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Terwene
Terwene
Type IAL
Alignment nominative-accusative
Head direction head-final
Tonal No
Declensions No
Conjugations Yes
Genders No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 97%
Statistics
Nouns 100%
Verbs 100%
Adjectives 100%
Syntax 100%
Words 1500 of 4000
Creator LukoCerante

Classification

Terwene is an IAL (International Auxiliary Language) based in part on Esperanto grammar (with Chinese influence), but with words which originate mainly from the world's five most spoken languages: Chinese (Mandarin), English, Spanish, Hindi and Arabic.

It is an a posteriori agglutinative SVO language, although much more inclined to isolating languages than most agglutinative languages, including Esperanto.

Phonology

Terwene uses letters of the basic Latin alphabet.

The stress is always on the syllable before the last one.

Consonants

CONSONANTS

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m n
Plosive p   b t   d k   g
Fricative f s ʃ x
Affricate t͡ʃ
Approximant j w
Trill r
Lateral app. l

Vowels

VOWELS

Front Near-front Central Back
High i u
High-mid e o
Low a

Writing System

Letter a b c d e f g h i k l
IPA Sound a b t͡ʃ (d͡ʒ) d e f g x (h) i k l
Letter m n o p r s t u w x y
IPA Sound m n (ŋ) o p r (ɾ) s (z) t u w ʃ (ʒ) j

The names of the vowels are themselves (a, e, i, o, u), while the names of consonant and semivowels are formed adding an -e (be, ce, se, ye, we, xe, etc.)

The ideal pronunciation for r is the trilled r, but any similar sound that's distinguishable from the rest of the alphabet is ok.

The semivowels w and y can be pronounced labializing/palatalizing the previous consonant, as forming a diphthong with a vowel, or, if that is too difficult, as separate vowels (trying to make them as short as possible and never being stressed).

Phonotactics

Words can end in vowels, semivowels, or the following consonants: l, m, n, r, s, x. Words must not contain consonant clusters of more than two consonants (not counting semi-vowels). Each vowel can be assigned one semi-vowel when pronouncing a word, not two, for example "yawa" should be pronounced "ya-wa" not "yaw-a".

If for some speakers it's difficult to pronounce consonants at the end of words, they may add an u sound after it, but it should not change the stress of the word.

Allowed consonant clusters:

Single

syllable:

l r w y Cross

syllable:

m n s l r w y
f flo fro fwo fyo anfe asfe alfe arfe awfe ayfe
p plo pro pwo pyo ampe aspe alpe arpe awpe aype
k klo kro kwo kyo anke aske alke arke awke ayke
t tro two tyo ante aste alte arte awte ayte
b bro bwo byo ambe asbe albe arbe awbe aybe
d dro dwo dyo ande asde alde arde awde ayde
g gro gwo gyo ange asge alge arge awge ayge
h hwo hyo anhe ashe alhe arhe awhe ayhe
s swo syo amse anse alse arse awse ayse
x xwo xyo amxe anxe alxe arxe awxe ayxe
m mwo myo asme alme arme awme ayme
n nwo nyo anme amne asne alne arne awne ayne
c cwo cyo amce ance asce alce arce awce ayce
l lwo lyo asle awle ayle
r rwo ryo awre ayre

Other consonant clusters are not allowed when creating a new root, though some of them may appear in word combinations when it's not possible to add an ending in between them.

Allowed diphthongs:

vowel+w w+vowel vowel+y y+vowel
a aw wa ay ya
e ew we ey ye
o ow wo oy yo
i wi
u uy yu

If someone find a diphthong too difficult to pronounce, they may pronounce them as separate vowels (w as u, y as i), as long as they are not stressed.

Grammar

Pronouns

In the third person there is no distinction of gender, but there is distinction of animate and inanimate things. This can be interpreted in many ways. Usually, one would use "ta" for people (or beings that are considered to have personhood) and "so" for any other thing. More generally "ta" can be used for anything that is capable of communicating, however it can be used for animals, plants or inanimate things for stylistic reasons, such as speaking to or about pets.

Plural pronouns are created adding -su, (I decided not to use the plural marker -s because a pronoun ending in -s creates conflict with verbs starting with s-, making for example "mis swa" (we are) sound like "mi swa" (I am)).

PRONOUNS

Terwene English
1st person singular mi I
2nd person singular tu you (singular)
3rd person singular (human) ta he/she
3rd person singular (not human) so it
1st person plural misu we
2nd person plural tusu you (plural)
3rd person plural (human) tasu they (beings)
3rd person plural (not human) sosu they (things)
impersonal pronoun somule one
reflexive pronoun os X-self, own

"Mi" comes from all the European languages where it appears, such as Spanish, English, Italian, etc.

"Tu" comes from Spanish, and it also appears in other European languages such as "du" in german.

"Ta" comes from Chinese "tā".

"So" comes from Spanish "eso".

Nouns

Normal nouns end in -e in the general form, but unlike many languages, Terwene's general form for nouns is not exactly the singular, instead, it could be said this is the "number neutral" form,which can be interpreted as either plural or singular. The plural is formed can be specified adding -s.

What does that mean? Let's look at some examples:

  • bisile = (the) eye/eyes
    • bisiles = (the) eyes
  • awte = (the) car/cars
    • awtes = (the) cars

When a noun is used with words that clarify an amount, it is not necessary to use the -s ending:

  • One apple: wan mafe = wan mafe
  • Many people: bahi wome = bahi womes

Apart from that, nouns don't change, but they can be combined to form new words.

Proper names

Proper names of people, places, and other things are nouns too, but because they don't usually have adjectival or verbal counterparts, it's possible to adapt names into Terwene without having them end in -e, but important proper names should follow Terwene's phonotactics and orthography as much as possible. For instances, "Argentina, Benesya, Franse, Brasil". Many names might be shortened in order to facilitate certain combinations, "Doyce" (Germany) -> "doycwene" (german language).

Verbs

Verbs end in -a in infinitive, which is replaced by other endings according to tense or mood. However, similar to how nouns in basic form can be used, infinitive verbs can be used everywhere, representing any tense or mood, while other endings can be used to be more specific about time or mood if context is not clear.

