Conlang
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Spreka
Type Fusional
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Head-initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders Yes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 98%
Statistics
Nouns 100%
Verbs 100%
Adjectives 100%
Syntax 100%
Words 2000 of 4500
Creator Nierninwa


A Germanic language of people who span from the Sea of Azov to the Carpathian Mountains, south to Thrace and Northern Macedonia, approximately as high as Byzantium, north as high as Kiev, maybe up to the Pripyat river, but almost no trace of them is found higher than the source of the Teteriv river.

Mages from one of these people have created orcs. First, as a way of making strong soldiers for an army. Then, things got out of hand and the orcs ran away. They kept linguistic ties with Spreka but the orc language (Parman) is very different, partly due to the mutilation they suffered to become the monsters they now are.

These people are also (unofficially) found in the universe of the French tabletop roleplaying web-series Aventures . The orc language was based on the gibberish during one live session of the roleplaying web-series where they encountered an orc and the mage of the group communicated extensively with him. The details for the creation of the language can be found on the Tumblr for the language (in French).

The people speaking Spreka are completely unattested in the canon of the series, but posts on the Aventures forums (fr) as well as their use in fan-made roleplaying campaigns have been made.

They are part of a large universe in a long series of cross-media stories still in working progress.

Classification and Dialects[]

There are some different dialects but they are very close. The differences are mostly minor pronunciation changes, small spelling differences and very sporadic lexicon differences in the precise meaning of words, but they have similar general meaning. The main difference might be in foreign influences. There are dialects with Slavic influences, others with Greek ones, some with Celtic influences, and minor variations due to distance.

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

The rhotic sound can be both a trill or a flap without changing the meaning. For pronunciation reasons, however, some are only pronounced as trills. However, most rhotic sounds can be changed from one to another to give a certain effect and depending on the context (whispering, singing, etc.)

[]

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative (f) (v) (θ) ð s z ʃ x h
Affricate t͡s
Approximant j
Trill r
Flap or tap (ɾ)

/f/ and /v/ are possible, but very rare. They only appear in loan words from Middle-Persian and (to a lesser extent) Greek and Proto-Slavic.

/θ/ comes from specific mutations from Greek words, mostly, and is even more rare.

/ʃ/ is rare, mostly appearing in loan words from Persian and Greek or in the specific <spr> cluster where the voiceless alveolar fricative /s/ mutates to post-alveolar /ʃ/.

Vowels[]

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i u
N-close ɪ ʊ
Close-mid ø o
Mid ə ʌ̝
Open-mid ε ɛ̃ ɔ ɔ̃
Open a ɑ̃

Diphthongs: aʊ, aɪ, εɪ

Phonotactics[]

It is rare to see two vowels following each other. There are only three diphthongs (aʊ, aɪ, εɪ). One example is rikiun (/'ri.kɪ.on/) a realm, major division of a kingdom, a region in a way. There are generally only a couple in a Kingdom, ruled by the relatives (or most trusted people) of the king.

Two consecutive consonants are rare. Even if words can be spelled that way, there will most often be a schwa added in between when speaking. This is however mostly seen in a final vowel cluster.

There are few three-consonant clusters allowed. One is the <spr>, realised by changing the alveolar /s/ fricative to a post-alveolar /∫/ fricative. Other three-consonant clusters will in most cases have a schwa added, generally in between the first and the second consonant.

Writing System[]

Southern (main) dialect (Spreka)[]
Letter a th b s e f g h i j k r
Sound a θ b s ε f g h i j k r/ɾ
Letter m n kh l t ø p gh o v dh u
Sound m n x l t ø p ɣ ɔ v ð u
Letter z d ao ae ei sh ng ts
Sound z d ɑ̃ ɔ̃ ɛ̃ εɪ ŋ t͡s
Northern Dialect (Notrisprik)[]
Letter a th b s e f g h i j k r
Sound a/ə θ b s ε/e̞ f g h i/ɪ j k r/ɾ
Letter m n kh l t ø p gh o v dh u
Sound m n x l t ø/ə p ɣ ɔ/ʌ̝ v ð u/o
Letter z d ao ae ei sh ng ts
Sound z d ɑ̃/a ɔ̃/ʊ ɛ̃/ə aʊ/aː aɪ/εː εɪ/εː ŋ t͡s

The vowels are shown as a set of two different vowels because they are pronounced differently depending on whether or not they are stressed. The first vowel is the stressed version, the second is the unstressed. The diphthongs are marked as long vowels (ː) but this is not always respected. Unstressed diphthongs will often be found as short, depending on the dialect.

