Taung Wai
Head direction
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

General information[]



Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g ʔ
Fricative f s ʃ ʒ h
Affricate tʃ dʒ
Approximant j w
Flap or tap ɾ
Lateral app. l


Front Near-front Back
Close i
Open-mid ɛ ʌ


Diphthongs are placed in the same vowel category as monophthongs.



IPA Romanization
m m
ŋ ng
p p
b b
t t
d d
k k
g g
ʔ -
f f
s s
ʃ sh
ʒ zh
h h
j y
w w
ɾ r
l l
i ee
ɛ er
ʌ uh
ɔɪ oi

The tones are marked by a number at the end of every syllable.


Taung Wai syllable structure is CV(n), with n being l, m, ʔ, or ŋ. If there is no consonant, it is replaced with a glottal stop. Words are typically one syllable long, with the exception of compound words. A glottal stop can be inserted in between an initial consonant and a vowel, which signifies a reversal of meaning or otherwise altering the original concept.


There are six tones in Taung Wai, with three distinct contour categories, which are: flat, falling, and dipping. The first tone is the highest flat tone, while the second tone is the near highest flat tone. Keep in mind the second tone is only slightly below the first, not in the middle range. The third tone is the lowest flat tone, at the lowest range, about the same pitch as the lowest dipping tone. The fourth tone is the highest dipping tone, with the pitch being at the middle range, and the fith tone is the lowest dipping tone. The sixth and final tone is a falling tone that starts at the high range and is similar to the falling tone in Mandarin.

Tone Contours
Tone 1 highest flat
Tone 2 high flat
Tone 3 lowest flat
Tone 4 higher dipping
Tone 5 lower dipping
Tone 6 falling


Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No Yes No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes No Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No Yes No Yes Yes No

The canonical word order in Taung Wai is Subject Object Verb.


Particles serve a variety of functions, detailed below.

Tense Particles[]

Romanization Meaning Position
guhng4 presently beginning of phrase
djoi5 in the near past beginning of phrase
haum1 in the near future beginning of phrase
hau6 far in the past beginning of phrase
wai2 far in the future beginning of phrase
gai1 about to happen beginning of phrase

Voice Particles[]

Romanization Meaning Position
-ei3 passive before verb
meeng1 active before verb

Mood Particles[]

Romanization Meaning Position
-aul5 hypothetical end of phrase
kei2 weak indicative end of phrase
muh1 strong indicative end of phrase
-aum3 unfulfilled necessity end of phrase
-aim2 unfulfilled action end of phrase
lee6 very likely end of phrase
suh4 interrogative end of phrase
yeem2 imperative end of phrase

Syntax Particles[]

Romanization Meaning Position
ngau3 links two nouns in descriptive or possesive relationships, with the first noun being the descriptor or possessor in between two nouns
tuhng3 links two nouns in a continuous list, or indicates accompaniment in between two nouns
zhoil4 marks a quotation before a quotation

The Glottal Stop[]

A glottal stop can be inserted in between the initial consonant and the vowel to change the meaning of the word to its negative form. It is synonymous with the English "not". It is considered a particle in Taung Wai. It cannot be applied to particles.


Conjunctions serve to link two clauses together, and are often disyllabic words.

Romanization Meaning
soi3 ngaim2 and
dei2 moi3 but
soi3 yee5 cause and effect


The nouns in Taung Wai have two forms, the nominative and accusative, which allows for flexible word order. The inflection of the noun is usually to such a degree that the two forms do not resemble each other at all. Nouns can be used to describe other nouns using the particle ngau3.


The pronouns do not have a nominative or accusative form, but the case can be inferred by context. There are three persons possible, three genders, and various numbers. The persons and genders are inflected while the number is indicated by a pronoun-exclusive prefix.

Number Prefixes[]
Romanization Meaning
yau2 dual
shee1 triple
ker4 many
k-er4 few
hau2 twenty
Common Pronouns[]
Romanization Meaning Gender Person
ngoi3 referring to oneself n/a first
ngei5 referring to the addressee n/a second
lee1 referring to a general entity n/a third
hei3 referring to a male entity male third
kei3 referring to a female entity female third
lei3 referring to a nonhuman entity nonhuman third



The demonstrative always precedes a noun or noun phrase.

Common Demonstratives[]
Romanization Meaning
goi2 this (near me)
djuhng3 that (near addressee)
gau4 there (away from both)
gau6 there (far away from both)
djer5 there (out of sight)

Cardinal Numbers[]

The number system in Taung Wai is based on a single set of numbers, capable of standing alone or being attached before a noun to modify it. 

Romanization Meaning
yai1 one
yee2 two
shaum2 three
sei4 four
nguh5 five
lau6 six
djuhm3 seven
bau2 eight
kau4 nine
shuh1 ten
teing2 twenty
her4 hundred
maung3 thousand
zhai6 ten thousand
chee1 hundred thousand
cherng5 million


Adjectives are a specialized class of words that are always placed behind the modified word. There are three morphological classes of adjectives that are present in Taung Wai.




Example text