Infinitive -a
Present tense -an
Past tense -el
Future tense -on
Conditional mood -ol
Past conditional mood -em
Imperative/Volitive mood -am

Verbs have five suffixes which are used to create a lot of different verbs from just a few original verbs

  • -ad- gives the verb more duration, if the verb means an instant action, then adding this suffix usually makes it mean the result of that action. Examples:
    • pwa = to say ➜ pwada = to talk/speak
    • ha = to have ➜ hada = to own
    • bisa = to see ➜ bisada = to watch/look at
  • -ek- gives the verb a more instantaneous meaning or the beginning of the action
    • rana = to run ➜ raneka = to start running
    • sia = to know ➜ sieka = to learn (to start to know)
    • fa = to do ➜ feka = to do suddenly
    • ha = to have ➜ heka = to get/obtain
    • dorma = to sleep ➜ dormeka = to fall asleep/to start sleeping
  • -end- gives it the meaning of the culmination of the action
    • la = to go ➜ lenda = to arrive
    • dorma = to sleep ➜ dormenda = to wake up
  • -if- makes the verb transitive if it wasn't, else it makes it "to cause someone do X-action"
    • dormeka = to fall sleep ➜ dormekifa = to make someone sleep
    • dormenda = to wake up ➜ dormendifa = to wake someone up
    • eka = to begin ➜ ekifa = to (make something) start
    • fola = to fall ➜ folifa = to drop
  • -os- is only used on transitive verbs to make them intransitive or reflexive.
    • graba = to hold ➜ grabosa = to hold on to something
    • grabeka = to grab ➜ grabekosa = to grab on to something (to start to be holding on to something)

Verbs and context

It's important to clarify that verbs can have several meanings according to context, and the previously shown suffixes simply pin down the intended meaning.

Instant vs continuous

Most verbs fall into one of these categories, instant verbs being those that represent a change, and continuous those that represent a state (even if an active one like running).

As shown before, -ek- can be used to express change, while -ad- can be used to express a continuous state. However, when a verb is used without either of these suffixes, it can mean any of the two, allowing context to clarify which one is intended. Example:

  • doma = to sleep / to fall asleep
    • dormeka = to fall asleep
    • dormada = to sleep
Transitive vs intransitive

Similarly, verbs can be used as transitive, intransitive and reflexive, and context will usually clarify. When context isn't enough, it's possible to use -os-, -if- or the pronoun "os" to specify. This also happens in English with some verbs such as "finish" or "start".

  • enda = to end (something ends or someone ends something)
    • endifa = to end (something)
    • endosa = to end (something ends)
  • fola = to fall / to drop
    • folifa = to drop
    • folosa = to fall

The conditional mood

This mood has two endings: -em for the past and -ol for the rest (usually present). In English the conditional mood is expressed with "would" and with the past tense, while the "past" of the conditional mood is expressed with "would + present perfect" and with past perfect.

Present/Neutral:

  • Si mi siol xeno, mi laborol = If I knew how, I would work

Past:

  • Si mi siem xeno, mi laborem = If I had known how, I would have worked

However, most of the time this "past conditional mood" in other languages is used to express something that could or should have been done, bat wasn't. In this cases, Terwene can use indicative past tense instead.

  • Mi dwel no manca so, tan mi fel = I shouldn't have eaten it, but I did
  • Mi cel rana, tan mi no fel = I could have run, but I didn't

Participles

The active participle is the verb root plus the -ant- suffix and an ending according to its function, and the passive participle is created adding -ed- instead:

Form of verb Translation Example sentence Translation
aya to love Mi no kyan aya tu I don't want to love you
ayanti loving (adj) Mi swel ayanti tu

Ayanti wome swa beli

I was loving you

A loving person is nice

ayanto loving (adv) Ayanto ta, mi sieka Loving him, I learn
ayante lover Ta swel mi te ayante She was my lover
ayedi loved (adj) Mi swan ayedi per Luke I am loved by Luke
ayedo being loved ayedo, mi swa mas boni Being loved, I'm better
ayede loved one ta swa mi te ayede He is my loved one

All examples:

  • -ant-:
    • -an: Mi swan mancanti mafes = I am eating apples
    • -el: Mi swel mancanti mafes = I was eating apples
    • -on: Mi swon mancanti mafes = I will be eating apples
    • -ol: Mi swol mancanti mafes = I would be eating apples
    • -em: Mi swem mancanti mafes = I would have been eating apples
    • -am usually makes no sense with -ant-
  • -ed-: this one is used to create the passive voice, the meaning can vary between present and past depending on the verb and context, for example someone "known" is someone known today, not in the past, on the other hand something "eaten" can be something already eaten (past) or something that is commonly eaten in a place (present). In order to differentiate, one can use words like "hoim" (now).
    • -am: Mafes swan mancedi = Apples are eaten (or were)
    • -el: Mafes swel mancedi = Apples were eaten (or had been)
    • -on: Mafes swon mancedi = Apples will be eaten (or will have been)
    • -ol: Mafes swol mancedi = Apples would be eaten
    • -em: Mafes swem mancedi = Apples would have been eaten
    • -am: Mafes swam mancedi = (Let) apples be eaten!

Note: to show the agent in a passive voice phrase use "per"

  • pane swa mancedi per wofe = the bread was eaten by the dog

Adjectives and adverbs

Adjectives end in -i or -al. Yes, there are two endings. They don't agree in number with nouns.

There are two endings because -i is a more appropriate ending for most cases, but some roots end in -i or -y and would have been uncomfortable with another -i on top of it, so I decided that the -al ending will be used in those cases.

  • boni = good
  • nayal = young
  • nyal = in need
  • nyedi = necessary
  • lial = strong
  • beli = beautiful
  • kawai = cute

Adverbs end in -o and also don't agree in number. Adverbs are optional though, if context is clear and one is not sure whether something should be an adverb or an adjective, they may use an adjective.

Note: remember that even though basically all nouns end in -e, that doesn't mean that all words that end in -e are nouns (for instance "pre" means "before" and is a preposition, not a noun), or that "anti" is an adjective (it's a preposition too, the ajdective "antial" means "opposed"). The same goes for all grammatical endings: -a, -e, -an, -o, -i, -am, etc.

Syntax

Possession

Possession is shown using the te particle, which comes from the Chinese particle "de" and works pretty much like it works for possession ("de" has other uses in Chinese that Terwene's "te" doesn't, though), it's similar to 's in the English language, but also used with pronouns. For example:

  • Mi te awte = My car
  • Ta swa Lukas te penge = She/He is Lucas' friend
  • Dome swa tusu te = The house is yours
  • (Dati) womire, xenule te dome swa egi, swa mi te penge = The man, whose house is big, is my friend.