The stress in a word in Spreka is always on the first syllable.

Alphabet[]

All these are simply the latin transcription of the alphabet, which is a highly deformed version of the Greek alphabet

The conscript for Spreka with an old version of the latinisation that was made to ressemble the spelling in the conscript

Grammar[]

Nouns[]

Declension[]

Four cases: nominative, accusative, genitive and dative.

Three genders: masculine, feminine and neuter.

Adjectives decline like the noun that precedes them (nouns come before adjective).

Noun declension[]

In Spreka

Regular Singular Plural

Nominative

(a)s
Accusative (a)s
Genitive (a)s
Dative mas

Nouns used to be split into two classes; those from ō-stem and u-stem nouns in Proto-Germanic followed the table above but the other ones had a -e final in Dative. Some dialects retain this although it is rapidly disappearing.

The a in paranthesis appears only after consonants that cannot combine with s, like another s. E.g. wolf - opls; in the genitive becomes olpsas.

R-stem nouns On the model of "mødeir" (mother)
Singular Plural
Nominative mødeir mødreis
Accusative møderoñ mødroñs
Genitive mødors mødrañ
Dative mødrei mødromas


Two examples of

irregular nouns

Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative kerpao kerpanis skenkao skenkanis
Accusative kerpanoñ kerpoñs skenkanoñ skankoñs
Genitive korpas korpañ skonkas skonkañ
Dative kerpe kerpomas skonke skongomas

Finally, there is one last class of nouns in Spreka that derives from irregular (Kruge's law/amphikinetic pattern) an-stem nouns in Proto-Germanic that still remains in some dialects, although hypercorrection is changing the irregular stems back to a regular pattern.

Regularised

pattern

Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative kerps kerpsas skenkao skenkaos
Accusative kerps kerpsas skenkao skenkaos
Genitive kerpsas kerpsañ skenkaos skenkañ
Dative kerps(e)* kerpsmas skenkao/

skenke*

skenkaomas

* see note under regular noun declension for explanation on the presence of the e

Noun Declension in Notrisprik

Feminine

Masculine

Neuter

Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural

Nominative

(none) -(a)s (none) -(ao)s (none) -(e)s
Accusative -(añ)n -(o)s -(i)n -(a)ts -(uñ)n -(e)ts
Genitive -(añ)s -(añ)n -(i)s -(a)n -(u)s -(e)n
Dative -(o)j -(o)m -(ae)j -(a)m -(ei)j -(e)m

The parts in brackets are generally used only if the word ends in a consonant.

Articles[]

Definite[]
Main dialect[]

In the main dialect of Spreka, the definite article is realised with a particle

Feminine Masculine Neuter
Singular sei e eit
Plural esañ

The neutre article tends to disappear and be replaced by the masculine one.

Northern dialect[]

In Notrisprik, the definite article is a suffix different for each gender

Feminine Masculine Neuter
Singular following a consonant -añ -i -u
following a vowel -tsañ -tsi -tsu
Plural following a consonant -asañ -asi asu
following a vowel* -mañ -mi -mu

* there are some exceptions such as "darkisnøs" (darkness) which is then "darkisnøsmañ"

Indefinite[]

The indefinite article is a preposition, much like in English. There is one for every gender:

  1. Feminine - anat
  2. Masculine - an
  3. Neuter - anar

Determiners[]

Demonstrative determiner[]
Declension of determiner "sa" (that)
Masculine Feminine Neutre
Singular Nominative sa tet
Accusative tanañ tañ tet
Dative tamae taezø tamae
Possessive tas taezøs tas
Plural Nominative tae taos
Accusative tañs taos
Dative taemas
Possessive taezañ
Possessive determiner[]
Singular possession
Singular 1st Person mein
2nd Person tein
3rd Person es
Dual 1st Person uñker
2nd Person iñker
Plural 1st Person uñser
2nd Person esør
3rd Person es
Reflexive sein

Pronouns[]

Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person masculine 3rd person feminine 3rd person neutre Reflexive
Nominative ek / øk * es sei et se
Accusative mek tek en jañ et sek
Dative mes tes em es en ses
Genitive mein tein es sein
Dual 1st person 2nd person Reflexive
Nominative øt jot se
Accusative uñk iñk sek
Dative uñkis iñkøs ses
Genitive uñker iñkør sein
Plural 1st person 2nd person 3rd person masculine 3rd person feminine 3rd person neutre Reflexive
Nominative øs jøs iñs jaos se
Accusative ons esøs sek
Dative onses esøs em ses
Genitive uñser esør es sein

* ek is in the main Spreka dialect and øk is in Notrisprik

Verbs[]

Verbs conjugate according to tense, mood and voice.

