Talamäskaski is a constructed language, classified by it's creator as a Bant-Talamaskan. It, like its mother language, Middle Ubell, draws influence from Romance languages (Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian, Galician, Italian, French), Slavic languages (Croatian, Russian, Polish, Czech), K'iche' (a Mayan language), and Finnish.

Writing System[]

Talamäskaski uses a modified Latin Script. Zwxidsk-Talamäskaski (or Southern Talamäskaski) uses a modified Cyrillic Script.




Letter IPA sound ex. Talamäskaski ex. IPA
a [a] father
e [e] mate
i [i] beet
o [o] doe
u [u] boot
y [ʷi]
ä [æ] hat
ë [ɛ] bet
ï [ɨ] bit
ö [ɔ] long
ü [ə] uh


Letter IPA Sound ex. Talamäskaski ex IPA
b [b]
d [d]
f [f]
g [g]
h [x]
j [j]
k [k]
l [l]
m [m]
n [n]
p [p]
q [t͡ɕ]
r [r]
s [s]
t [t]
w [v]
z [z]
dzx [d͡ʒ]
gx [ɣ]
sx [ʂ]
tx [ð], [θ]
wx [w]
zx [ʒ]


Talamskaski grammar is the study of the rules governing the use of the Ubell language, a constructed Indo-European language. It is in the composite sub-family of Romano-slavic.




All Ubell nouns are inflected to show one of three numbers, singular, dual or plural. There are two plurality systems to show the nouns number:

Singular to Plural[]

Vowel sys:

    Nouns ending with a, a -> e
    Nouns ending with e, e -> ena
    Nouns ending with i, i -> ena
    Nouns ending with o, o -> i
    Nouns ending with u, u -> a

Consonant sys:

    Nouns ending with consonants, +s or +es
    Nouns ending with vowels ä, ë, ï, ö, and ü, +s
    Nouns ending with y, +jes

NB - When a noun ending in /m/ is pluralized, /m/ => /n/

Singular to Dual[]

Vowel sys:

    Nouns ending with a, a -> owa
    Nouns ending with e, e -> owe
    Nouns ending with i, i -> owi
    Nouns ending with o, o -> ow
    Nouns ending with u, u -> owu
    Nouns ending with y, y -> owy
    Nouns ending with ä, ä -> owä
    Nouns ending with ë, ë -> owë
    Nouns ending with ï, ï -> owï
    Nouns ending with ö, ö -> owö
    Nouns ending with ü, ü -> owü

Consonant sys:

    Nouns ending with consonants, +ow


Talamäskaski nouns are not generally marked for gender. Gender is divided into 2 categories: Animate and Inanimate.

The Animate contains: masculine (m), feminine (f), and animate neuter (an). The Inanimate contains: inanimate neuter (in).

Nouns are generally IN, unless they are living. If the noun is male then it's M, the same goes for female.

AN is used normally for plants and animals, unless the sex of the plant or animal is known. It is also used in cases where sex of the noun is irrelevant or unknown.


(*) - indicates that the case has historically retained it's gender markers throughout the case's declension

- Also, nouns can be inflected for more than one case.

Talamäskaski cases
case suffix English prep. example translation
nominatskim   ... kazza house
*akkusatskim -og ... kazzoge house
datskim -u to, for, at kazzu for the house
dzxenatskim -alla of (possession) kazzalla of the house, the house's
lokkatskim 1 -tta at, from, of kazzatta from the house
lokkatskim 2 -(ë)n at, from, of kazzan from the house
*instrumentaliqsxkim -om with, by kazzome with the house
temporaliqsxkim -t at, in, on, time phrases (kazzat) (at house o'clock) - used with numbers, months, yrs, people
*wokatskim -oj exclamation kazzej! house!

Putting it all together: Declensions and Numbers[]

Case Singular Dual Plural
nominatskim kazza kazzowa kazze
*akkusatskim kazzoge kazzogowe kazzogena
datskim kazzu kazzowu kazza
dzxenatskim kazzalla kazzallowa kazzalle
lokkatskim 1 kazzatta kazzattowa kazzatte
lokkatskim 2 kazzan kazzanow kazzans
*instrumentaliqsxkim kazzome kazzomowe kazzomena
temporaliqsxkim kazzat kazzatow kazzats
*wokatskim kazzej kazzejow kazzejes


Ubell does not utilize definite and indefinite articles.