As with many things in Terwene, te is optional but only when it's preceded by a personal pronoun and context is clear, so one may say "mi penge" (my friend) but not "Lukas penge"*.

Questions

Yes/No questions (or questions that give you a definite amount of answers) are created adding the particle ma at the end of the sentence.

  • Tu swa boni = You are good
  • Tu swa boni ma? = Are you good?

Ma can also be used in negative sentences.

  • Tu no swa aytire ma? = You're not a father, are you?

Questions that give you the possible answer usually use the "xor" connector which is basically an "exclusive or" from binary logic (one can use regular "or" instead if one wants to). Examples:

  • Tu kya kafe xor cate ma? = Do you want coffee, or tea?

In that sentence it is explicitly stated that you can choose either coffee or tea, but not both. Possible answers:

  • (Ya,) kafe. = (Yes,) coffee.
  • (Ya,) cate. = (Yes,) tea.
  • Nuli, xyexe. = None, thanks.

Instead, if the speaker wants to give the option of choosing more than one thing, the speaker shall use "or" which is an "inclusive or". For instance:

  • Tu kya late, sukre or otre en tu te kafe ma? = Do you want milk, sugar or something else in your coffee?
    • Ya, late. = Yes. milk.
    • No, nule. = No, nothing.
    • Ya, ambi = Yes, both.

Other questions are made with xen- correlatives, unlike many languages but like Chinese, the order of the sentence does not change (although it is allowed) when asking questions, the xen- word​ is in the place where the answer will be. For example:

  • Tu manca xene? = What are you eating? (You eat what?)
  • Tu swa xenule te aytise? = Whose mother are you? (You are whose mother?)

Word order

Basic word order

Terwene follows the order SVO, but it is also allowed to use OSV (Yoda's order) and VSO. These three orders are allowed because out of the six possible orders one can only choose three and still be able to differentiate subject from object. The one-phrase rule is "the nearer to the left of the verb, is the subject", in SVO and OSV the subject is already to the left of the verb, and in VSO the subject is closer to the left of the verb than the object.

SVO was chosen because it's the most widespread order in the world, which includes English, Spanish and Chinese, the three most spoken languages.

Apart from order, there is nothing differentiating subject from object, so even pronouns stay the same when they are the object of the sentence:

  • Mi aya tu = I love you
  • Ta aya ta = She/He loves him/her
  • Misu bisel tasu = We saw them
Adjectives and other modifiers

Adjectives are usually placed before the noun they modify, but if it doesn't create misunderstanding, it is allowed to put them after the noun. When there are two adjectives for one noun, they can be placed together before or after the noun, they can be separated by the noun, by the word for and: "he" or by nothing at all.

  • Beli fasti womise / Womise beli fasti / Beli womise fasti / Beli he fasti womise / Womise beli he fasti = The/a beautiful, fast woman

In general modifiers are written before what they modify.

Articles

There is no specific definite (the) or indefinite article (a, an) but the number "wan" (one) can be used if necessary as indefinite article, for example there are words which can be either countable or uncountable, adding "wan" states that it is being used as countable:

  • Mi manca mafe = I eat (the) apple (maybe one, maybe a slices, maybe mashed, maybe many)
  • Mi manca wan mafe = I eat an apple
  • Mi manca mafes = I eat (the) apples

Instead there are words that can't be either countable or uncountable, in those cases "wan" should be avoided:

  • Mi swa wome = I am a/the person

The definite article does not exist because its usage would vary depending on the speaker's mother tongue, it doesn't exist in very important languages such as Chinese and Russian, so for the sake of simplicity Terwene doesn't have it either. For example let's look at comparisons. The words for comparative and superlative are "mas" (more) and "mos" (most), and the word for "than" is "ke":

  • Mi swa mas boni ke tu = I'm better than you
  • Mi swa mas tali ke tu = I'm taller than you
  • Ta swa mas beli ke tu = She's more beautiful than you
  • Ta swa mos beli = He is the most beautiful

But there is other way to say the superlative:

  • Ta swa mas beli ke tutules = He is more beautiful than everyone

Numbers

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 100 1000
nul wan dos san kwar kwin low ci co naw ten pay mil

Numbers are combined just like in Chinese:

  • 10: ten
  • 20: dosten
  • 30: santen
  • 400: kwarpay
  • 800: copay
  • 9 000: naw mil
  • 323 456: sanpay dosten san mil kwarpay kwinten low

After 999 999 there are words created in a similar way to "million", "billion", "trillion" but more regularly: number + ilye. Terwene follows the same scale English does, each new word adds 3 zeros. Unlike English, the word "wan" can be omitted just like it is done for "ten", "pay" and "mil".

  • pay = one hundred
  • mil = one thousand
  • (wan) wanilye(n) = one million
  • dos wanilye(s) = two million
  • ci dosilye(s) = seven billion

It's also allowed to simply read the numbers, like Chinese speakers do for years and phone numbers. This is only when context allows it. For instance:

  • 1998 = wan naw naw co
  • 2000 = dos nul nul nul
  • 233445 = dos san san kwar kwar kwin

Ordinal numbers are created adding -a. Other endings give other useful meanings:

  • wani = first
  • pay dosten coi = one hundred twenty eighth
  • wanio = firstly / in the first place
  • doso = in pair/s
  • teno = in groups of ten
  • ...

