Number of genders:
Teranian (Teranian: Tapnimisnim) is the current language spoken in the northwestern residual kingdoms of Tera (Tapnimisnim Resmcthumi) as well as the Republic of Tapni of Yupit.
After Anc Pateru, Tapnimisnim is the second most widely spoken language in Yupit due to the vast trading networks that the Teranian (Tapnimisnim) have created through the years. Ayese (Elihi) is spoken in the southwestern region of Yupit.
Modern Teranian or Manis Teranian (Teranian: Mnism Tapnimisnim) or Teranian Official or simply Teranian, is one of the three dialects that arose from Ancient Teranian (Teranian: Uyth Tapnimisnim). The other two dialects that developed from this ancient language are Simo Teranian (Smoute Tapnimisnim or simply Simo) and Teranian Zero (Mu Amth Tapnimisnim or simply Zero). Teranian Official became the leading dialect after the 300 year long War of the Dragons due to having the only two cities that were not overrun by the Azuli dragon riders. The Simo dialect, being the prominent dialect spoken prior to the war, had begun to decline and produced another dialect offspring after its people started to migrate to other parts of Yupit. This dialect would later become known as Zero. Although still mutually understandable, it is becoming increasingly difficult for a Teranian Official speaker to communicate with the Simo and Zero varieties.
Ancient Teranian is something that is not to be forgotten, however, as it is the original language from which all these dialects emerged from. It is still fervently studied by the upper-class nobles and scribes as it is still a dialect of Teranian intelligible by all.
This wiki-page will attempt to cover Modern Teranian (Tapnimisnim).
Teranian typically has many consonant clusters, which are usually omitted during common speech.
Anisc Crinimynip (Basic Grammar)
Teranian has an SVO sentence structure and has a Nominative-Accusative case system. It has minimal inflection and lacks grammatical gender and adjectival agreement. There are no case markers used in the language and words do not inflect except for personal pronouns. Except for variances in the pronunciation, Teranian verbs inflect the same way for all dialects.
Sesmbya Samtamcai (Simple Sentences)
Teranian has similar sentence structures to English. Except for pronouns, word position dictates what the function of the word is in a sentence. Here are a few examples of simple sentences in Tapnisnim and English with the subject italicized and the object bolded.
|Es unimt tenit pnithesu.||I want that radio.|
|Uyara sis te bapsum ueu es your?||Where is the person who I am looking for?|
|Te tnimri nipa tou strumc fur uns!||The tanks are too strong for us!|
|Te stanthamti tesmrar uf te tast te maet thnial.||The students thought of the test on the following day.|
Cumbunth Samtamcai (Compound Sentences)
Compound sentences are formed when two or more sentences are connected with the words and (nimth), or (up), however (euwarsar), but (ant), etc. Here are examples of compound sentences with the conjuction bolded. Common conjunctions are displayed in the following table.
|Es anit nimth syaib arsapal thnial nimth mescet.||I eat and sleep every day and night.|
|Es saim te seou aifura ant es marsar amtharstnimthar est.||I've seen the show before but I never understood it|
|Es wesyo thu tenit euwarsar es aebact ni paunipth.||I'll do it however I expect a reward.|
|UP||or||VALAT (also: VLAT)||yet|
Cumbyae Samtamcai (Complex Sentences)
Complex sentences are formed when a clause is joined by a subordinate clause, which is usually introduced via a subordinate word such as after ( niftar), because (aicniansa), for (fur), despite (thasbesta) or due to (thanatu).
Here are examples of complex sentences with the subordinate clause bolded and the subordinate word italicized. Common subordinate words are displayed in the following table.
|Niftar cumarsmc euma, te aubal syaibar.||After coming home, the boy slept.|
|Ya wesyo thu yar eumawupr wam estes thnipr.||He'll do his homework when it gets dark.|
|Aecabt fur mal mumal, es nim wupte mutesmc.||Except for my money, I'm worth nothing.|
|AECABT FUR||except for||AIFURA||before|
|NIFTAR||after||ARSAM SIF||even if|
The Teranian articles that correspond to the English a, an and the are ni (a, an) and te (the). The definite article is te and is used for the singular and plural forms of the nouns. Te is often contracted to t' before every noun. The indefinite article is ni. When ni is used with the plural, it means some.