There are four historical definite articles that represent article and gender, that are now used only for contractions with prepositions when needed.

    o - masculine
    a - feminine
    i - animate neuter
    e - inanimate neuter



Singular Personal Pronoun Declension

1st Per 2nd Per 3rd Per
You (inf) You (for) Masc Fem A.Neut. I.Neut.
Nominatskim Ja Wos Kos Ong Ang Ing Eng
Akkusatskim Mene Tebe Hure On Ona Oni One
Datskim Menja Tebja Hro Jewo Jewa Jewi Jewe
Dzxenatskim Mne Wje Kje Onge Ange Inge Enge
Lokatskim-a Meh Teh Krh Pan Pana Panu Pane
Lokatskim-b Jan Wosën Kosën Ongën Angën Ingën Engën
Instrumentaliqsxkim Jom / Joma Wosom / Wosma Kosom / Kosma Ongom Ongma Ongmi Ongme
Temporaliqsxkim Jat Wost Kost Ongët Angët Ingët Engët
Wokatskim Mnoj / Mnja Toboj / Tobja Koj / Koja Onoj Onja Onji Onje

Dual Personal Pronoun Declension

1st Per 2nd Per 3rd Per
You (inf) You (for) Masc Fem A.Neut. I.Neut.
Nominatskim Sandwa / Sandwe / Sandwije Sxidwa / Sxidwe / Sxidwije Qidwa / Qidwe / Qidwije Ondwa Andwe Indwije Endwije
Akkusatskim Sendwa / Sendwe / Sendwije Sxebdwa / Sxebdwe / Sxebdwije Qendwa / Qendwe / Qebdwije Tsudwa Tswedwe Mlondwije Tsegdwije
Datskim Snjadwa / Snjadwe / Snjadwije Sxbadwa / Sxbadwe / Sxbadwije Qbadwa / Qbadwe / Qbadwije Tsuhdwa Tswehdwe Mlohdwije Tsegodwije
Dzxenatskim Namdwa / Namdwe / Namdwije Bamdwa / Bamdwe / Bamdwije Qamdwa / Qamdwe / Qamdwije Mudwa Jejdwe Mlodwije Wxodwije
Lokatskim-a Nasxdwa / Nasxdwe / Nasxdwije Bedwa / Bedwe / Bedwije Qedwa / Qedwe / Qedwije Nimdwa Niejdwe Nijodwije Njedwije
Lokatskim-b Snëndwa / Snëndwe / Snëndwije Sxnidwa / Sxnidwe / Sxnidwije Qnidwa / Qnidwe / Qnidwije Ongsdwa Angsdwe Ingsdwije Engsdwije
Instrumentaliqsxkim Snomdwa / Snomdwe / Snomdwije Sxomdwa / Sxomdwe / Sxomdwije Qomdwa / Qomdwe / Qomdwije Onmydwa Anmydwe Inmydwije Enmydwije
Temporaliqsxkim Santdwa / Santdwe / Santdwije Sxatdwa / Sxatdwe / Sxatdwije Qatdwa / Qatdwe / Qatdwije Ongstdwa Angstdwe Ingstdwije Engstdwije
Wokatskim Nmojdwa / Nmojdwe / Nmojdwije Sxmojdwa / Sxmojdwe / Sxmojdwije Qmojdwa / Qmojdwe / Qmojdwije Onsydwa Ansydwe Insydwije Ensydwije

Plural Personal Pronoun Declension

1st Per 2nd Per 3rd Per
You (inf) You (for) Masc Fem A.Neut. I.Neut.
Nominackim San Sxi Qi Ongs Angs Ings Engs
Akkusatskim Sene Sxebe Qebe Tsu Tswe Mlonj Tsego
Datskim Senja Sxbas Qbas Tsuh Tsweh Mloh Tsegoh
Dzxenatskim Nam Bam Qam Mu Jej Mlo Wxo
Lokatskim-a Nasx Beh Qeh Nim Niej Nijo Njel
Lokatskim-b Sanën Sxin Qiin Ongsën Angsën Ingsën Engsën
Instrumentaliqsxkim Sanom / Sanma / Sanmi Sxom / Sxma / Sxmi Qom / Qma / Qmi Ongsom Ongsma Ongsmi Ongsme
Temporaliqsxkim Sant Sxat Qat Ongst Angst Ingst Engst
Wokatskim Namoj / Namja / Namji Sxamoj / Sxamja / Sxamji Qamoj / Qamja / Qamji Ongsoj Ongsja Ongsji Ongsje


See Dzxenatskim above.