The reflexive pronoun

Terwene has the reflexive pronoun "os" which is used for all other grammatical persons. These are its uses:

  • To make the sentence reflexive for any subject (although it's also possible to use the same subject twice in the sentence to make it reflexive, for example "mi limpan mi" or "wome mancifan ta"):
    • Mi limpa os = I wash/bath myself
    • Tu mancifa os = You feed yourself
    • Myawe limpan os = The cat cleans itself
  • To specify or emphasize who is the owner of something:
    • Ta bisel (ta te) os te dome = He saw his own house
    • Mi aya (mi te) os te ermise = I love my own sister
  • As the suffix -os- that makes verbs intransitive/reflexive (which is presented above).
  • As a root for word building:
    • osaxe = property
    • morta = to die; morti = dead; morte = death; mortifa = to kill; mortife = an assassination; ➜ osmortifa = to suicide; osmortife = a suicide

Comparison

  • Comparative:
    • Ta swa mas boni ke tu = He is better than you
    • Ta swa kimas tali ke tu = He is less tall than you
    • Tu swa mas teligi ke mi swa kiteligi = You are more intelligent than I am dumb
  • Superlative:
    • Ta swa mos boni inter tutules/fro Argentine/de data oge = She is the best one among everyone/from Argentina/of that group
    • Ta swa kimos tali = She is the least tall
  • Equals: Ta swa (dato) beli xeno tu = She is beautiful like you

Subordinate sentences

Subordinate sentences use either xen- correlatvies, or if no xen- correlative works, they use the particle ke:

  • The xen- correlative has to respect word order. When possible, it's usually at the beginning, but when it's the object of the word, one has to be careful.
    • Mi no sia(,) xener ta swa = I don't know where he is
    • Mi tafahan kos xene ta fel date = I understand why he did that
    • Ta swa wome xenule te dome swa kunari = She is the person whose house is red
    • Mi bisel awte xene tu mayel = I saw the car you bought
      • Also: Mi bisel awte, tu mayel xene
  • To connect sentences that can't be connected by a xen- word, the particle "ke" is used
    • Mi sia ke ta swa en os te dome = I know he's in his own house
    • Mi tafaha ke date no swa ipli = I understand that's not possible
  • To connect sentences when the subordinate sentence represents a "ma" question (in English one would use "if" or "whether"), the particle "ma" is used
    • Mi no siel ma ta swel en os te dome = I didn't know whether she was in her house
    • Mi kwesta ma ta pwada Terwene = I ask whether she speaks Terwene

Lexicon

Passing from one word type to another

Changing the ending of a word can change its meaning from verb to noun, noun to adjective/adverb, and so on. Let's look what usually happens to the meaning:

  • Adj to verb: the verb usually becomes the transitive verb "to make something Xadj"
    • gari = warm ➜ gara = to heat
  • Verb to adj: adjective for things that are used or necessary to do or related to the action of the verb
    • manca = to eat ➜ manci = for eating/related to eating
  • Verb to noun: this noun usually is the name of the action of the verb, but can also be the process of the verb:
    • manca = to eat ➜ mance = a meal
    • dorma = to sleep ➜ dorme = sleep (noun)
  • Noun to verb: this verb is usually the action that is done with the noun:
    • martile = hammer ➜ martila = to (use a) hammer
  • Adj to noun: the name of the quality of the adjective most probably
    • beli = beautiful ➜ bele = beauty
    • kibeli = ugly ➜ kibele = ugliness
    • fasti = fast ➜ faste = velocity
    • egi = big ➜ ege = size
    • tali = tall ➜ tale = height
  • Noun to adj: usually "related to noun" or "for noun"
    • cate = tea ➜ cati = for tea
      • cati peye = a cup for tea
    • myawe = cat ➜ myawi = for cats

One syllable verbs

All verbs are regular in Terwene, just like in Esperanto. What that means for Esperanto is that every conjugated verb contains at least two syllables, such as "esti, pensas, diris, venu", etc. because very root contains at least one vowel, and every verb ending contains another one, so no one syllable verbs exist. In Terwene, I decided to have a limited amount of one syllable verbs (11 to be precise), which are the most commonly used, their roots contain no vowel (ex. sw-, h-, ky-, etc.). This way speech can be a bit faster.

The verbs are:

  • swa = to be
  • ha = to have
  • pwa = to say
  • da = to give
  • fa = to do/make
  • kya = to want
  • la = to go
  • xa = to like
  • nya = to need
  • ca = can / be able to
  • dwa = must / should / to have to

When using these verbs for word combination, it will usually be better to use the full infinitive (-a) or the noun (-e) rather than the bare root: nye + rume (need + room) = nyerume (room for needs / bathroom).

Also when using the root in other ways, such as using the noun derived from the verb, it's technically possible to just add the -e ending to the root (nya -> nye = to need -> a need), but sometimes it might be necessary to leave the -a ending and add -e after it (nya -> nyae).

Having these short verbs will surely create some ambiguities, "hola" means "to come", formed with ho- + l-, but maybe at some point there will be an independent word "hola" whose root is hol-, and has a different meaning, that's ok, and though it should be avoided, it usually makes for good jokes.

Correlatives

Correlatives are special words which consist of certain beginnings and endings and are ordered in a table.

CORR.

Known

thing

-i

Unknown

thing -e

Time

-im

Place -er

Reason

kos -e

Way -o

Amount

-un

Person

-ule

Kind

-i leye (de)

Which xen-

xeni which

xene what

xenim when

xener where

kos xene why

xeno how

xenun how much/many

xenule who

xeni leye what type of

That dat-

dati that

date that (thing)

datim then

dater there

kos date because of that

dato so/like that

datun that/so much/many

datule that one

dati leye that type of

This ho-

hoi this

hoe this (thing)

hoim now

hoer here

kos hoe because of this

hoo so/like this

houn this much/many

houle this one

hoi leye this type of

Some som-

somi some

some something

somim ever/in some moment

somer somewhere

kos some for some reason

somo somehow

somun some (quantity)

somule someone

somi leye some type of

No nul-

nuli no

nule nothing

nulim never

nuler nowhere

kos nule for no reason

nulo no way

nulun no (quantity)

nulule nobody

nuli leye no type of

Every tut-

tuti every

tute everything

tutim always

tuter everywhere

kos tute for every reason

tuto in every way

tutun "all of it"

tutule(s) everyone

tuti leye(s) every type of

Many bah-

bahi many

bahe many things

bahim many times

baher in many places

kos bahe for many reasons

baho in many ways

bahun a great amount

bahule(s) many people

bahi leyes many types of

Few kibah-

kibahi few, little

kibahe few things

kibahim few times

kibaher in few places

kos kibahe for few reasons

kibaho in few ways

kibahun little amount

kibahule(s) few people

kibahi leyes few types of

Other otr-

otri other

otre another thing

otrim in another moment

otrer in another place

kos otre for another reason

otro in another way

otrun another amount of

otrule(s) someone else

otri leye other type of

Any renh-

renhi any

renhe anything

renhim at any time

renher anywhere

kos renhe for any reason

renho in any way

renhun any amount of

renhule anyone

renhi leye any type of

"kos -e" and "-i leye" are in the table to explain how they are formed and used because they are common correlatives, but they are not technically their own correlatives, but derived from other correlatives. This system can be used to create new ones too.

