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!!- Ta'agra, Tamriel, Elsweyr, Khajiit, The Elder Scrolls, and other terms are property of Bethesda Softworks. Original work will be marked with an asterisk (*).  This article is an attempt at reconstructing from the pieces of Ta'agra made available to the public by Bethesda Softworks through the Elder Scrolls franchise and to further develop it into a working conceptualized language. -!!

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By all means, please either help fix spelling, grammar and organization problems or contact the author about them. Thank you.

Ta'agra is the language spoken by most of the Khajiit, inhabitants of Elsweyr.

Name: Ta'agra

Type: Agglutinative

Alignment: Nominative-Accusative

Head Direction: Final

Number of genders: 0

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

General Information[edit | edit source]

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes Yes Yes No No
Nouns No Yes No No Yes No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No Yes No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

Phonology[edit | edit source]

Consonants[edit | edit source]

Bilabial Labio-Dental Dental Alveolar Post-Alveolar Velar Uvular Glottal
Plosive Voiceless p ‹p› t ‹t› k ‹k› q ‹q› ʔ ‹'›
Voiced b ‹b› d ‹d› g ‹g›
Nasal m ‹m› n ‹n›
Fricative Voiceless f ‹f› θ ‹th› s ‹s› ʃ ‹sh› x ‹kh› h ‹h›
Voiced v ‹v› z ‹z› ʒ ‹j›
Liquid r ‹r›, l ‹l›
Approximant w ‹w›

Glottal /h/ may be realized as pharyngeal [ħ]. In word-initial position, /ʒ/ is realized as [dʒ].  Consonants have phonemic length in simple coda position.

Vowels[edit | edit source]

Front Back
Close i u
Mid e o
Open a

Vowel length is phonemic.

When diphthongs are formed by affixation, they tend to be separated with a glottal stop ‹ˈ›, though glottal stops may be omitted from the language in casual speech and those diphthongs may be allowed to form. They do not seem to appear in isolated morphemes.

/e:/ may be written ‹ay› or ‹ey›, and /e/ word-finally written ‹ei›, to avoid confusion.

Grammar[edit | edit source]

Morphology[edit | edit source]

Nouns[edit | edit source]

Nouns are inflected for possession and case.

Possession[edit | edit source]

Possession is bizarre. There are two apparent prefixes: aa and ro. Aa seems to be the only one which can refer to the first person, but may also refer to the second. Ro may refer to the second, but also the third.

Case[edit | edit source]

Case Prefix
Locative in
Dative wo
Instrumental ja

Ta'agra has no genitive case: genitive constructs are formed simply by preceding a noun with its owner (a pronoun or another noun).

Adjectives are affixed to the beginnings of nouns but, like honorifics, especially archaically, may be hyphenated and suffixed. As free morphemes they are likely treated as verbs.

Verbs[edit | edit source]

Verbs are inflected for person and tense (past and nonpast).

Person Affix
2 (ko-)
3 (-ba)

The only apparent tense conjugation is the past-tense prefix wo-.

There is also the suffix -oh that marks negation.

Verbs may be inflected for mood, ie what may be a desiderative suffix -kasash, or potential -t.

An attached pronoun may also take the form -iss, meaning "people" (objective).

Derivation[edit | edit source]

Noun/Verb > Active Person: -iit
Noun/Verb > means: -iitay
Noun > Adjective: -i
Noun > Verb: -ith
Noun > Respected: -ra
Verb > Noun: -'do

Honorifics[edit | edit source]

Honorifics are attached to names, usually to the beginning with a glottal stop, but sometimes hyphenated and attached to the end.

Denotation Honorific
Dar thief, cunning individual
Do warrior
Dro grandfather, respected
J, Ji, Ja bachelor, young adult
Jo wizard
M, Ma child, apprentice
Ra, Ri high status
S adult (default)

Syntax[edit | edit source]

Ta'agra has a moderately flexible V2 SOV word order and is by and large pre-specifying (head-final).  The language is pro-drop in reference to subject.

Subjunctive is formed with the SVO word order.

Lexicon[edit | edit source]

Pronouns[edit | edit source]

Unlike nouns, pronouns reflect number.