There are two tenses: past and present. Future is achieved with the use of adverbs or the modal verb benun followed by the present participle. This modal verb is also used to mark the future in the past with the past participle.

The anterior past is marked with the use of the modal verb øsanun in the past tense followed by a past participle for a finished action or a present participle for an ongoing one.

There are 3 main moods: indicative, subjunctive and imperative. Imperative only exists in the present tense, the other two exist in both present and past.

The indicative is used for declarative phrases and most of the common uses of verbs.

The subjunctive is used to express wishes, following "that" (tat) and it is also used to mark the conditional as well as for reported speech (most often in the form of "they said that").

There are two voices: active and passive. Passive forms that only exist in the present. They are used only for transitive verbs and mark that the action is performed on the object. It can be expressed in the past tense using the weak modal verb "to have" (habjun) in the present tense, or in the past tense for an anterior past.

There are 2 main verb classes: strong and weak. An other one is kind of an exception that includes a few verbs. It is called anomalous.

The main verb will be the stem follow by the -un suffix of the infinitive.

The gerund is made with the suffix -uñgø that is added to the stem of the verb and the supine is formed by having the infinitive form of the verb following the proper modal verb (most often øsanun).

Conjugaison[]

Strong verbs[]
Strong verbs 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3
Singular Dual Plural
Past Indicative (none) -(a)d1 (none) -ø* -uts -um -ud1 -uñn
Subjunctive -eju -eits -ei -(i)jø -(i)jøts -(i)jeim -(i)jeid -(i)jein
Participle -øts†
1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3
Singular Dual Plural
Present Indicative Active -ø* -ish -id -øts -atsi -añms2 -aet -ad1
Passive -(n)añdae
Subjunctive Active -(i)ju -(i)jis -(i)jae -(i)jø -(i)jits -(i)jim -(i)jid -(i)jin
Passive -iñdao
Imperative n/a (none) -aod1 n/a -its n/a -ed1 -añdao
Participle -añts

1 the final consonant is sometimes devoiced

2 to ease pronunciation an unwritten schwa is added between penultimate and last consonants

* except after ø where it disappears

† except after ø where it becomes -ts

Stem changes[]

Strong verbs are split in five subclasses. Each subclass has a different mutation in the stem.

The present form is valid for every mood and voice: active, passive; indicative, subjunctive, imperative. It includes the present participle.

The past 1 form is valid for most of the past forms. The past 2 form is one for the first 3 persons of the indicative past.

The past participle form is, as it indicates, only for the past participle. It is not always different from the past but it can be.

Class 1 Present Past 1 Past 2 Past participle
1 ei

e.g. reidun

ei

reid-

ae

raed-

i

rid-

i

rid-

2 ø

e.g. kømun

ø

køm-

o

kom-

o

kom-

o

kom-

3 e

sekun

e

sek-

a

sak-

ei

seik-

o

suk-

4 a

añdasakun

a

añdasak-

ø

añdasøk-

ø

añdasøk-

a

añdasak-

5a C*D*

kneinun

CD

knein-

CeC

kekn-

CeC

kek-

CD

knein-

5b CD

haetun

CD

haet-

CeCD

hehaet-

CeCD

hehaet-

CD

haet-

D* diphthong that varies from stem to stem. In some cases it is a simple vowel instead, the form remains the same.

C* consonant at the beginning of the stem.

Weak verbs[]
Weak verbs 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3
Singular Dual Plural
Past Indicative -añ -eish -ei -eidø -eiduts -eidm2 -eit -eidn2
Subjunctive -eidañ -eits -eidei -eidø -eideits -eidm2 -eit -eidn2
Participle -ats
1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3
Singular Dual Plural
Present Indicative Active -ø* -eis -eid -aots -ats -aom -eit -añd2
Passive -añtae
Subjunctive Active -añ -aes -ae -o -aets -aem -aet -aen
Passive -iñdao
Imperative n/a (none) -aot n/a -its n/a -aet -añdao
Participle -añts

1 the final consonant is sometimes devoiced

2 to ease pronunciation an unwritten schwa is added between penultimate and last consonants

* except after ø where it disappears

The past passive form is done by using the auxiliary "ørtun" (to become, come to pass) with a past participle. This verb is also used to make the future, by adding the infinitive afterwards.