|Te Eunsa||The house|
|Ni Thuc||A dog|
|Ni Nimcay||An angel|
|Te Thamumi||The demons|
|Ni Benimtumi||Some phantoms|
Pronouns in Teranian are, despite the high regularity of Teranian, highly irregular. This holds true for all the dialects except for Zero, which has, except for the genetive, lost its irregularity in its pronouns. Teranian does not have an honorific system with its pronouns as Ayese (Elihi) does. This feature enabled Teranian to be easily learned by foreigners and contributed to its widespread success. Pronouns decline from the nominative into the accusative, dative and genetive cases (possessive pronoun and possessive adjectives are going to be listed).
|Nominative||Accusative||Dative||Genetive Pronoun||Genetive Adjective|
|I||Es||Ma||t'Ma||Mesma||Mal or Mebal|
|You (sing.)||Valan (Vlan)||Valan (Vlan)||t'Vlan||Valar (Vlar)||Val or Valar|
|He||Ya||Yam||t'Yam||Yas||Yal or Yas|
|We||Wa||Ans||t'Ans||Unps||Ur or Unps|
|You (pl.)||Valun||Valun||t'Valun||Valar (Vlar)||Var or Valar|
|They||Tebal||Teyam (Tam)||t'Tam||Teyar (Tar)||Tal or Teyar|
1.) ES nim te resmc - I am the king
2.) VALAN canim thu es - YOU can do it
3.) Te tnimr panmar ursar MA - The tank ran over ME
4.) Te Urivalyun tralam tu resyo TAM - The Orifelion have tried to kill them
5.) Weu cesirsar MA te aour / Weu cesirsar te aour T'MA - Who gave ME the book / Who gave the book TO ME
6.) Ya yamthar MA ni mumali - He lent ME some money
7.) Tesis anesythesmc sis MESMA - This building is MINE
8.) Es canim mut tayo uesce sis VLAR nimth uesce sis MAL tubal - I can't tell which is YOURS and which is MY toy
Verbs are highly regular in Teranian. In fact, with the exception of the verb 'to be' (t'ai), all other verbs are regularly formed. The most irregularity with 'to be' occurs in the present tense. TO BE - tu ai (t'ai)
|Past||P. Progressive||P. Participle||P. Perfect|
|Future I||Future II|
|wesyo ai||cusmc t'ai|
COMMAND = ai
Bnist Tamsa (Past Tense)
The past tense is formed by taking the verb and adding the suffix -ar to it.
yursa (love) - yursar (loved)
cu (go) - cuar (went)
sbacanynita (speculate) - sbacanynitar (speculated)
snirsunp (savour) - snirsunpar (savoured)
tayo (tell) - tayoar (told)
Here is a table demonstrating how the past tense in Teranian and its dialects are formed.
|Ancient (+AT)||Modern (+AR)||Simo (+AL)||Zero (+A)|
|Kill -> Killed||Resi > Resiat||Resyo > Resyowar*||Reyo > Reyowal||Reyo > Reyowa|
|Race ->Raced||Pnica > Pnicat||Pnica > Pnicar||Pinca > Pincal||Pinic > Pinica|
|Say -> Said||Snival > Snivalat||Snial > Snialar||Snial > Snialal||Snal > Snala|
|Listen ->Listened||Yestam > Yestamat||Yestam > Yestamar||Yetam > Yetamal||Yetam > Yetama|
- Please note that when spelt, a -w- is placed between two vowels if the are 'o' + 'a' or vice versa
Fantanpa Tamsa I (Future Tense I)
To create the future tense in Teranian, simply apply the auxiliary future tense verb with the root verb. Here is a table demonstrating this. This is the primary way of forming the future and sounds very definite.
|Ancient (wesi +)||Modern (wesyo +)||Simo (weyo +)||Zero (weyo +)|
|See -> will see||Sa > wesi sa||Sai > wesyo sai||Sai > weyo sai||Sai > weyo sai|
|Hit -> will hit||Uest > wesi uest||Est > wesyo est||Uest > weyo uest||Uet > weyo uet|
|Win -> will win||Uesm > wesi uesm||Uesm > wesyo uesm||Uesm > weyo uesm||Uem > weyo uem|
|Go -> will go||Cu > wesi cu||Cu > wesyo cu||Cu > weyo cu||Cu > weyo cu|
Fantanpa Tamsa II (Future Tense II)
To create the future tense in Teranian, simply apply the auxiliary future tense verb with the root verb. Here is a table demonstrating this. This is the secondary way, which involves combining the progressive form of Teranian 'go' (cu) plus the root verb with the word 'to' (tu or often contracted to t') before the root verb. It is analogous to the English 'going to...' form.