The specific words for some of the horizontal meanings are:

  • ime = moment (this is also a suffix)
  • ere = place (this is also a suffix)
  • kose = reason
  • oe = way
  • une = quantity/amount
  • ule = individual (used like "person", "dude" or "guy")
  • leye = type/kind/class

Examples of correlatives in use

  • -i
    • Tu lega xeni kitabe? = Which book are you reading?
    • Dati dome swan mi te = That house is mine
    • Tu legel hoi kitabe ma? = Have you read this book?
    • Tu legon somi kitabe ma? = Will you read some book?
    • Nuli dyere fol date = No animal would do that
    • Mi legol tuti kitabe = I would read every book
    • Baha dyeres manca rowe = Many animals eat meat
    • Kibahi kitabes swa boni = Few books are good
    • Mi kya otri kitabe = I want another book
    • Mi kya lega renhi kitabe = I want to read any book
  • -e
    • Date swa xene? = What is that?
    • Hoe swa awte = This is a car
    • Swa some sor tawile ma? = Is there something on the table?
    • Mi fel nule! = I did nothing!
    • Tute swa kibona hoer = Everything is bad here
    • Mi kya bahe = I want many things
    • Mi kya kibahe = I want few things
    • Tu kya otre ma? = Do you want another thing?
    • Renhe swol boni hoim = Anything would be good now
  • -er
    • Mi te awte swan xener? = Where is my car?
    • Mi naskel dater = I was born there
    • Swa pane hoer = There is bread here
    • Mi sercendam mi te kitabe somer = I'll find my book somewhere
    • Mi te kitabe swa nuler = My book is nowhere
    • Mi dormel tuter = I've slept everywhere
    • Mi lel baher = I've gone to many places
    • Mi col la (to) kibaher = I could go to few places
    • Mi kya la otrer = I want to go to other place
    • Dormam renher = Sleep anywhere
  • -im
    • Misu mancon xenim? = When will we eat?
    • Mi datim siel = Then I knew
    • Holam hoim! = Come now!
    • Tu somim holel to Argentina ma? = Have you ever come to Argentina?
    • Mi nulim dorma = I never sleep
    • Mi tutim ayon tu = I'll always love you
    • Mi bahim lel (to) dater = I've gone there many times
    • Mi kibahim lel (to) dater = I've gone there few times
    • Ta lon otrim = She will go in other moment
    • Holam renhim = Come here at any time
  • kos -e
    • Kos xene tusu mel date? = Why did you do that?
    • Kos date mi lol to Mexiko = Because of that I would go to Mexico
    • Mi no dormel bono kos hoe = I didn't sleep well because of this
    • Mi kos some no sercendel mi te awte = For some reason I haven't found my car
    • Kos nule mi fol date = For no reason I'd do that
    • Mi aya ta kos tute = I love her for every reason
    • Mi aya ta kos bahe = I love him for many reasons
    • Mi lol kos kibahe = I'd go for few reasons
    • Mi mol date kos otre, no kos date = I'd do that for another reason, but not because of that
    • Ta manca kos renhe = He eats for any reason
  • -o
    • Tusu xeno fel date? = How did you do that?
    • Ta swa dato tali xeno os aytire = He is as tall as his father
    • Hoo somule fa keykes = This is how one makes cakes
    • Somo ta no tafahel = Somehow he didn't understand
    • Nulo mi fol date = No way I would do that
    • Mi dormel tuto = I've slept in every way
    • Mi ca la baho = I can go in many ways
    • Mi col la kibaho = I could go in few ways
    • Misu can la otro ma? = Can we go in another way?
    • Tu ca hola renho, tan holam = You can come in any way, but come
  • -un
    • Tu mayel xenun pane? = How much bread did you buy?
    • Mi nya datun = I need that amount
    • Houn kafe no swa sufican = This amount of coffee is not enough
    • Mi nya somun kafe = I need some coffee
    • Mi ha nulun kafe = I have no coffee
    • Mi ha tutun kafe = I have all the coffee
    • Mi ha bahun kafe = I have a great amount of coffee
    • Mi ha kibahun kafe = I have a small amount of coffee
    • Mi ha otrun kafe, no datun = I have another amount of coffee, not that amount
    • Mi xol renhun date = I'd like any amount of that
  • -ule(s)
    • Xenules swa datules? = Who are those?
    • Datule swa mi te erme = That one is my brother
    • Houles swa mi te penges = These ones are my friends
    • Somule mel date = Someone did that
    • Nulule mol date = Nobody would do that
    • Mi aya tutule(s) = I love everyone
    • Bahules manca pane = Many people eat bread
    • Kibahules kona mi = Few people know me
    • Otrule holendel, no ta = Someone else arrived (here), not her
    • Renhule ca fa date = Anyone can do that
  • -a leye (de)
    • Tu ha xeni leye de awte? = What type of car do you have?
    • Tu ha dati leye de awte ma? = Do you have that type of car?
    • Tu kona tuti hoi leyes de pane ma? = Do you know every one of these types of bread?
    • Somi leyes de dyeres manca rowe = Some types of animals eat meat
    • Mi ha nuli leye de pane = I have no type of bread
    • Mi ha tuti leye de pane = I have every kind of bread
    • Mi ha bahi leyes de cate = I have many types of tea
    • Mi ha kibahi leyes de kafe = I have few types of coffee
    • Mi no ha dati leye, tan mi ha otri leye = I don't have that type, but I have another type
    • Renhi leye swon sufici = Any type will be enough

The useful word "ke"

"Ke" has many uses, most of them are designed to make our lives easier, sometimes by replacing longer or more specific words when they are not really necessary.