Anomalous[]
Anomalous verbs 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3
Singular Dual Plural
Past Indicative -tañ -teis -tei -eidø -eduts -eidum -eidud -eidun
Subjunctive -eide -eits -eidei -eidø -eideits -eidm -eit -eidn
Participle -as
1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3
Singular Dual Plural
Present Indicative (none) -t (none) -ø* -(i)ts -uñ -ud -un
Subjunctive -e -eis -ei -ø* -eidis -eim -eid -ein
Participle -añts

* except after ø where it disappears

Irregular Verbs[]

There are some irregular verbs such as bønun (to become), dønun (to do), ølun (to want, desire, wish), øsanun (to be), gønun (to walk, go) and skolun (to owe, shall).

To become (bønun)[]
Bønun (to become) 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3
Singular Dual Plural
Past Indicative os ots os øzu øzuts øzum øzud1 øzun
Subjunctive øzañ øsi øze ø øzits øzem øzed øzen
Participle benas
1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3
Singular Dual Plural
Present Indicative Active bimi bisi biti bits bøm bød1 bint2
Passive -
Subjunctive Active bøja bøjis bøjij bjø bjøts bjøm bjøt bjøt
Passive -
Imperative n/a be betao n/a bjots n/a bet bentao
Participle øzañts

1 the final d is sometimes devoiced so it can be pronounced /od/ or /ot/ and /əd/ or /ət/ respectively

2 to ease pronunciation an unwritten schwa is added between penultimate and last consonants so it is pronounced /nət/

To do (dønun)[]
Dønon (to do) 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3
Singular Dual Plural
Past Indicative dedañ dedas deda dedu dedots dedom dedod1 dedun
Subjunctive dedañ dedes dede dedø dedets dedem deded deden
Participle dønas
1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3
Singular Dual Plural
Present Indicative Active dømi døsi døti døs døts dømas døt dønt2
Passive -
Subjunctive Active dañ døs døts døm døt døt
Passive -
Imperative n/a døtao n/a døts n/a døt døntao
Participle dønts2

1 the final d is sometimes devoiced so it can be pronounced /ʌ̝d/ or /ʌ̝t/

2 to ease pronunciation an unwritten schwa is added between penultimate and last consonants so it is pronounced /nət/ and /nət͡s/

To want (ølun)[]
Ølun (to want) 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3
Singular Dual Plural
Past Indicative øldañ øldis øldi øldidu øldidots øldidum øldidud1 øldidun
Subjunctive øldidañ øldits øldid øldidø øldidets øldidem øldided øldiden
Participle ølas
1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3
Singular Dual Plural
Present Indicative Active ølø ølshi øldi øldøts ølatsi ølañms2 ølaet ølad1
Passive -
Subjunctive Active øluñ øles øle ølø ølets ølem øled1 ølen
Passive -
Imperative n/a øl øldao n/a øldis n/a øliñd ølañdao
Participle øljañts

1 the final d is sometimes devoiced

2 to ease pronunciation an unwritten schwa is added between penultimate and last consonants

To be (øsanun)[]
Øsanun (to be) 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3
Singular Dual Plural
Past Indicative os ots os øzu øzuts øzum øzud1 øzun
Subjunctive øzañ øses øze øzø øzuts øzum øzud1 øzun
Participle øzas
1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3
Singular Dual Plural
Present Indicative Active im is its isø isots isom isod send2
Passive -
Subjunctive Active sijañ sis siji sets sem set sen
Passive -
Imperative n/a øs øtsaod1 n/a øsad n/a øtsi øsañdao
Participle øsañts

1 the final d is sometimes devoiced

2 to ease pronunciation an unwritten schwa is added between penultimate and last consonants

To go, walk (gønun)[]
Gønun (to go, walk) 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3
Singular Dual Plural
Past Indicative jañ jis ji jidu jiduts jidum jidut jidun
Subjunctive jidañ jits ij idu iduts idum idud1 idud1
Participle gønas
1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3
Singular Dual Plural
Present Indicative Active gasi gati gøs gøts gømas gat gønt2
Passive -
Subjunctive Active gønañd gits gød gødø gøts gødem gøded1 gøded1
Passive -
Imperative n/a ga gøtao n/a gøts n/a get gøntao
Participle gønts2

1 the final d is sometimes devoiced

2 to ease pronunciation an unwritten schwa is added between penultimate and last consonants

