Type Synthetic
Alignment Marked Nominative
Head direction Initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders 2-3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Progress 0%
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator Sil3n7ButDeadly



  • Phonetic transcriptions are denoted by rectangular brackets          [ˈkæːk̚tɪs]
  • Phonemic transcriptions are denoted by slash brackets                 /kæktɪs/
  • Native phonemic transcriptions are denoted by angle quotes         «cactis»
  • Italic front style denotes native words                                          cacto
  • Boldface denotes English approximations                                    cactus
  • Bold letters also indicate suffixes being demonstrated                  tú comerías el cacto
  • Bold letters also indicate emphasis                                             don't complain, you ate the cactus.

Classification and Dialects[]

Talish (locally Tïlér) is an a priori language.  Defining characteristics include:

  • A large number of morphological irregularities caused by sound changes from its predecessor (referred to here as Dalean)



Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m n
Plosive p t d k
Fricative f v θ ð s ʃ x
Affricate tʃ dʒ
Approximant ɹ j
Lateral fric. ɬ
Lateral app. l


Front Back
High i u
Near-high ɪ
High-mid e
Low-mid ɛ ɔ
Near-low æ


  • Consonant clusters with more than three consonants are never permitted.
  • Consonant clusters with more than two consonants must begin with a sonorant.
  • Final «z» is not permitted.

Writing System[]


Letter A a Æ æ Ä ä C c D d Ð ð E e É é F f G g H h I i
Sound /æ/ /ai/ /ɑ/ /t͡ʃ/ /d/ /ð/ /ɛ/ /ei/ /f/ /d͡ʒ/ /x/ /i/
Letter K k L l M m N n O o P p R r S s T t Ø ø U u V v
Sound /k/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /ɔ/ /p/ /ɹ/ /s/ /t/ /θ/ /u/ /v/
Letter Ï ï X x Y y Z z
Sound /ɪ/ /ʃ/ /j/ /ɬ/

In the final position, «i» and «a» are used in place of «y» and «ï» respectively.


The allophones listed in this table can be present anywhere and still convey the same meaning -- none of the alternate sounds in the table are phonemic.  These generally only occur in specific contexts, however, since they can't form minimal pairs, it's perfectly acceptable to use any one of these sounds for these letters.  Keep in mind that this is not a list of all possible allophones of all Talish letters -- it's simply the most common ones.

«d» [ɾ]
«é» [e]
«g» [ʒ]
«h» [ç]
«ï» [ʌ] [ʊ]
«y» [ʝ]

Unwritten Sound Changes[]

Some letters produce certain sounds in certain contexts, and the sounds are part of the phonemic sound inventory.  Therefore, it's important to get these contextual sounds right, whereas the free allophones are more lenient.

Initial Final _«f» _«r»
«a» «ï» «ä»
«e» «i» «é» «é»
«i» «æ»
«m» «m»

Sound Changes[]

Note:  This is not a complete list of the sound changes that drove Talish's divergence from Dalean.  Rather, these sound changes are the ones still in effect that contribute to Talish morphology.  Further irregularities arise from the fact that voicing in consonant clusters sometimes changes to match the first obstruent, sometimes the second, and sometimes the difference in voicing is retained.

rt » d / V_V

r » d / _t

ø » f / m_

c » x / C_V# ! (n,r)_

l » Ø / _xV

l » r / _x

h » k / C_

lø » z ! _#

øl » zl

ls » z ! _#



Talish nouns decline to case and number, following a marked nominative alignment, with two regular categories of declension based on grammatical gender and a large number of irregular declensions caused by old sound changes still in effect.  Nouns of the opposite gender can be formed by adding the following suffixes to the base form of the noun before declension.

  • Masculine « -i »
  • Feminine  « -g  »

When no suffixes are added, the noun is assumed to be gender neutral regardless of its default grammatical gender.  To assign femininity to a noun that is feminine by default, or masculinity to a noun that is masculine by default, the following suffixes are used:

  • Masculine « -gi  »
  • Feminine  « -iv  »

This allows for sets of words like the following:

  • Nalop     - Student
  • Nalopi    - Male student
  • Nalopiv  - Female student


Masculine nouns end in vowels in the accusative.

Singular Plural Null
Nominative -xo -xe -me
Accusative -ci


Feminine nouns end in consonants in the accusative.

Singular Plural Null
Nominative -om -täm -ïø
Accusative -ici


Talish adjectives are formed by adding « -al » to the singular accusative form of a noun, and adverbs are formed by adding « -s » or « -t » to the end of an adjective.  These forms served different purposes in Dalean, but in modern Talish either suffix can be used in any situation, carrying the same meaning.


Talish verbs conjugate to tense, aspect, mood, and number in all cases.  They also conjugate to person in the present tense.  In Talish, the conditional acts more like a tense than a mood, since the conditional can be combined with more than one mood.  Verbs are conjugated fusionally as opposed to the more agglutinative noun declensions; all verbs end in vowels in « -ov » in the infinitive.  The infinitive suffix is removed and the new suffix tacked on.


Singular Plural
Preterite -lo -il
Imperfect -lona
Progressive -lén -lin
Perfect -kol -ihol
Hypothetical Perfect -æcol -æcil
Hypothetical Perfect Progressive -æcolïn


Present Tenses 1S 1P 2 3S 3P
Simple -pix -nux -vic -piø -ðu
Progressive -pénc -nuxïn -vicïn -pinø -ðun
Perfect -piho -nuho -vico -piøko -ðuho


Singular Plural
Simple -oya -ia
Near -ona
Progressive -oyn -oni
Perfect -koi -ihoi
Imperitive -oyti
Hypothetical -æcoi
Hypothetical Progressive -æcoyn -æconi


Singular Plural
Simple -kara -kira
Progressive -karïn -kirïn
Perfect -kaho -kiho
Imperitive -kate -kite


Personal Pronouns[]

Nominative Accusative Possessive (Adj/N)
1s Yäx E Yer / Yera
1di Ðax Ðe Ðer / Ðera
1p Käx Ka Käler / Kälera
2 Vox Vix Ver / Vera
3sm Saxo Sa Ser / Sera
3sf Edom Ida Ider / Idera
3sn Lém Le Leyer / Leyera
3p Lim Li Liter / Litera



Word Order[]

While Talish has free word order for subjects, verbs, and objects, the most common are SOV, SVO, and VOS.  Word order for other elements in a clause are more restrictive.

  • Adpositional phrases must follow what they modify.

Content Clauses[]

Content clauses are introduced by the conjunction ced, which functions similarly to the english that (used as a subordinating conjunction, not a relative pronoun).



Word Definition Notes
Nalop Student Can also refer to any subordinate
Pälé Tree
Tïlér Talish




Root Lexicon[]

Example text[]