|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
A conlang developed for experimenting with a strange way for handling verbs. The concept behind the language is that every noun (for the most part) is marked with a verb which changes depending on whether the noun is the subject, actor or object of the clause. It allows for a different approach to relative clauses and adpositional phrases. While some languages try to modify a clause's verb to build in a noun (for example, in Latin, 'amo' means I love, and 'amas' means you love), in Taneikyan Selaneodarei the verb is built into the noun. View the grammar section for more information.
The concepts used may be made into a proper language in time, possibly with multiple genders for extra clarification, better vocabulary, improved phonology and some form of actual history.
|ei||e (ei at the end of a word)|
|o||o (ou at the end of a word)|
|Stop||p, b||t, d||k, g|
|Fricative||f, v||s, z||sh||h|
/j/ is written as <y>.
/tʃ/ is written as <ch>.
No consonant clusters are allowed. Syllables must end in a vowel, an 'n', or in special informal cases a 't'. The following syllable form must be used: (C)(y)V(n).
Verbs are used as noun suffixes. For example, 'senzya' means someone/thing who/that eats, and 'senzyen' means someone/thing who/that is eaten. 'senzyei' means someone/thing whom/that I eat. Here is a full table of these forms (note how hyphens can be used to show the separate sections):
|The noun is the actor||-a/-an (dictionary form)||ga-senzya||The person eats|
|The noun is the subject/object||-en||nafei-senzyen||The fish is eaten|
|The noun is the object and I am the actor||-ei||nafei-senzyei||I eat the fish|
|The noun is the actor and it is the object||-o||ga-senzyo||The person eats it|
|(No noun attached) I am the actor and it is the object||-on||
|I eat it|
|(No noun attached) Standalone form (arguments are implied)||-ote (informally ot)||senzyote||Eating happens|
There are a few verbs that do not follow this pattern. Any tritransitive verbs will be irregular, and the verb 'to be' is also irregular. To avoid duplicating verb suffixes, one may use the verb to do - 'pa'. 'pa' is used where the ergative case would be used in a normal language, and 'pen' is used where the absolutive would be used. The verb suffix used in the previous word will be the one it refers to.
One may change the mood of a suffix by adding the following endings: -ya = subjunctive (may/can), -ye = conditional (would), -yei = optative (should), -yo = potential (could).
These suffixes can double as adjectives (e.g. the eaten fish) but cannot have adverbs when done so. However, a mood may still be applied to them; this allows meaning such as the gerundive of Latin by using -yei to be expressed.
To express purpose, reason, manner or a few other things, use the following suffixes. These may be placed anywhere in the sentence depending on what one wants to emphasize. For example, 'because I ate the fish' would become 'nafei senzyadeike'. Since they replace the original endings of the verb, the mood must be added afterwards. Note that the purpose implies the subjunctive and the condition implies the future.
|Normal||Purpose (so that)||Reason (because)||Manner (by)||Condition (if)|
|Normal||Location (at)||Location (to)||Location (from)||Time (at)||Time (to)||Time (from)|
To create an infinitive, and the desired suffix to the noun 'a' as an adjective. This can be then used with other suffixes to create sentences such as 'I enjoy eating/to eat.'
The copula in Taneikyan Selaneodarei is 'ba'. It only performs one function, while English's can perform many. Here is a table describing how to use the different jobs of English's 'to be':
|English||How to use|
|I am a human.||Use the irregular verb 'ba'.|
|John is happy.||Write out the noun phrase without a verb suffix. ('John-happy.')|
|I am at the park.||Use the irregular verb 'zan' (to exist).|
Here are the main forms of the irregular verb 'ba':
|The noun is the subject.||-ba|
|The noun is the complement.||-wa|
|I am the noun.||-da|
For example, 'John-da' would mean 'I am John'. (Hyphen side note: When English words are used, they are always attached to the rest of the word with hyphens, however they can be used to make the parts of the word clear.)
Nouns on their own are not too complicated. The standard format for a noun phrase is as follows: <noun><number><adjectives><verb><adverbs>. The number is most interesting part here. Instead of using a normal singular/plural system, one can either use a precise number (see the vocabulary section) or use one of the following: -na = few, -ne = lots, -nene = loads, -nen = all.
Since the 'verb' suffixes can be used as adjectives pay close attention to which is the 'actual' one for the sentence i.e. the last one.
To show possesion, composition or apposition, put the parent, then 'bye', followed by the child. For example, 'the child's fish' is 'raoga-bye-nafei'.
When pronouns are introduced, there are usually a lot less words. This is because pronouns can change the suffixes to create new ones. They are always added after the verb conjugation. They can also be treated as actual nouns, but view the following table for using them normally:
|Meaning||Used with -n ending suffixes||Used with vowel ending suffixes||Noun equivalent|
The extra 'te's are optional, but are recommended for formality.
Since the pronouns modify the suffix, one must attach them to a noun. The suffix's meaning changes to the opposite. See the examples below:
nafei-cosenzya = He eats the fish. (The suffix becomes an object suffix because the 'co' is the actor.)
ga-osenzyenei = The man eats it. (The suffix becomes an actor suffix because the 'o' is the object.)
If one wants to create a noun phrase with a pronoun on its own, one must use the noun equivalent. For example, 'osenzyenei' (it is eaten) on its own is illegal so one must use 'bo-senzyen'. However, if the sentence is imperative, then the suffix may be present on its own, without a pronoun at all.
There are no reflexive pronouns in Taneikyan Selaneodarei.