To shall, own (skalun)[]
Skalun (to shall, owe) 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3
Singular Dual Plural
Past Indicative skoldañ skoldis skoldi skoldidu skoldiduts skoldidum skoldidud1 skoldidun
Subjunctive skoldidañ skolditsa skoldide skoldidets skoldidem skoldidem skoldided skoldiden
Participle skolts2
1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3
Singular Dual Plural
Present Indicative Active skal skalt2 skal skaldu skoluts skolum skolud skolun
Passive -
Subjunctive Active skolañ skolez1 skole skolø skolets skolem skoled skoled
Passive -
Imperative n/a - - n/a - n/a - -
Participle skolañts

1 the final consonant is sometimes devoiced

2 to ease pronunciation an unwritten schwa is added between penultimate and last consonants

To wield (magic), to have power (oldun)[]
Oldun (to weild magic, have power) 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3
Singular Dual Plural
Past Indicative ultañ ulteis ultei ulteidu ulteidots ulteidum ulteidud ulteidun
Subjunctive ulteide ulteits ulteidei ulteidø ulteideits ulteideim ulteideid ulteidein
Participle ults1
1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3
Singular Dual Plural
Present Indicative Active oldø oldes olded oldøs oldats oldamas olded oldañd
Passive oldañdae
Subjunctive Active skolañ skolez2 skole skolø skolets skolem skoled skoled
Passive oldaedao
Imperative n/a old oldadao n/a oldats n/a oldid oldañdao
Participle oldañts

1 ə between l and ts to ease pronunciation

2 z tends to devoice

To stand (stañdun)[]
Stañdun (to stand) 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3
Singular Dual Plural
Past Indicative støt støts støt stødø støduts stødum stødud stødun
Subjunctive støde stødeis stødei stødø stødeits stødeim stødeid stødein
Participle stadanas
1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3
Singular Dual Plural
Present Indicative Active stañdø stañdis stañdid stañdøs stañdats stañdams1 stañdid stañdañd
Passive stañdañdae
Subjunctive Active stañdañ stañdaes stañdae stañdø stañdaets stañdaem stañdaed stañdaen
Passive stañdiñdao
Imperative n/a stañd oldadao n/a oldats n/a oldid oldañdao
Participle stañdañts

1 to ease pronunciation an unwritten schwa is added between penultimate and last consonants

To have to, to must (torbun)[]
Skalun (to shall, owe) 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3
Singular Dual Plural
Past Indicative torptañ torpteis torptei torpteidø torpteiduts torpteidum torpteidud torpteidun
Subjunctive torpteide torpteits torpteidei torpteidø torpteideits torpteideim torpteideid torpteidein
Participle torpats
1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3
Singular Dual Plural
Present Indicative tarp tarpt1 tarp torbø torbots torbom torbot torbun
Subjunctive torbe torbeis torbeis tobrø torbeits torbeim torbeid torbein
Participle torbañts

1 to ease pronunciation an unwritten schwa is added between penultimate and last consonants

To know and to grant (Kanun and Onun)

Oldun (to weild magic, have power) 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3
Singular Dual Plural
Past Indicative (k)ontañ (k)onteis (k)ontei (k)onteidø (k)onteidots (k)onteidum (k)onteidud (k)onteidun
Subjunctive (k)onteide (k)onteits (k)onteidei (k)onteidø (k)onteideits (k)onteideim (k)onteideid (k)onteidein
Participle (k)onts1
1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3
Singular Dual Plural
Present Indicative Active (k)an (k)ant (k)an (k)onø (k)onots (k)onom (k)onod (k)onod
Subjunctive Active (k)one (k)oneis (k)onei (k)onø (k)oneits (k)oneim (k)oneid (k)oneid
Participle (k)onañts

1 ə between n and ts to ease pronunciation

Aegun (to possess, to own, to hold property) 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3
Singular Dual Plural
Past Indicative aektañ aekteis aektei aekteidø aekteidots aekteidom aekteidod aekteiduñ
Subjunctive aektede aekteits aekteidei aekteidø aekteideits aekteideim aekteideid aekteidein
Participle aeganas
1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3
Singular Dual Plural
Present Indicative Active aek aekt1 aek aegø aegots aegom aegod aeguñ
Subjunctive Active aege aegeis aegei aegø aegeits aegeim aegeid aegein
Participle aegañts

1 to ease pronunciation an unwritten schwa is added between penultimate and last consonants

Syntax[]

The syntax is a very rigid SVO with the verb always in second position (strict V2). The subject may have to move after the verb because of that.

Lexicon[]


Example text[]

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