|Ancient (cusmc +)||Modern (cusmc +)||Simo (cusmc +)||Zero (cusmc +)|
|See -> will see||Sa > cusmc t'sa||Sai > cusmc t'sai||Sai > cusmc t'sai||Sai > cusmc t'sai|
|Hit -> will hit||Uest > cusmc t'uest||Est > cusmc t'est||Uest > cusmc t'uest||Uet > cusmc t'uet|
|Win -> will win||Uesm > cusmc t'uesm||Uesm > cusmc t'uesm||Uesm > cusmc t'uesm||Uem > cusmc t'uem|
|Go -> will go||Cu > cusmc t'cu||Cu > cusmc t'cu||Cu > cusmc t'cu||Cu > cusmc t'cu|
Brasamt Brucrasesirsa (Present Progressive)
To create the present progressive tense in Teranian, simply add the ending -smc, pronounced -sɪŋk, to the root verb.
|Ancient (+smc)||Modern (+smc)||Simo (+smc)||Zero (+semc)|
|Spit> spitting||Sbest > sbestsmc||Sbest > sbestsmc||Sbest > sbestsmc||Sbes > sbesemc*|
|Pray> praying||Bepnival > bepnivalsmc||Brinial > brinialsmc||Bepinial > bepinialsmc||Bepinal > bepinalsemc|
|Lose> losing||Yusa > Yusasmc||Yusa > Yusasmc||Yusa > yusasmc||Yus > yusemc|
|Talk> talking||Tniyr > Tniyrsmc||Tenir > Tenirsmc||Tenir > tenirsmc||Teni > Tenisemc|
- Please note that with Zero, the ending is pronounced -sɛŋk rather than -sɪŋk as in the other dialects
Bnist Brucrasesirsa (Past Progressive)
To create the past progressive tense in Teranian, simply add the ending -smc, pronounced -sɪŋk, to the root verb in the past tense.
|Ancient (+atsmc)||Modern (+arsmc)||Simo (+alsmc)||Zero (+asemc)|
|Spat> was spitting||Sbestat > sbestatsmc||Sbestar > sbestarsmc||Sbestal > sbestalsmc||Sbesa > sbesasemc*|
|Prayed>was praying||Bepnivalat > bepnivalatsmc||Brinialar > brinialarsmc||Bepinialal > bepinialalsmc||Bepinala > bepinalasemc|
|Lost> was losing||Yusat > Yusatsmc||Yusar > Yusarsmc||Yusal > yusalsmc||Yusa > yuasemc|
|Talked> was talking||Tniyrat > Tniyratsmc||Tenirar > Tenirarsmc||Teniral > teniralsmc||Tenia > Teniasemc|
- Please note that with Zero, the ending is pronounced -sɛŋk rather than -sɪŋk as in the other dialects
Brasamt Bapfact (Present Perfect)
To create the present perfect tense in Teranian, simply add the ending -am to the root verb and use the modal verb unirsa + brasamt bapfact tamsa (Verb in Present Perfect).
|Ancient (+am)||Modern (+am)||Simo (+am)||Zero (+am)|
|steal > stolen||staniy > staniyam*||staniy > staniyam**||staniy > staniyam***||stani > stanyam|
|speak > spoken||sbanir > sbaniram*||sbanir >sbaniram**||sbanir > sbaniram***||sbani > sbaniyam|
|know > known||remuu > remuwam||ramu > ramuwam||remu > remuwam||ram > ramam|
|take > taken||tnira > tniram*||tnira > tniram**||tnira > tniraam****||tenir > teniram|
- (*) Please note that in Ancient Teranian, there was also a complete verb change and separate form of the verb for the present perfect tense regulated by rules such as single syllable words with the penultimate combination -ani- would change the -ani- to -u-. Verbs with the penultimate combination -nir- would replace it with -our-. This is one of the few rules regulating pure Ancient Teranian. Here are how the above verbs would look were that rule used:
staniy > stuyam (stolen)
sbanir > sburam (spoken)
tnira > touram (taken) and some extra examples: mnira > mouram (made)
uaniy > uyam (healed)
anit > autam (beaten) Luckily, Modern Teranian makes use of the simpler more predictable approach to forming the present perfect.
- (**) Although Modern Teranian uses the more systemic way of forming the present perfect, the Ancient way of forming the present perfect is still heard quite frequently usually by those more educated.
- (***) Simo also will use the Ancient method but much more rarely than Modern would. The only Ancient method of forming the present perfect that would be used is the -ani- to -u- switch. All other methods have been forgotten.
- (****) Also note that in Simo, final vowels are not eaten up and suffixes are simply added to the root verb resulting in a longer -a- pronunciation.
- Zero does not use this method at all.