"Ke" for comparisons

As seen previously, "ke" is used as the word "than" for comparisons:

  • Ta swa mas boni ke tu = He is better than you
  • Ta swa kimas tali ke tu = He is less tall than you

"Ke" in subordinate sentences

As seen previously, "ke" can be used to connect sentences when they can't be connected with xen- correlatives:

  • Mi sia ke ta swa en os te dome = I know he's in his own house
  • Mi tafaha ke date no swa ipli = I understand that's not possible
  • Mi no sia ke ta swel en os te dome = I didn't know that she was in her house

"Ke" replacing xen- words

When context allows and xen- words are either long, obvious, or simply make a sentence ugly, they can be replaced with "ke":

  • Ta swa wome ke dorma hoer (instead of "xenule") = He is the person who sleeps here
  • Data womire, ke te dome swa egi, swa mi te penge (instead of "xenule") = That man, whose house is big, is my friend
  • Tu swa ke te aytise? (instead of "xenule") = Whose mother are you?
  • Tu lega ke kitabe? (instead of "xeni") = What book are you reading?
  • Date swa ke? (instead of "xene") = What is that?
  • Mi te awte swa ke? (instead of "xener") = Where is my car?
  • Kos ke tusu fa date? (instead of "xene") = Why did you do that?

Days, months and years

The names of the days is created in a similar way to Chinese and Portuguese, with numbers. Months too. Monday is considered the first day of the week. The system is really simple: number + ote. There are two words for "day" in Terwene, one with the meaning of "rotation" for the 24 h day (ote), and one which represents the hours of light of one day (solime), which means "sun time".

Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday
Wanote Dosote Sanote Kwarote Kwinote Lowote Ciote

Months are created the same way but with the word "lune" which means both "moon" and "month". And weeks are lun+ab+e, meaning "a fraction of moon".

January February March April May June
Wanlune Doslune Sanlune Kwarlune Kwinlune Lowlune
July August September October November December
Cilune Colune Nawlune Tenlune Tenwanlune Tendoslune

The word for year is "yare". The order of dates is dd/mm/yyyy, let's see some examples:

  • Mi naska ces sani hore he dosabe dosarote tenwani (rote) de kwarlune wan naw naw co
    • I was born at 3:30 Tuesday the 20th of April 1998
  • Mi dormel dur lunabe = I slept during one week

Common phrases

  • Haye = Hi/Hello
  • Boni rote = Good day (at any time)
  • Boni solime = Good day (during daytime)
  • Boni kisolime = Good night
  • Boni morne = Good morning
  • Boni kimorne = Good afternoon
  • Til sun = See you soon
  • Til posote = See you tomorrow
  • Kihaye = Bye
  • Xyexe = Thank you
  • Kixyexe = You're welcome
  • Preye = Please
  • Ihane = Sorry
  • Bonholende = Welcome
  • (Tu swa) xeno? = How are you? (sing.)
  • (Tusu swa) xeno? = How are you? (pl.)
  • Bono, he tu(su)? = Good, and you?
  • Boni mancae! = Bon appetit!
  • Boni boye! = Bon voyage! (Good trip!)
  • Helse! = Health!

Prepositions

Important note: when prepositions are used alone (they are not working as prepositions), it is recommended to place them at the end of the sentence or in the place where they create the least misunderstandings, or a comma is placed after them to represent a silence.

To “to” direction

  • Ta holon to urbe = she will come to the city
  • Ta pwada to tasu = he speakes to them

I (i) is a preposition that marks the complement of certain verb that already have an object. Consequently, it's also used when making those phrases into passive voice

  • Mi likaya dome i kilimpa = I leave the house dirty (I made it dirty and left)
    • Compare to: Mi likaya dome kilimpa = I leave the dirty house (I left a house that was dirty)
  • Ta fel me i os penge = She made me her friend
  • Tu swa kaoledi i mos lial = You are considered the strongest
    • In active voice: Tutule kaola tu i mos lial = Everyone consideres you the strongest

Ces “at” relatively in the same position or time but not exactly

  • Mi te penge swa ces porde = my friend is at the door
  • Mi te erme swa ces tawile = mi brother is at the table
  • Ta swa ces angle = she is at the corner
  • Misu manca ces cial = we eat at 7

Fro “from/since”, origin in time, place, group, material, or otherwise

  • Mi lel fro ange to mi te dome = I went from the corner to my house
  • Tasu swa kronules fro wan naw naw co = They are kings since 1998
  • Ta swa fro Argentina = She is from Argentina
  • So swa fro arbaxe = It is made of wood
  • Tu swa mos beli fro misu = You are the most beautiful among/from us

Te “ 's ” possession

  • Lukas te kitabe = Luke's book
  • Hoi awte swa egikere te = This is the university's car

De “of” shows some relation or expresses quantity

  • Kitaboteke de urbe (Urbe te kitaboteke) = the city's library (not necessarily owned by the city)
  • Peye de kafe = a cup of coffee (a cup full of coffee) 

Dur “during/while”

  • Dur mi mancel, ta trinkel = While I was eating, he was drinking
  • Mi no futa dur mornes = I don't walk in the morning

En “in” necessarily inside, can be metaphorical or figurative

  • Mi resida en dati dome = I live in that house
  • Mi ika en egikere = I study in a university
  • Tu swa en xor kien ma? = Are you inside or outside?

Kien "outside"

  • Tu swa kien dome ma? = Are you out of the house?
  • Misu lam (to) kien = Let's go outside

Til "until” both for time and place

  • Mi mancel til nawi hore = I ate until 9:00
  • Misu ranam til dome! = Let's run up to the house!

Ko “with”

  • Mi manca mafes ko frutakwe = I eat apples with juice
  • Ko tu mi swa mas bono = With you I feel better
  • Ta resida ko ta te ermes = He lives with his siblings

Kiko “without”

  • Mi trinkan kafe kiko late = I drink coffee without milk

Par “for”

  • Mi fel hoe par tu = I did this for you
  • Ta fa keykes par kimaya = I make cakes for selling
  • Peye par ubalkole = a cup/glass for wine

Kos “because (of)”

  • Kos date mi no maya mafes = Because of that I don't buy apples
  • Ta no holon kos os te kihelse = She won't come because of her illnes
  • Mi no manca kos mi ne xa date = I'm not eating because I don't like that

Xya “under”

  • Womihe swa xya tawile = A child is under the table
  • Mi lel (to) xya awte = I went under the car
  • Ta swa xya = He is below

Sor “on”

  • Swa mafes sor tawile = There are apples on the table

Super "over" over something but not touching it

  • Tayres udana super misu te awte = Birds fly over our car

Tayti “instead”

  • Mi trinka tayti tu = I drink instead of you
  • Mi trinka tayti manca = I drink instead of eating
  • Tayti, tu manca = Instead, you eat

Amam "in front of" place

  • Mi swa amam tu te dome = I am in front of your house

Kiaman "behind"

  • Mi swa kiamam tu = I'm behind you

Pre "before" only for time

  • Premorne = early morning
  • Mi naska pre bahi tempe = I was born a long time ago
  • Pre mi dormeka mi manca = Before I fell asleep, I ate
  • Pre dorme mi manca = Before falling asleep, I ate
  • Mi nulim senta date pre = I'd never felt that before

Pos "after" only for time

  • Pos dormenda mi mancel = After waking up, I ate
  • Pos mi dormendel mi mancel = After I woke up, I ate
  • Mi fa date pos = I'll do that after/later

Pas "next to"

  • Mi swa pas awte = I am next to a car
  • Xene swa pas tu? = What is next to you?