Person Word
1s ahziss
1p ahzirr
2s jer
2p baliji

Open Class[edit | edit source]

English Ta'agra
After iko
be Alike aratataami
All hat, raj
And an
Anyhow ashlik
Be va (negative: naba)
Becoming (n) vabazeri
Beneath, Under vasa
be Brave shurh
Camel slarjei
Cause ka
Chieftain* t'har
Concerned orikah
Copy, Mimic yajira
Concept zrini
Contradict vano
Clan* shir
Clan Mother* shir-fado
Day pal
Desert (n) khaj
Disappearance dek
Do, Go khi
Everything skra'iv
Excuse wakay
Family epako
Far valah
Farmer famer
Father* ahnurr
Fix eks
Foolish thjiz
Footpad rajhin
Force (n) zeri
Full teko'i
Game zahb
Girl iiliten
Good do'
Grandfather dro
Have rabi
Heavy hokoh
Important irat
Joking, Without regret fusozay
Keep sri
Kill var dar
King* aran
Knight pelin
Know kor
Laugh, Smile krin
Live, Life, Sugar, Flow var
Mane rid
Mane (leader) rid-t'har
Martyr ri'sallidad
Mention (v) bek
Mercenary renrij
Moon kha'jay
Mother* fado
Name nak
Necessary, Necessity maaszi
Night tenurr
Oneself no
Owe velk
Passage avek
Plant, Tree shanjijri
Poor po
Port teport
Price ra
Prince* ja'aran
Rain (n) rawl
Rain (v) rawlith
Return to derad
Root, Tuber shanvasajijri
Run away lhajiito
Search for akudarr
Seem boshei
Sellsword (perjorative) jihatt
Shawl budi
Shudder oodurr
Sibling liter
Sit shijoh
Smile krimir
Steal dar
Speak, Tell pur
Take away trajir
Tell the truth thzina ualizz
That (one) jajo
This (one) jaji
Tower fasiiri
Virgin ma
Water da'khe
What kind kakadarr
When q'zi
Why kador
Wife tok
Wish to be vakasash
Wonderful ajo
World nirni
Worry about mok
Writing utensil durrarr
Yellow zwintho
Young ja'

Samples[edit | edit source]

Official[edit | edit source]

Jobasha[edit | edit source]

Zwinthodurrarr rabi.
yellow-writing^utensil have
I have a yellow writing utensil.

Ahziss liter ajo'iiliten rabiba.
1s sibling wonderful-girl have-3
My brother has a wonderful girl.

Ahziss aaliter vakasash.
1s 1/3-sibling be-DES
I wish I was my brother.

S'ratha (Hammerfell Intro)[edit | edit source]

Krimir, Cyrus.
Smile, Cyrus.

Etofor wakay jer akudarr.
here excuse 2s search^for
Here's the excuse you've been looking for.

Baliji hat aratataami.
2p all be^the^same
You're all the same.


Renrij intenurr,
mercenary LOC-night
Ruffians in the night,

Hokoh wo'Imperialjah,
heavy DAT-Imperial-coin
Heavy with Imperial coin,

Iko pofamer rotok velk.
after poor-farmer 2-wife owe
After some poor farmer who owes [the kingdom] his wife.

An trajir.
and take^away
And takes away.

S'rathra kor koderadoh Hammerfell,
S'rathra know 2-return^to-NEG Hammerfell,
S'rathra knows you will not return to Hammerfell,

Boshei irat.
seem important
[But this] seems important.

S'rathra woorikah
S'rathra PST-be^concerned
S'rathra was concerned.

Mokoh Duadeen.
worry^about-NEG Duadeen
Don't worry about Duadeen.

S'rathra eks.
S'rathra fix.

S'rathra eks skra'iv.
S'rathra fix everything.

Roliter dek ka oodurr.
2-sibling disappearance invoke shudder
Your sister's disappearance draws a shudder.

Teport teko'i
port full
The port is full [of them].

S'rathra nak avek wora valah khi
S'rathra name passage DAT-price far go
S'rathra's name goes far towards the price of passage.

Sri Duadeen jah.
keep Duadeen coin
Keep Duadeen's money.

Epako jah ashlik.
family coin anyhow
It is family coin after all.

Pur S'rathra kador aaliter bekoh.
tell S'rathra why POS-sister mention-NEG
Tell S'rathra why [you] don't mention your sister.

What kind?

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