Adjectives and Adverbs
Adjectives and adverbs can be simple but they can also be quite complicated. To create a adjective from a noun, just use the noun. For example, 'the happy child' would be 'child-happiness' (raoga-fenra). To create the most-happy, add -e, and to create the least-happy, add -terei. The comparative is more complicated. Start a new word before the current word, and insert the noun that to compare to this noun. Now add the adjective plus -le, -kerei or -tereina. View the examples:
|Plain||raoga-fenra||The child is happy|
|Most||raoga-fenrae||The child is the happiest|
|Least||raoga-fenraterei||The child is the least happy|
|As x as y||ga-fenrale raoga||The child is as happy as the man|
|Xer than y||ga-fenrakerei raoga||The child is happier than the man|
|Not as x as y||ga-fenratereina raoga||The child is not as happy as the man|
Adverbs work very similarly to adjectives: just put them after the verb in question. To create an adverb, add the prefix nei- to the adjective form. For example, 'I happily eat' would be 'senzyei-neifenra'. Remember that verbs being used as adjectives may not have any adverbs.
Since all suffixes have two meaning (for example, senzya means 'eats' and 'who/that eats') one can easily create relative clauses by appending an extra suffix to a noun, making the first an adjective. View the examples for clarification.
"The child who eats fish." = "The child eats fish." = "nafei-senzyen raoga-pa."
"The child who eats fish lives." = "nafei-senzyen raoga-pa-zan."
In the first sentence, 'pa' (meaning 'does') is the verb for 'raoga'. In the second sentence, 'pa' is now an adjective, with 'zan' becoming the verb. We can tell that 'nafei' is the object for the relative clause because of its suffix. If 'zan' needed an object ('zan' in intransitive, so a different verb would be needed to showcase this), then one could either use the -en form of 'zan', or place it afterward the word 'zan' and use the -en form of 'pa'.
To say something like "The child eats what his father likes" where the relative clause is not attached to a noun, one would say "ranega-pya a-pyen-senzyen raoga-pen". The infinitive form of 'to be liked' is used with the suffix 'to be eaten'.
Some verbs (such as to force - seina) as used as adverbs. Any verb that takes another clause as its object will be an adverb. They do not need they prefix 'nei-', but instead '-ta' is added at the end (informally just 't'). For example, "My wife forces my children to eat fish" would become "nafei-senzyen raoga-pen-seinata asega-pen". The adverb needs only to be applied to one instance of a verb suffix, just as usual. Sometimes the other clause will not need a subject, in which case it is simply not included.
At the end of any sentence an optional sentence marker may be placed. These are used to express tense, aspect, negativity, questions and imperatives. It is made of two parts. The first part shows the tense, aspect and negativity, with the other part showing questioning and commanding. Depending what is not already made clear from context, zero, one or two of the parts may be included. The marker is always at the end of the sentence.
|Finished||poroka- (informally pat-)||pokoka- (informally pot-)||ma-|
This table is mostly empty because a sentence can not be a question and an order at the same time.
|Part 2||Not a question||Question||Confirmation|
There are no adpositional phrases in the common sense in Taneikyan Selaneodarei. Instead, more verbs are introduced. There are special verbs that take the place of adpositions. For example, the verb for 'with' (i.e. doing the action alongside another person/thing) is 'mei'. It only has one form: 'mei'. To say 'I eat fish with the child', it would be 'nafei-senzyei raoga-mei.'. Adpositions that dealt with location and time have six forms (sometimes some of them cannot be used though): location (at), location (to), location (from), time (at), time (to) and time (from). Here is a table showing these for the adpositional verb 'after' (faro):
To use these locational/timal adpositions with other meanings than that of the verb 'zan' (to exist), these may double as adverbs with the suffix '-n'. To say 'I go to [the place] after where you eat', it would be 'ewa eisenzyane-faron'.
Note: All vocabulary is subject to change.
Taneikyan Selaneodarei uses a hexadecimal number system. To create numbers with more than one digit, just read out the digits one by one, left to right.
0 = sei, 00 = sesei, 000 = serei, 0000 = secan, 00000 = seba, 000000 = seben, 1 = ca, 2 = ban, 3 = zo, 4 = sa, 5 = bana, 6 = zan, 7 = ce, 8 = bon, 9 = che, A = se, B = bano, C = chera, D = cei, E = barei, F = nena.
For example, the number 124 is 7C in hexadecimal, so it is 'cechera'; the number 4096 is 1000 in hexadecimal, so it is 'caserei'.
To create a position from a number, e.g. first from one, add -re to the end of the number. To create a number of how many times an action was performed, e.g. once from one, add -ra. To create an age from a number, add -ga to the end of the number. To create a date from a number, add -reka to the end of the number. To create a month from a number, add -raka to the end of the number. To create a year from a number, add -rako to the end of the number. For example, the 11th of April, 2010 is 'banorekasarakaceceiserako'.
There are a special set of numbers for counting. They are used just like the normal numbers, but only for counting objects out loud.
0 = shei, 1 = cha, 2 = ban, 3 = zo, 4 = sa, 5 = bein, 6 = zan, 7 = chen, 8 = bon, 9 = che, A = se, B = ge, C = gan, D = cei, E = mon, F = na.
Days and Times
Monday = kanada, Tuesday = kabana, Wednesday = kazoda, Thursday = kasada, Friday = kabada, Satuday = kazana, Sunday = kakeda.
Times are written as 'hours + to + minutes + tei + seconds' using the 24 hour clock. For example, 19:20 is 'cazotocasa'.
"He did what he was told to by eating the fish." = "co-seten-copa nafei-senzyoche."
TODO: More example text and add irregular verb conjugations.