Far "far from/far/away"

  • Mi swa far = I am far
  • Date swa far misu = That is far from us
  • lam far! = Go away!

Kifar "near/nearby"

  • Mi swa kifar tu = I'm near you
  • Misu la somer kifar = Let's go somwhere nearby
  • Data kifara kafere swa boni = That nearby cafe is good

Haw "about"

  • Tu sia haw xene? = What do you know about?

Tra "through"

  • Tra winteporde enla winte = Through the window enters wind

Cirki "around"

  • Cirki santen = around thirty
  • Cirkila = to go around
  • Cirki dome swa awtes = Around the house there are cars

Inter "between/among"

  • Internatyonal = international
  • Mi swa inter arbes = I'm between the trees

Anti "against"

  • Anti kihelse = against (for) an illnes
  • Anti mure = against the wall
  • Mi swa anti tu = I'm against you

Per "by/using"

  • Ta hola per awte = He'll come by car
  • Mi martila per martile = I hit with a hammer
  • Posoto swa acete per urbidre = Tomorrow will be the acceptance by the mayor
  • Kibite de myawe per wofe = The death of a cat by a dog

Kiper "without" without an instrument

  • Mi martila kiper martile = I hit without hammer

Tran "crossing/at the other side of"

  • Mi te dome swa tran sadake = My house is at the other side of the street
  • Tran dati nade swa otri lande = Crossing that river it's another country

Bey "beyond"

  • Misu la (to) bey urbe = Let's go beyond the city
  • Womoge nulim lel bey Lune = Humankind has never gone beyond the moon

Exeti "except, appart from, other than"

  • Mi manca tute exeti mafes = I eat everything except apples
  • Tutules hola exeti tu = Everyone came except you

When prepositions are optional

When a verb takes no object but takes a complement with some preposition, it's possible to leave out that preposition, if it is clearly understood which preposition has been left out (thus, context is clear). Very usually, this preposition is "to", or some preposition to express place or time.

  • Mi la dome = Mi la to dome = I go home
  • Mi boyon Mexiko = Mi boyon to Mexiko = I'll travel to mexico
  • Mi enla porde = Mi enla tra porde = I entered through the door
  • Ta sia numike = Ta sia baw numike = She knows about math
  • Mi swa dome = Mi swa en dome = I am in the house
  • Tayres udana misu te awte = Tayres udana super misu te awte = Birds fly over my car
  • Misu manca cial = Misu manca ces cial = We eat at 7
  • Tu dormel ten hore = Tu dormel dum ten hore = You slept ten hours

Prefixes

  • Ho- from ho- correlatives, this particle can also be used to show proximity, usually meaning "here". All of its uses are optional, for example, one may use "la" as "to come" but to be more clear it's possible to use "hola"
    • la = to go ➜ hola = to come
    • lenda = to arrive ➜ holenda = to arrive here (usually the speaker's "here")
    • lena = to take (from one place to another) ➜ holena = to bring (from one place to here)
  • Law- from lawa = law shows relation by marriage or similar relationship
    • aytise = mother ➜ lawaytise = mother in law
    • lawe = law
  • Disi- disseminating, separately
    • da = to give ➜ disida = distribute
    • disio = disseminatingly
    • disia = disseminate
  • Ex- ex-, former
    • presidante = president ➜ expresidante = expresident
    • exa = former
  • Ki- "un-" the opposite meaning or the closest approximation of it
    • maya = to buy ➜ kimaya = to sell
    • tonge = east ➜ kitonge = west
    • nore = north ➜ kinore = south
    • kial = opposite (adj)
    • kio = contrarily
    • senda = to send ➜ kisenda = to receive
  • Pre- before, pre-, long ago in time
    • histore = history ➜ prehistore = prehistory
    • bisa = to see ➜ prebisa = to anticipate (to have a vision)
    • morne = morning ➜ premorne = early morning
    • ayte = parent ➜ preayte = ancestor
  • Re- to repeat, to do again
    • senda = to send ➜ resenda = to resend
    • pwa = to say ➜ repwa = to repeat
    • reo ➜ again
  • Mis- to do incorrectly
    • tafaha = to understand ➜ mistafaha = misunderstand
    • usa = tu use ➜ misusa ➜ to misuse
    • miso = mistakenly/wrongly
  • Far- from afar
    • bisa = to see ➜ farbisatore = television (the object)
    • farbise = television
  • Dosab(e)- half-, semi-
    • hore = hour ➜ dosabehore = half an hour
  • Kwasi- almost, quasi-, pseudo
    • nome = name ➜ kwasinome = pseudnim
    • dyose = god ➜ kwasidyose = demigod
    • ihe = son/daughter ➜ kwasiihe = stepson/daughter

