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Progress 8%

 

Name: Sria

Type: Fusional

Alignment: Nominative-Accusative

Head Direction:

Number of genders: 2

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


General information[edit | edit source]

This language is under construction. However, feel free to improve grammar or how things are explained. 

Sria /Sria/ is the official language of the Kingdom of Molivian, and is spoken as a first language by about 514.5 million people. It has a large second language base of about 700 million speakers as of OY 3452, although this number is just an approximation.

Because of its status as the official language of the Kingdom of Molivian, the language has become the language of international, and interstellar commerce and politics. It is the official language of the Council of 7 (similar to the UN).

Phonology[edit | edit source]

Consonants[edit | edit source]

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m /m/
mh /mʰ/
mw /mʷ/
n /n/ ng /ŋ/
Plosive p /p/ pw /pʷ/
b /b/ bw /bʷ/
t /t/ tw /tʷ/
d /d/ dw /dʷ/ dh /dʰ/
k /k/ kw /kʷ/
g /g/
hh /ʔ/
Fricative f /f/ fw /fʷ/
v /v/
th /θ/ s /s/
z /z/ zw /zʷ/
sh /ʃ/
shw /ʃʷ/
h /h/
Affricate ts /t͡s/ j /d͡ʒ/
Approximant r /ɹ/ w /w/
Lateral app. l /l/ y /ʎ/

Vowels[edit | edit source]

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i /i/ oo /u/
Near-close í /ɪ/
Close-mid é /e/  o /o/
Mid
Open-mid e /ɛ/ u /ʌ/
Near-open á /ɐ/
Open a /a/

Diphthongs[edit | edit source]

ai /ai/
er /eə/
oi /ɔɪ/
ur /ʊɘ/

Notes[edit | edit source]

It is implied that /f/, /z/, and /b/ become /fʷ/, /zʷ/, and /bʷ/ after /g/

/p/, /k/, and /ʃ/ become /pʷ/, /kʷ/, and /ʃʷ/ after /ŋ/.

The only consonants that may follow g are /fʷ/, /zʷ/, and /bʷ/.

Vowels are short when followed by /h/, provided they are the last letter of the word.

if /h/ appears, that marks the start of a new syllable. However, syllables do not have to start with h.

/t/ becomes /tʰ/ when followed or preceded by /i/

/ɛ/ vs /e˞/ and /a/ vs /a˞/: The former becomes the latter after /b/ or /p/.

Alphabet[edit | edit source]

Phonotactics[edit | edit source]

Syllable[edit | edit source]

(C/V)(C)V(C)(C/V)

Above is the consonant structure for Sria. There are a few limitations. A syllable may never end in /h/. If /h/ is the second to last letter of a word, the next letter must be a vowel. A syllable may contain a diphthong, only if it is the main vowel of the word. Digraphs may appear in the slot right before and right after the main vowel. Digraphs must always be followed by a vowel. 

Stress[edit | edit source]

If a word contains /i/, stressed is placed on the first occurrence of /i/. Otherwise, stress is placed on the last vowel of the word.

Verbs[edit | edit source]

Verbs in Sria undergo the most complex process of inflection. There are three endings for the infinitive verb: ra, és, and er. In almost every case, each ending has a unique conjugation. The conjugation process could be very difficult for a non-native speaker due to how complex this process becomes in certain moods, and certain aspects. 

All verb stems that end in vowels are -ra verbs. 

There are nine grammatical moods in Sria, listed below. There are 2 realis moods, indicative and declarative, and 7 irrealis moods, subjunctive, conditional, imperative, hortative, potential, dubitative, and permissive.

Sria also has 4 aspects: simple, perfect, imperfect, and progressive. Finally, all verbs must conjugate for formal vs. informal. 

The verb era (to be) is irregular in every mood, in every tense, and in every aspect except the perfect. The verbs daner (to do) and balés (to go) are irregular in most cases. 

The example verbs that will be used are truser (to love), lira (to read), and migés (to run). 

