Türki dılı is a zonal auxlang that is meant to act the potential lingua franca for the Turkic peoples of Central, North, East and West Asia. Influenced by many Turkic languages, it is slightly simplified and incorporates Turkic vocabulary from calques and disparate origins.
türki (adjective), türki dılı (noun)
|Type||Agglutinative zonal auxlang|
|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
- 1 Phonology
- 2 Grammar
- 3 Lexicon
- 4 Example text
Phonology[edit | edit source]
Türki dılı's phonology resembles that of Turkish, and to a lesser extent, Azerbaijani.
Consonants[edit | edit source]
Türki dılı has a total of 24 native sounds, and 2 which are found in loanwords (shown in brackets).
|Plosive||p b||t̪ d̪||k ɡ||q||(ʔ)|
|Fricative||f v||s z||ʃ ʒ||χ ʁ||h|
Notes[edit | edit source]
- /t̪/ & /d̪/ are phonetically apical [t̺], [d̺].
- /l/ has a dark allophone [ɫ], adjacent to back vowels.
Vowels[edit | edit source]
Türki dılı, like Azerbaijani, has 9 vowels, shown in alphabetical order: a /ɑ/, ə /æ/, e /e/, ı /ɯ/, i /i/, o /o/, ö /ø/, u /u/, ü /y/.
|High||i y||ɯ u|
Notes[edit | edit source]
- /e/ and /o/ are often closer to low-mid /ɛ/, /ɔ/ rather than /e/, /o/.
Vowel harmony[edit | edit source]
|Türki Dılı vowel harmony||Front||Back|
|Vowel||e, ə, i||ö, ü||a, ı||o, u|
Türki's vowel harmony largely resembles of that in Azerbaijani, using a front and back vowel distinction.
Other vowel harmonies are distinguished as well:
- twofold (/æ/~/ɑ/): Backness is preserved, that is, /æ/ appears following a front vowel and /ɑ/ appears following a back vowel. For example, the locative suffix is -də after front vowels and -da after back vowels.
- fourfold (/i/~/y/~/ɯ/~/u/): Both backness and rounding are preserved. For example, the genitive suffix is -in after unrounded front vowels, -ün after rounded front vowels, -ın after unrounded back vowels, and -un after rounded back vowels.
Phonotactics[edit | edit source]
Türki phonotactics is almost completely regular and limited. The maximal syllable structure is (C)V(C)(C). Although Türki words can take multiple final consonants, the possibilities are limited. Multi-syllable words are syllabified to have C.CV or V.CV syllable splits, C.V split is disallowed, V.V split is only found in rare specific occurrences. The following constraints are applied:
- All syllables have a nucleus
- No diphthongs (/j/ is always treated as consonant)
- No word-initial /ŋ/
- No long vowel followed by syllable-final voiced consonant (this essentially forbids trimoraic syllables)
- No complex onsets (except for the exceptions above)
- No /b, d͡ʒ, d, ɡ/ in coda, except for some recent loanwords such as psikolog and five contrasting single-syllable words: ad "name" vs. at "horse", hac "Hajj" vs. haç "holy cross", İd (city name) vs. it "dog", qod "code" vs. qot "jeans", od "fire" vs. ot "grass".
- In a complex coda:
- The first consonant is either a voiceless fricative, /ɾ/ or /l/
- The second consonant is either a voiceless plosive, /f/, /s/, or /h/
- Two adjacent plosives and fricatives must share voicing, even when not in the same syllable, but /h/ and /f/ are exempt
- No word-initial geminates - in all other syllables, geminates are allowed only in the onset (hyphenation and syllabification in Türki match except for this point; hyphenation splits the geminates)
Stress[edit | edit source]
The majority of words in Türki are stressed on the last syllable. For words or word forms where the stress is not on the final syllable, an accent mark (´) will be written over the stressed vowel.
Orthography[edit | edit source]
The Türki alphabet is written with the Lingua Franca Türka alphabet, which is the Latin script minus w, and nine modified letters (Ç, Ə, Ğ, I, İ, Ñ, Ö, Ş, Ü, Ț), to satisfy the phonological requirements, forming a total of 36 letters. The native names for the letters is simple: the vowel are named the same way they are pronounced and the consonants follow this pattern: consonant + e. H and K are also named ha and ka, however, the Turkic Language Association advises against this usage. It can be also written with a version of the Cyrillic script.