Demonstrative pronouns
Ubell English
taamaa this
txuo that
le that (far away, over there)
Dual / Plural
naamaa these
nguo those
ljets those (far away, over there)


English Talamäskaski
How Kako
What Sxto
Why Zasxto
When Kana
Where Gdje
Who Kwa, Kto
Which Qmale
How much/many Tskolkö


English Talamäskaski
How Jak
What Sxta
Why Poqeemu
When Kwxan
Where Kudah
Who Kem
Which Itsam
How much/many Kuingxa


Reciprocal pronouns
Pronoun Example English
esi " amajut s'esomi" "they love each other" (plural)
odzxi " amajut odzxogi" "they love one another" (double singular)


Reflexive pronouns
Pronoun Suffix Example English
itse plus corresponding prepositional prefix and declensional suffix "Prpare p'itsu teogi" "(I) made myself some tea"


Reflexive pronouns
Pronoun Suffix Example English
ipo "Manzxu ipo kotsinalo" "The food was cooked"


A large group that entails all of the pronouns that do not fall into any of the categories above. Notice that there are no negative pronouns, such as "nobody", but the positive pronoun has to be negated in the same manner as verbs, suffixed "-ma." It may also be preceded by "nö."

Indefinite pronouns
Talamäskaski English
joka every, each
jokpsoa every, everyone
adnipsoa some, someone (person)
-> nödnipsoa nobody
jompkumi either one
-> jompkum-ma neither one
jokkozza(i) some, something (animal, thing)
kuken each one
ampk both
ambul both
kakerpsoa anyone
-> kakerpsoa-ma no one
kakerkozza(i) anything -> nö-kakerkozza(i)-ma = nothing


This chart is just an example of Talamäskaski numbers (0-10). For further details, please see Talamäskaski Numbers

Cardinal numbers and key inflected forms
Number Cardinal Ordinal Adverbial Temporal Name
0 nje jerzx ser zro bado
1 jedan, jedna, jedno isxteen bal ena and
2 dwa, dwe, dwije sxena tel doj hulaat
3 trwi sxalasx kil trej sast
4 qetyri erbe fol patru arat
5 pjat hamisx lul qinq ammüst
6 sxest sxisxsxu maal sxase süddüst
7 sedam sebe vel sxapte saabat
8 wosem samaane jool opt sümmünt
9 uhdeksän (usi) tisxe zuul nowü zaataang
10 kummjet esxer deg zeqe asür


Types of Adjectives[]


Some indefinite adjectives are often perceived as indefinite pronouns. These include:

Indefinite adjectives
Talamäskaski English
hano only
eraas some, certain, one
harwa few
itseh (non-reflexive) self
kajkij all, everyone, everything
molemmat both
moni many
muu other
muutama some, a few
sama same
tonenj (non-reciprocal, non-numeral use) another

True adjectives are what Ubell considers to be natural adjectives. They (generally) do not evolve from other types of words.

ex. - fast, slow, weird, black, blue, purple


Ubell, like many other languages, have special verb forms that act as adjectives. Though in structure, these are special verb forms, they ARE NOT considered as such. They are adjectives. There are two types of the adjective class: Infinitive, and Participle.


Infinitive phrases (as in English "pizza to die for"), are viewed in an adjectival light. To die for is formed by taking the infinitive of the verb and stripping it of its verb marker (leave the root vowel of the marker) (morirti => mori. Then add -smogij.

Morirti => Mori => Morismogij

Now that pesky preposition in our adj. to die for, add the appropriate prepositional prefix.