Participles[edit | edit source]

The past participle is formed by adding a suffix after the infinitive ending. The general participle is used for things that would not normally fall under the past or present participle.

Participles in Sria
Past Present General
lira lirasa lirama lirana
truser truseris truserim truserin
migés migésas migésam migésan

Ther verb era has irregular participles.

era participles
Past érés
Present érém
General érén

Indicative[edit | edit source]

The indicative mood is used to express actions, facts, and other statements the speaker is sure are factual. 

Simple, Imperfect, and Habitual[edit | edit source]

The simple and imperfect aspects have all information marked on the suffix of the verb. During conjugation, the -és, and -er endings drop off. However, the conjugations are usually added onto the -ra ending in the indicative mood.

-ra verbs (lira)
lo so é-so tro é-tro lon son é-son tron é-tron
Present liras lirar lirag lirab liran liraj lirasa lirari lirama lirawa
Present Habitual   lira lirabi liraer lirayun liras lira lirate lirati lirats lirazw
Past lirase lira liralte lirangi lirash lirald lirao lirad lira lirash
Past Imperfect  liraba lirans lirasan lirabas lirane lirahho liranoo liranail lira lirape
Future lirapwa lirasré lira lirande liréng lirand liradu lirang liran lira

Future Habitual

liramhé lirandé lirasta lirens lirabre lirasp lirawl lira liraswa lirala

-ra verbs are very regular, with very few irregular verbs. 

-er verbs (truser)
Singular Plural
lo so é-so tro é-tro lon son é-son tron é-tron
Preset truso trusé trusrad trus trusos trusi trusar trusum trusim trusíd
Present Habitual trusamo trusis trusend trusas trusem trusén trusál trusoo trusando trusag
Past trusíng trusaste trusid trusím trusist trusíst trusarm trusemo trusel trused
Past Imperfect truson trusin trusín trusand truser trusoi trusasé trus (no eding) trusu trusie
Future  trusur trusaba truseré trusep trusiz trusavé trusumw trusash trusésh trusaro
Future Habitual trusahha trusahé trusono trusoma trusai trusaj trusats truséts trusien trusiste


-és verbs (migés)
Singular Plural
lo so é-so tro é-tro lon son é-son tron é-tron
Present miga migu migé migi migí migag migug migég migig migíg
Present Habitual migend migaron miging migoos migas migies migrán migais migs migur
Past migén migan migéns migávé migíthi migars migéth migagp migéra migoiv
Past Imperfect migon migémio migea migura miguran migans miguras miger migerví migads
Future migeni migád migapwé migaro migaste migéya migaya migíram migathi migad
Future Habitual migéní migáms migoth migiyo migieyo migain migoma miguryé migényo miga

Perfect[edit | edit source]

The perfect conjugation is formed using the conjugation of habra, which is regular in the indicative mood, + the past participle.

Example: I have read --> Habralirasa.

Example: I have loved --> Habras truseris

Example: I have run --> Habras migésas

Progressive[edit | edit source]

The progressive tense is achieved by placing the conjugated aspect marker, fayé, in front of the verb. The verbs are conjugated for the tro/tron person of their tense/aspect. 

The following chart outlines the conjugations of fayé.

fayé conjugations
Singular Plural
Informal Formal Informal Formal
Present fayés fayé fayém fayémi
Past fayén fayé fayéd fayéda
Past Imperfect fayésa fayésan fayéna fayénas
Future fayép fayépe fayéng fayénge

Example: I am reading --> Fayés lirab

Example: I am loving --> Fayés trus

Example: I am running --> Fayés migi

Declarative[edit | edit source]

The declarative mood is used to express assertions without evidence. While it use to have a much larger role in classical Sria, today it is mostly used in formal accusations. The declarative mood is formed using a form of habra. plus the indicative conjugations. However, habra is irregular as a mood marker in the declarative mood. 

