nominative kiðɾɑ̀
Accusative kiðɾò
Genitive kiðɾɪjɛ̀
Dative kiðɾœ̃̀
Instrumental kiðɾỳnɪ
Locative kiðɾə̃̀
Vocative kiðɾɪ̏
Interrogative kiðɾɑ́
Comparative kiðɾùŋa
Ablative kiðɾɨ̀
Allative kiðɾùθõ
Temporal kiðɾõ̀nə
Causal kiðɾèɬu
Semblative kiðɾìɲa
Partitive kiðɾɑ̂

Demostrative Pronouns[]

Siitò utilizes two demonstrative pronouns, which are used syntactically in much the same fashion as their English counterparts "this" and "that." However, there is, of course, a gender distinction present in the declension of both pronouns. These words also hold the strange distinctions of also being adjectives as well. The nominal and adjectival forms are only identical in the nominative, however, and the way the duals and plurals are formed depend on what part of speech they are functioning as.

The Siitò equivalent of "this" is fɑɾó in the masculine nominative (feminine fɑɾí and neuter fɑɾə́). . The Siitò equivalent of "that" is dɛ́sko in the masculine nominative (feminine dɛ́ski and neuter dɛ́skə). Since the masculine endings in the nominative are -o, when these are used as an adjective it provides as rare exception, as one would expect the ending to be -u. When they are used as pronouns they must always match the gender of the noun for which they are standing in.

Declension of Demonstrative Pronouns[]
Case Masculine 1 Feminine 1 Neuter 1 Masculine 2 Feminine 2 Neuter 2
Declension of Demostrative Pronouns: Singular
Nominative fɑɾó fɑɾí fɑɾə́ dɛ́sko dɛ́ski dɛ́skə
Accusative fɑɾɑ́ fɑɾú fɑɾṍ dɛ́skɑ dɛ́sku dɛ́skõ
Genitive fɑɾí fɑɾẽ́ fɑɾɛ́nɪ dɛ́ski dɛ́skẽ dɛ́skɛnɪ
Dative fɑɾɛ́ fɑɾónə fɑɾṹ dɛ́skɛ dɛ́skonə dɛ́skũ
Instrumental fɑɾɪ̋tsə fɑɾíʃu fɑɾɑ́ɑ dɛ́skɪtsə dɛ́skiʃu dɛ́skɑɑ
Locative fɑɾǽ fɑɾɪjɛ́ fɑɾɛ́ʒy dɛ́skæ dɛ́skɪjɛ dɛ́skɛʒy
Vocative fɑɾɪ̋ fɑɾɛ́dzo fɑɾɪ̋ dɛ́skɪ dɛ́skɛdzo dɛ́skɪ
Interrogative fɑɾô fɑɾî fɑɾə̂ dɛ̂sko dɛ̂ski dɛ̂skə
Comparative fɑɾɪ̋ku fɑɾáʃi fɑɾóɾõ dɛ́skɪku dɛ́skaʃi dɛ́skoɾõ
Ablative fɑɾɪní fɑɾéto fɑɾíʁɑ dɛ́skɪni dɛ́sketo dɛ́skiʁɑ
Allative fɑɾǿ fɑɾɑ́cy fɑɾɪ̋fø dɛ́skɪni dɛ́skɑcy dɛ́skɪfø
Temporal fɑɾṹkə fɑɾɪ̋ɴə fɑɾéqɨ dɛ́skũkə dɛ́skɪɴə dɛ́skeqɨ
Causal fɑɾíɣy fɑɾúwæ fɑɾǽki dɛ́skiɣy dɛ́skuwæ dɛ́skæki
Semblative fɑɾóɢɨ fɑɾɛ́tʃɑ fɑɾʏ́ɢo dɛ́skoɢɨ dɛ́skɛtʃɑ dɛ́skʏɢo
Partitive fɑɾò fɑɾì fɑɾə̀ dɛ̀sko dɛ̀ski dɛ̀skə