Pitsza bjetü premorismogij - The pizza is to die for


Many languages have special verbal forms called participles that can act as noun modifiers. In some languages, including English, there is a strong tendency for participles to evolve into adjectives. English examples of this include relieved (the past participle of the verb relieve, used as an adjective in sentences (such as "I am so relieved to see you"), spoken (as in "the spoken word"), and going (the present participle of the verb go, used as an adjective in sentences such as "Ten dollars per hour is the going rate").

To form this construction, take the consonant stem of the verb, and add -iwjasxij

Wadiwjasxi palaa - The spoken word

Comparative formation[]

When forming comparatives, add -alni

Blue => Bluer

Albastro => Albastralni

Superlative formation[]

When forming superaltives, add - ilan

Blue => Bluer => Bluest

Albastro => Albastralni => Albastrilan


Ubell has 5 verb classes.

    (i) verbs end in -arti, Wadarti to speak
    (ii) verbs end in -erti, Komerti to eat
    (iii) verbs end in -irti, Wiwirti to live, exist
    (iv) verbs end in -[consonant]ti, Pisxti, to write
    (v) verbs are irregular verbs, Jesti to be
    (v.#) verbs that irregular, in the fact that they appear to be (iv),
          but conjugate in which ever class as determined by it's radical stem change,
          Muussenti(v.iii), to have to do (something)


The infinitive of a verb is its basic form. They are not inflected to agree with any subject, and their subject.


The personal infinitive, a non-finite form which does not show tense, but is inflected for person and number. Used with the subjunctive mood (see below) when the subject of the dependent is the same as the independent clause. This form is also used when auxiliary verbs are used.


Grammatical tense is a temporal linguistic quality expressing the time at, during, or over which a state or action denoted by a verb occurs.

Tense is one of at least five qualities, along with mood, voice, aspect, and person, which verb forms may express.

Tenses cannot always be translated from one language to another. While verbs in all languages have typical forms by which they are identified and indexed in dictionaries, usually the most common present tense or an infinitive, their meanings vary among languages.

There are languages (such as isolating languages, like Chinese) in which tense is not used, but implied in temporal adverbs when needed, and some (such as Japanese) in which temporal information appears in the inflection of adjectives, lending them a verb-like quality. In some languages (such as Russian) a simple verb may indicate aspect and tense.

The number of tenses in a language may be controversial, since its verbs may indicate qualities of uncertainty, frequency, completion, duration, possibility, and even whether information derives from experience or hearsay.

Ubell has 5 tenses:

  • Present
  • Preterite (Simple Past)
  • Imperfect (Complex Past)
  • Future
  • Conditional

The present tense is the tense (that is, the form of the verb) that may be used to express:

   * action at the present
   * a state of being;
   * a habitual action;
   * an occurrence in the (very) near future; or
   * an action that occurred in the past and continues up to the present.

The preterite (also praeterite, in American English also preterit, simple past, or past historic) is the grammatical tense expressing actions that took place in the past. It is similar to the aorist in languages such as Greek.

The preterite is a verb tense that indicates that an action taken once in the past was completed at a specific point in time in the past. Usually, a definite start time or end time for the action is stated. This is opposed to the imperfect tense, which refers to any repeated, continuous, or habitual past action. Thus, "I ran five miles yesterday" would use the first-person preterite form of ran, corrí, whereas "I ran five miles every morning" would use the first-person imperfect tense form, corría. This distinction is actually one of perfective vs. imperfective aspect.


The imperfect tense, in the classical grammar of several Indo-European languages, denotes a past tense with an imperfective aspect. In English, it is referred to as the past continuous tense.

The term originated with the Latin language because "imperfect" refers to an uncompleted or abandoned action.

the imperfect is generally a past tense. Its uses include representing:

   * An action that was happening, used to happen, or happened regularly in the past and ongoing
   * People, things, or conditions of the past
   * A time in the past
   * A situation that was in progress in the past when another isolated and important event occurred (the former using the imperfect, while the latter uses the preterite).
   * A physical or mental state or condition in progress in the past. Often used with verbs of being, emotion, capability, or conscience.

In grammar, the future tense is a verb form that marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet, but expected to happen in the future (in an absolute tense system), or to happen subsequent to some other event, whether that is past, present, or future (in a relative tense system).