One note about habra in the declarative mood. In the indicative mood it translates to "to have." In the declarative mood it translates to roughly "have most likely"

This table is under construction. 

habra in the declarative mod
lo so é-so tro é-tro lon son é-son tron é-tron
Present habras habrad habran habrar habrat habra habra habrana habrara habrata
Present Habitual habrada habrala habradha habrasa habrama habréda habréla habrédha habrasan habraman
Past habramwé habra habrété habra habra habrémwé habrété habrété habrésé habréné
Past Imperfect  habrur habrer habrais habrid habrín habrura habrera habraisa habrida habrína
Future habrapo habra habraso habradwa habraso habrapon habranán habrason habradwan habrason
Future Habitual  habral habrang habrald habrast habraz hébral hébrang hébrald hébrast hébraz

Example: He runs --> Habrar migi. (Lit. He has most likely run).

Example: You loved --> Habraté trusaste. (Lit. You have most likely loved).

Example: I read --> Habramwé liras. (Lit. I had most likely read).

Despite the fact that the declarative mood is considered a realis mood, it can be combined with the irrealis moods. To do so, combine the declarative conjugations of habra with the conjugated form of the verb. 

Subjunctive[edit | edit source]

The subjunctive mood is formed using a mood marker (pwéng) + the general participle of a verb. 

Conditional[edit | edit source]

The conditional mood in Sria has several uses. The first use is with verbs whose validity is based on a condition. (I would go if I wanted to). Unlike some other languages, both the proposition and the condition are required to be in the conditional mood. Another use is in if-then statements (If I clean my room, then maygo to the party). In the if - then construct, both clean and may-go are in the conditional mood. 

The conditional mood is formed by using a mood marker + the general participle of a verb.

Imperative[edit | edit source]

Hortative[edit | edit source]

Hortative conjugations are derived from the tro and é-tro conjugations in the subjunctive mood. The hortative mood is used for begging and pleas, as well as self encouragement.

Potential[edit | edit source]

Dubitative[edit | edit source]

Dubitative conjugations are derived from the tro and é-tro conjugations in the conditional mood. 

Permissive[edit | edit source]

Nouns[edit | edit source]

Sria has maintained some of the case system from its parent language, but it is not as complex today. There are only three cases today, Nominative, Accusative and Dative cases, although occasionally the Genitive case will appear, so the declensions for it will be included on this page. There are 4 declensions, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th declensions. 

Sria nouns have picked up the gender system, contrasting with its parent language that had no genders.

Formality[edit | edit source]

Formality plays a very large rule in Sria nouns, and can change the meaning of the entire noun. The rules governing formality are sometimes difficult for a non - native speaker to pick up on. The basic rules are as follow.

Rule 1: The formality changes the entire meaning of the noun. An informal noun: mansion, a formal noun: a place of a ruler. Informal noun: party, formal noun: formal party. Often times, the informal noun is reserved for common citizens, and the formal version of the noun is used for objects that go along government leader, military leaders, or other important people. This rule also applies to pronouns. He (informal) is a common citizen, she (formal) is a government official, military leader, or another important person.

Rule 2: Verbs, articles, and other parts of speech must agree with formality. He (informal) is tall and He (formal) is tall require a separate declension and conjugation for the adjective and verb. In addition, possessive nouns must also agree in formality with the noun they posses. His house vs His palace. House is informal (most of the time), so his must be informal. Palace is formal, so his must be formal.

Rule 3: All legal documents are written with formal nouns, articles, verbs, etc. 

These rules must be followed at all times. Failure to follow these rules results in a changed meaning of the sentence, and great insult. 

The nominative case is not marked.

Nouns in Sria that don't fall into the nominative, accusative, or dative (sometimes genitive) uses are not declined. Adpositions and word order are used to express other functions, such as location, direct address, movement towards/from a place, etc. 

1st Declension[edit | edit source]

The 1st declension is used for nouns that end in vowels. Feminine nouns end in o or u. Masculine nouns end in a or é. Neuter nouns that end in other vowels. However, gender does not change the declensions in 1st declension nouns. 