[e ~ ɛ]
|Ğğ||Гъгъ||/ʁ/||ğar (snow)||reine (queen in French)||treated as distinct letter in Cyrillic гъ|
|Iı||Ыы||/ɯ/||qız (girl)||caol (thin in Scottish Gaelic, only shorter)|
[o ~ ɔ]
|Öö||Өө||/ø/||bölöt (cloud)||deux (two in French)|
|Къкъ||/q/||ırmaq (river)||وَقت (time in Arabic)||treated as distinct letter in Cyrillic къ|
|Rr||Рр||/r/||buruñ (nose)||perro (dog in Spanish)|
|Üü||Үү||/y/||yurük (heart)||dünn (thin in German)|
|Xx||Хх||/χ/||ox (arrow)||Dach (roof in German)|
|ya||Яя||/jɑ/||ястық (pillow)||yard||treated as a single letter of Cyrillic only|
|yu||Юю||/ju/||юмурта (egg)||unicorn||treated as a single letter of Cyrillic only|
|Țț||Цц||/ts/||цирк (circus)||cats||only used in Russian loanwords|
Grammar[edit | edit source]
Türki dılı is an agglutinative language, meaning that it uses various suffixes to modify the meaning of a word. There are no grammatical genders or articles. The word it can either mean 'dog', 'the dog' or 'a dog', depending on context. Thus, he, she, and it are all considered one pronoun, o.
Morphology[edit | edit source]
Nouns[edit | edit source]
Türki nouns inflect for, case, number, possession and predication.
Number[edit | edit source]
Türki dılı number has a simple singular-plural contrast. The plural can be easily made by the suffixes:
- -ler, when succeeding a front vowel
- -lör, when succeeding a front rounded vowel
- -lar, when succeeding a back vowel.
- -lor, when succeeding a back rounded vowel
Case[edit | edit source]
The case system of Türki can be exemplified as:
|Accusative||-i, -ü, -ı, -u||iti||dog (obj.)|
|Genitive||-ın, -in, -un, -ün||itin||dog's|
|Dative-lative||-e, -ö, -o, -a||ite||to the dog|
|Locative||-də, -da, -t̀ə, -ta||ittə||at the dog|
|Ablative||-da, -də, -ta, -tə||itin||from the dog|
Predication[edit | edit source]
If a noun is to be in the first or second person, one of the predicative suffixes (or type-I personal suffixes) will show this:
- qız - girl, Qızsen. (You are a girl.)
Possession[edit | edit source]
The suffixes of possession give the person (and number) of the possessor of what is named by the noun:
- teyzi - mat. aunt, teyziyem - my mat. aunt
Pronouns[edit | edit source]
Personal pronouns[edit | edit source]
The plural forms of the 2nd and 3rd person pronouns may be added for respect and honor. One major form is God, for whom plural forms are used.
Demonstrative pronouns[edit | edit source]
Verbs[edit | edit source]
Verbs also inflect for tense, mood, voice and person.
Tenses[edit | edit source]
There are eight main tenses in Türki (present, present continuous, present perfect, imperfect, imperfect definite, pluperfect, past anterior and future).
Mood[edit | edit source]
Six moods (indicative, subjunctive, potential, optative, admirative and imperative) are also present in Türki.
Syntax[edit | edit source]
A general rule of Türki word order is that the modifier precedes the modified:
- adjective (used attributively) precedes noun;
- adverb precedes verb;
- object of postposition precedes postposition.
Although the most common order of Türki transitive sentences is subject–object–verb (SOV), all six permutations are valid (the subject and object are distinguished by case suffixes). The word order serves to express the theme and focus (rheme) of the sentence. The sentence initial portion is associated with the topic, the position just before the verb is used for the focus, and the post verbal position is used for background or clarifying information.
Lexicon[edit | edit source]
Türki lexicon mostly consists of Turkic vocabulary, but it also features some calques and loanwords from Romance, Arabic and English.