The conditional tense is the form of the verb used in conditional sentences to refer to a hypothetical state of affairs, or an uncertain event that is contingent on another set of circumstances. This tense is thus similar to the subjunctive mood, although languages that have distinct verb forms for the two use them in distinct ways.

Conditional verb forms can also have temporal uses, often for expressing "future in the past" tense.


Grammatical mood is one of a set of distinctive verb forms that are used to signal modality.[1] It is distinct from grammatical tense or grammatical aspect, although these concepts are conflated to some degree in many languages, including English and most other modern Indo-European languages, insofar as the same word patterns are used to express more than one of these concepts at the same time.

Ubell has 3 moods:


The indicative mood or evidential mood is used for factual statements and positive beliefs. All intentions that a particular language does not categorize as another mood are classified as indicative. In English, questions are considered indicative. It is the most commonly used mood and is found in all languages. Example: "Paul is eating an apple" or "John eats apples".

The indicative mood is for statements of actuality or strong probability: The spine-tailed swift flies faster than any other bird in the world.

The following Ubell verb tenses occur in the indicative mood:


n grammar, the subjunctive mood (sometimes referred to as the conjunctive mood, as it often follows a conjunction) is a verb mood that exists in many languages. It is typically used in dependent clauses to express wishes, commands, emotion, possibility, judgment, necessity, or statements that are contrary to fact at present. The details of subjunctive use vary from language to language.

The following Ubell verb tenses occur in the subjunctive mood:


The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that expresses direct commands or requests. It is also used to signal a prohibition, permission or any other kind of exhortation.

The following Ubell verb tenses occur in the imperative mood:


The imperative mood in Ubell is also used as a vocative or exclamatory verb form, In this instance, the following verb tenses occur:



In grammar, the voice (also called gender or diathesis) of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or actor of the verb, the verb is in the active voice. When the subject is the patient, target or undergoer of the action, it is said to be in the passive voice.

Active vs Passive[]

In grammar, the voice (also called gender or diathesis) of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or actor of the verb, the verb is in the active voice. When the subject is the patient, target or undergoer of the action, it is said to be in the passive voice.

For example, in the sentence:

   The cat ate the mouse.

the verb "ate" is in the active voice, but in the sentence:

   The mouse was eaten by the cat.

the verbal phrase "was eaten" is passive.

Aspect: Verbal Pairs[]

Talamäskaski utilizes what appears to be two grammatical aspects: Normalewsk and Perfectlewsk.

Every Talamäskaski verb comes paired with another verb, essencially meaning the exact same thing. The first verb being classified as Normalewsk, and the other as Perfectlewsk. They are used in different situations, and are not necessarily in the same verb class.


All of the verbs in the Conjugation section are Normalewsk verbs.


Perfectlewsk verbs have a specific meaning and use. The Perfectlewsk verbs essencially mean To have done....

ex: Wadarti is a Normalewsk verb that means to speak. It is paired with the Perfectlewsk verb, Hitsti which means to have spoken

Top 20 Most Common Verb Pairs[]

English - Normalewsk - Perfektlewsk

    to walk - Tsaminarti - Ibilirti
    to learn - Aprenderti - Ikasirti
    to drink - Beberti - Edanti
    to look for - Busxkarti - Bilatuarti
    to sing - Kantarti - Ktarikti
    to run - Koherti - Lasterkarti
    to believe - Creerti - Sinetsirti
    to listen - Eskuqarti - Entzunti
    to talk - Göwörti - Parlerti
    to make - Aserti - Fairti
    to put - Ponerti - Errunti
    to want - Keerti - Nahirti
    to know - Znarti - Gauzeirti
    to be - Birti / Jesti - Izanti / Bajanti
    to have - Terti - Edukirti
    to bring - Traerti - Ekarrirti
    to come - Wenirti - Wendrerti
    to sell - Wenderti - Salduarti
    to dress - Westirti - Janzkerarti
    to live - Wiwirti - Bizirti


See Talamäskaski Verb Conjugation


Adverbs typically answer questions such as how?, when?, where?, why? and to what extent?. They often end in -ly.