1st Declension (falo - bird)
Singular Plural
Informal Formal Informal Formal
Nom Falo Falod Falosa Faloda
Acc Falog Falon Falosag Falosén
Dat Falona Falo Falonas Falodés
Gen Falong Falopwa Falongi Falopwak
Possessive Falo-s Falona-t Falod-sa Falonan-té

As some dialects of Sria use the genitive case, and some dialects use a separate possessive form of a noun, both are listed here. 

2nd Declension[edit | edit source]

The 2nd declension is used for nous that end in aspirated or labialized consonants. 

3rd Declension[edit | edit source]

The 3rd declension is used for nouns that end in f, th, r, and l. Feminine nouns end in r, feminine nouns end in f, and neuter nouns end in th and l. 

4th Declension[edit | edit source]

The 4th declension is used for nouns that do not fall into any of the categories above.  

Pronouns[edit | edit source]

There are 6 pronouns in Sria before declensions.  Sria, unlike some languages, does not distinguish between he/she/it. Those are all tro/tri. Pronouns are very irregular, and do not follow the normal gender distinction or declension patterns of 1st or 4th declension nouns. 

Pronouns in Sria (m/f)
1st 2nd 3rd
Singular lo/li so/si tro/tri
Plural lon/lin son/sin tron/trín

The next chart lists declensions for pronouns. Formality is achieved by adding an é to the beginning attached by a hyphen. (i.e. lo --> é-lo)

Pronoun declensions (m/f)
Nominative lo/li so/si tro/tri lon/lin son/sin tron/trín
Accusative los/lis sos/sis tros/tris lono/lino soní/sina trono/tríno
Dative lo/li sode/si tro/trí lonse/linse sonsa/sinse tronse/trínse
Genitive lond/lind sond/sind trond/trínd londal/lindal sondal/sindal trondal/tríndal
Reflexive losai/linsai sona/síné trona/trina lonsha/linsha sonsha/sinsha tronsha/trínma

As Sria doesn't always use the genitive case, there is also separate possessive pronouns. 

Possessive Pronouns
lo/li so/si tro/tri lon/lin son/sin tron/trín
Possessive Pronouns lés/ané sés/síl trés/tríl lons/lins vas/sins sért/trin
Possessive Determiners loon/lis sod/sid trod/trid enda/linda sonai/sínai tronai/trínai

Because Sria only has one word for he/she/it, the pro-drop rules work slightly differently. Sria is always pro drop in the 1st and 2nd persons. However, if a third person pronoun is written (in the nominative case), then it is assumed to be it. Otherwise it is assumed to be he/she depending on gender. 

Adjuncts[edit | edit source]

Vocabulary[edit | edit source]


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47cat
48dog
49louse
50snake
51worm
52tree
53forest
54stick
55fruit
56seed
57leaf
58root
59bark
60flower
61grass
62rope
63skin
64meat
65blood
66bone
67fat
68egg
69horn
70tail
71feather
72hair
73head
74ear
75eye
76nose
77mouth
78tooth
79tongue
80fingernail
81foot
82leg
83knee
84hand
85wing
86belly
87guts
88neck
89back
90breast
91heart
92liver
93drink
94eat
95bite
96suck
97spit
98vomit
99blow
100breathe
101laugh
102see
103hear
104know
105think
106smell
107fear
108sleep
109live
110die
111kill
112fight
113hunt
114hit
115cut
116split
117stab
118scratch
119dig
120swim
121fly
122walk
123come
124lie
125sit
126stand
127turn
128fall
129give
130hold
131squeeze
132rub
133wash
134wipe
135pull
136push
137throw
138tie
139sew
140count
141say
142sing
143play
144float
145flow
146freeze
147swell
148sun
149moon
150star
151water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
160earth
161cloud
162fog
163sky
164wind
165snow
166ice
167smoke
168fire
169ash
170burn
171road
172mountain
173red
174green
175yellow
176white
177black
178night
179day
180year
181warm
182cold
183full
184new
185old
186good
187bad
188rotten
189dirty
190straight
191round
192sharp
193dull
194smooth
195wet
196dry
197correct
198near
199far
200right
201left
202at
203in
204with
205and
206ifna
207because
208name


Example text[edit | edit source]

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