Case Masculine 1 Feminine 1 Neuter 1 Masculine 2 Feminine 2 Neuter 2
Declension of Demonstrative Pronouns: Dual
Nominative fɑɾɑ́rʃi fɑɾúhi fɑɾý dɛ́skɑrʃi dɛ́skuhi dɛ́sky
Accusative fɑɾɑ́xu fɑɾé fɑɾɪ̋ka dɛ́skɑxu dɛ́ske dɛ́skɪka
Genitive fɑɾẽ́ fɑɾɪ̋ʃɪ fɑɾǽ dɛ́skẽ dɛ́skɪʃɪ dɛ́skæ
Dative fɑɾɛ́sə fɑɾɛ́nu fɑɾíɹo dɛ́skɛsə dɛ́skɛnu dɛ́skiɹo
Instrumental fɑɾálo fɑɾáwy fɑɾǿ dɛ́skalo dɛ́skawy dɛ́skø
Locative fɑɾœ́ʒũ fɑɾǿlo fɑɾéχu dɛ́skœʒũ dɛ́skølo dɛ́skeχu
Vocative fɑɾɑ́ʁɛ fɑɾɛ́ʃə fɑɾý dɛ́skɑʁɛ dɛ́skɛʃə dɛ́skɪ
Interrogative fɑɾóny fɑɾṹ fɑɾétʃə dɛ́skony dɛ́skũ dɛ́sketʃə
Comparative fɑɾṹ fɑɾɔ́ fɑɾɪ̋mo dɛ́skũ dɛ́skɔ dɛ́skɪmo
Ablative fɑɾɪnɨ́nɑ fɑɾéɹe fɑɾœ́xɪ dɛ́skɨnɑ dɛ́skeɹe dɛ́skœxɪ
Allative fɑɾótɪ fɑɾǽçi fɑɾɪ̋vɑ dɛ́skotɪ dɛ́skæçi dɛ́skɪvɑ
Temporal fɑɾóŋu fɑɾɛ́ɴə fɑɾípɨ dɛ́skoŋu dɛ́skɛɴə dɛ́skipɨ
Causal fɑɾɪ̋znə fɑɾáʍo fɑɾɔ́ dɛ́skɪznə dɛ́skaʍo dɛ́skɔ
Semblative fɑɾǽɬu fɑɾídɮu fɑɾómə dɛ́skæɬu dɛ́skidɮu dɛ́skomə
Partitive fɑɾúpɑ fɑɾɛ̃́ fɑɾỳ dɛ́skupɑ dɛ́skɛ̃ dɛ́skadɮo

Case Masculine 1 Feminine 1 Neuter 1 Masculine 2 Feminine 2 Neuter 2
Declension of Demostrative Pronouns: Plural
Nominative fɑ́ɾo fɑ́ɾi fɑ́ɾə dɛskó dɛskí dɛskə́
Accusative fɑ́ɾɑ fɑ́ɾu fɑ́ɾõ dɛskɑ́ dɛskú dɛskṍ
Genitive fɑ́ɾi fɑ́ɾẽ fɑ́ɾɛnɪ dɛskí dɛskẽ́ dɛskɛ́nɪ
Dative fɑ́ɾɛ fɑ́ɾonə fɑ́ɾũ dɛskɛ́ dɛskónə dɛskṹ
Instrumental fɑ́ɾɪtsə fɑ́ɾiʃu fɑ́ɾɑɑ dɛskɪ̋tsə dɛskíʃu dɛskɑ́ɑ
Locative fɑ́ɾæ fɑ́ɾɪjɛ fɑ́ɾɛʒy dɛskǽ dɛskɪjɛ́ dɛskɛ́ʒy
Vocative fɑ́ɾɪ fɑ́ɾɛdzo fɑ́ɾɪ dɛskɪ̋ dɛskɛ́dzo dɛskɪ̋
Interrogative fɑ̂ɾo fɑ̂ɾi fɑ̂ɾə dɛskô dɛskî dɛskə̂
Comparative fɑ́ɾɪku fɑ́ɾaʃi fɑ́ɾoɾõ dɛskɪ̋ku dɛskáʃi dɛskóɾõ
Ablative fɑ́ɾɪni fɑ́ɾeto fɑ́ɾiʁɑ dɛskɪní dɛskéto dɛskíʁɑ
Allative fɑ́ɾø fɑ́ɾɑcy fɑ́ɾɪfø dɛskǿ dɛskɑ́cy dɛskɪ̋fø
Temporal fɑ́ɾũkə fɑ́ɾɪɴə fɑ́ɾeqɨ dɛskṹkə dɛskɪ̋ɴə dɛskéqɨ
Causal fɑ́ɾiɣy fɑ́ɾuwæ fɑ́ɾæki dɛskíɣy dɛskúwæ dɛskǽki
Semblative fɑ́ɾoɢɨ fɑ́ɾɛtʃɑ fɑ́ɾʏɢo dɛskóɢɨ dɛskɛ́tʃɑ dɛskʏ́ɢo
Partitive fɑ̀ɾo fɑ̀ɾi fɑ̀ɾə dɛskò dɛskì dɛskə̀




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