fast/rapid + ly = rapidly

afet + mens = afetmens


afet + marü = afetmarü


Talamäskaski English
t, et, ta and
k, ka to, toward
k-ma, ka-ma away (from)
p, por, pra to, for, in order to/for, by
n, em, na in, on
auf out, off
z, za of, from
s, sa with
s-ma, sa-ma without
sobor, sobra over, above
sobor-ma, sobra-ma under, beneath
w, wa if
ts, tsa up
ts-ma, tsa-ma down
q, qa in addition to, near, by
tsem, tsna upon
nu, nuha but
anget, angta before
ftos, ftsa after
l, öl, la even if
d, öd, da although
b, öb, ba about, by
kolj, kla since
tolj, tla because (of)
tilj, ötla until


Ubell syntax is very similar to that of the languages in both families of which it is comprised. It's word order is SVO/SOV. Generally speaking it is SVO (Subject Verb Object); with the exception of when object pronouns are being used in place of the noun, then it shifts to SOV. The indirect object pronoun always precedes the direct object pronoun. Adjectives can either go before or after the noun they modify.


English Talamäskaski
How Kako
What Sxto
Why Zasxto
When Kana
Where Gdje
Who Kwa, Kto
Which Qmale
How much/many Tskolkö

Sample Vocabulary[]

(sing.,dual, pl - english) - (any text in red denotes spelling changes of all types)

  1. ovisarj, ovisarjow, ovisarjes - sheep
  2. qko, qkow, qki - boy
    1. qka, qkowa, qke - girl
    2. qki, qkowi, qkena - child
  3. gru, growu, gra - group
  4. animal, animalow, animals - animal
    1. gru z animalogena - flock (lit. group of animals)
  5. vilja, viljowa, vilje - village
    1. viljajer, viljajerow, viljajers - villager
  6. bromo, bromow, bromi - joke
    1. bromarti - to joke
    2. eqarti bromogena (z) [k] - to make fun (of) [at]...
  7. prto - black
  8. alb - white
  9. garje - gray
  10. rubitsa - red
  11. albastro - blue
  12. galben - yellow
  13. virens - green
  14. portokalj - orange
  15. mov - purple
  16. maro - brown

Example text[]

Mouth, Eyes and Ears Puqii, Wxaaqow, t Sxikinow


Two children asked an old man. "Old man, we all have two ears and two eyes, but how come we only have one mouth?" The old man answered, "my point of view is that we have two ears so we can better listen to other people's advices, and we have two eyes so we can better observe other people's respectable conduct. Having said that, it seems to me that we have only one mouth so we have less means of engaging in meaningless talk".

Talamäskaski Dwije qkowi jewo wadebt k antig ombru. “Antig ombroj, toa san terjem dwije sxikinogowi ta dwije wxaaqow, nu zasxto hano terjem jedni puqiogi?” Antig ombre mlohdwije hrsponddïst, “bjetü mne pontuu z verti sxta terjem san dwije sxikinogowi p sxta possle san yraas eskuqarmo k adwisoge z muu psoans luqsxij, t san terjem dwije wxaaqogowi p sxta possle san yraas obserwirmo tsompoge hrspektef z muu psoans luqsxij. K reqtor muu, paretseje k mne sxta terjem san hano jedni puqiogi p sxta san yraas tejem nikkta manerogena k atraermo n göwöroge s-ma hrazënoge."

Excerpt Song Lyrics: Soular Flares, by The Ready Set

English "so darling do you know how you got so lovely?

was it self-taught, learned from life? you've got skills making boys go crazy, and i've been running down the stairs again, i think you're in my head girl, i think i'm freaking out girl. sometimes i wonder if you're even real, if not it's cool, i don't wanna go back to the way that it was, i don't wanna go back 'cause i think i may be (in love) "


Imperfektlevsk Verb Book[]

Talamäskaskin-Anglesku (Talamäskaski-English)[]

ex entry in order to read properly. The primary verbs listed are the imperfektlewsk verbs, and their pair is written with them.

true infinitive (imperfektlewsk) / true infinitive (perfektlewsk)[]

english meaning[]

differential meaning differential meaning
verb class verb class
radical vowel change radical vowel change
radical stem change radical stem change
translation of "I (verb)" translation of "I (verb)"



Talamäskaski Textbook