Tabithuvian (shûntoja tabíthûkn) is one of the earliest attested languages in the Paleo-Nugasi language family. Its closest contemporaneous sister language is Domuthi, and it is a moderately distant cousin of Bachuthu.

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Name: Tabithuvian

Type: Agglutinating

Alignment: Ergative-absolutive

Head Direction: Initial

Number of genders: 1

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes No Yes No Yes
Nouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes No No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No




Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive p [p] b [b] t [t] d [d] k [k] g [g]
Nasal m [m] n [n] nh [ɲ]
Fricative f [f] v [v] th [θ] dh [ð] s [s] z [z] sh [ʂ] j [ʐ]
Approximant w [w] r [ɹ] y [j]
Lateral Approximant l [l]


Front FC Center BC Back
Closed ī [i] · – – · u [u]
Near-Closed i [ɪ] û [ʊ]
Closed-Mid e [e] · – – · o [o]
Mid-Open è [ɛ] · –
Open a [a]

Tabithuvian does not have contrastive vowel length, although the near-closed vowels i and û occur only in unstressed syllables and are often considered as lax.

Basic Grammar[]


Nouns are declined for case, number and definitiveness. There are basic markers for gender (-onh for male, -bal for female) but no gender-based grammatical agreement with other parts of speech.


Tabithuvian has two types of plurals:

  • "Major" plural: -nhan, used for large quantities
  • "Minor" plural: -ith, used for small quantities

Either plural can be used with any number (other than 1) depending on context, i.e., whether the quantity is considered large or small. For example, consider the following two statements of age, both of which use the number 12 (mīshl vaykû). The minor plural is used to convey youth, while the major plural implies old age:

  • Shénem shóynûnhkī mīshl vaykû makath. (minor plural, haplologized)
The boy is twelve years old.
  • Shénem thódhakī mīshl vaykû makáthnhan. (major plural)
The dog is twelve years old.


Example text[]