Suffixes

I won't repeat the five verb suffixes, they are explained in the Verbs section

  • -apl- capable
    • bisa = to see ➜ kibisapli = blind
    • swima = to swim ➜ swimapli = that can swim
    • apli = capable
  • -ipl- possible, the passive counterpart of -apl-
    • bisipli = visible
    • manca = to eat ➜ mancipli = edible
    • ipli = possible
    • iplo = maybe, possibly
  • -ul- individual characterized by the root
    • Argentina = Argentina ➜ argentinule = an argentine
    • anti = against ➜ antiule = an oppositor
    • fenfi = rich ➜ fenfule = a rich person
    • krone = crown ➜ kronule = king/queen
    • kimaya = sell ➜ kimayule = sales person
  • -wen- language
    • Enge = England ➜ Engewene = English (lang)
    • Franse = France ➜ Franswene = French (lang)
    • Cina = China ➜ Cinwene = Chinese (lang)
    • Israel = Israel ➜ Israelwene = Hebrew
    • Some languages that can not be derived from a place or people may not take -wen- and may not take the -e ending at all
      • Esperanto = Esperanto
      • Latin = Latin
      • Klingon = Klingon
  • -ax- concrete thing or material related to the root
    • manca = to eat; mance = meal ➜ mancaxe = food
    • dulci = sweet ➜ dulcaxe = a sweet/candy
    • arbe = tree ➜ arbaxe = wood
    • en = in ➜ enaxe = content
  • -es- state or abstract quality related to the root
    • beli = beautiful ➜ belese = beauty
    • gari = warm; gare = warmth ➜ garese = temperature
    • ekwi = equal ➜ ekwese = equality
    • libri = free ➜ librese = freedom
    • ule = an individual; ulese = individuality
    • When you turn an adjective into noun and it already means the quality, -es- is not necessary:
      • fasti = fast ➜ faste = velocity (=fastese)
  • -il- tool to do the verb of the root or related to it
    • tingaxarte = music ➜ tingaxartile = a musical instrument
    • ile = tool
  • -og- group of the root
    • arbe = tree ➜ arboge = forest
    • bede = sheep ➜ bedoge = a flock of sheep
    • wome = human ➜ womoge = humankind
  • -ib- tendency or inclination to do somthing (not all -ive English words end with this!)
    • krea = to create ➜ kreibi = creative
    • pwada = to talk ➜ pwadibi = talkative
    • repwa = to repeat ➜ repwibi = repetitive
    • imagina = to imagine ➜ imaginibi = imaginative
  • -ind- worthy
    • lega = to read ➜ legindi = read-worthy
    • aceta = to accept ➜ acetindi = acceptable (worthy of acceptance)
    • xyexa = to thank ➜ xyexindi = worthy of being thanked
  • -eyn- recipient or container of the thing or characterized by the root
    • male = money ➜ maleyne = wallet
    • kigari = cool/cold ➜ kigareyne = fridge
    • cefa = to cook ➜ cefeyne = oven
    • eyne = recipient
  • -ist- professional of follower of a doctrine (can be interchangeable with -ul- in some words)
    • dente = tooth ➜ dentiste = dentist
    • helsa = to treat/cure ➜ helsiste = physician/doctor
    • pyane = piano ➜ pyaniste = pianist
    • Budha (or Buda) = Buddha ➜ budhiste = buddhist
  • -ism- doctrine, idea, religion
    • Kristo = Christ ➜ kristisme = christianity
    • Budha = Buddha ➜ budhisme = buddhism
    • Marx(e) = Marx ➜ marxisme = marxism
    • socie = society ➜ sociisme = socialism
  • -ator- machine, part of machine, or system that does the verb of the root (it's NOT used for people who do a work, -ist- or -ul- are used instead, not even roots should end with -ator if it's for people, in the rare case there is a profession that needs its own root then it may end in -ador, but preferably some form with -ist)
    • faste = velocity; barya = to change; fastebarya = to accelerate ➜ fastebaryatore = accelerator
    • udana = to fly ➜ udanatore = flying machine, aircraft
    • winge = wing ➜ wingudanatore = plane, aircraft with wings
    • aspe = blade ➜ aspudanatore = helicopter
    • ciswa = to calculate ➜ ciswatore = calculator
  • -opl- multiplication
    • dosopli = double
    • sanopla = to triple
    • kwaropli = quadruple
    • opli = to multiply
  • -ab- fraction
    • dosabe = a half
    • sanaba = to divide in three parts
    • kwarabe = a quarter
    • lune = moon/month ➜ lunabe = week
    • aba = to divide
    • abe = fraction
  • -ar- color
    • kune = blood ➜ kunari = red
    • banane = banana ➜ bananari = yellow
    • akaxe = sky ➜ akaxari = blue
    • orange = orange ➜ orangari = orange
    • plante = plant ➜ plantari = green
    • ube = grape ➜ ubari = purple/violet
    • lume = light ➜ lumari = white
    • kilume = darkness ➜ kilumari = black
    • rake = ashes ➜ rakari = grey
    • kafe = coffee ➜ kafari = brown
    • bahi = many ➜ bahari = colorful
    • are = color
    • By the way, to say "light blue" or "dark blue" and similar combinations, the word (ki)lumi or the prefix (ki)lum(i)- are used:
      • lumakaxari = light blue
      • kilumakaxari = dark blue
      • lumirakari = light grey
      • lumikunari = pink
  • -eg- a bigger or stronger counterpart of the root
    • lafa = to laugh ➜ lafega = to laugh a lot or very hard
    • winte = wind ➜ wintege = a very strong wind
    • gari = warm ➜ garegi = hot
    • kigari = cool ➜ kigaregi = cold
    • egi = big
  • -it- a smaller or softer counterpart of the root
    • lafa = to lough ➜ lafita = to smile
    • winte = wind ➜ wintite = a breeze
    • lage = lake ➜ lagite = lagoon
    • nade = river ➜ nadite = stream/creek
    • gari = warm ➜ gariti = warm but more temperate
    • kigari = cool ➜ kigariti = cool but more temperate
    • safine = ship ➜ safinite = boat
    • iti = small
  • -er- place
    • maya = to buy ➜ mayere = store
    • manca = to eat ➜ mancere = restaurant
  • -otek- a place to save lots of the same thing
    • kitabe = book ➜ kitaboteke = library
    • male = money ➜ maloteke = bank
  • -im- time, moment, season
    • gari = warm ➜ garime = sommer
    • kigari = cool ➜ kigarime = winter
    • flore = flour ➜ florime = spring
    • foyle = leaf ➜ foylime = autumn
    • sole = sun ➜ solime = day
  • -a- this infinitive ending can also be used with other endings representing the meaning of the verb if the root itself doesn't express it well (thus the root is rather a noun or adjective than a verb)
    • "krone" means "crown", and "krona" is "to crown", but to say the name of the action one can't go back to "krone" to mean coronation, so one leaves the infinitive ending, thus "kronae" is "coronation".
    • martile = hammer; martila = to hammer ➜ martilae = hammering (the name of the action)
  • -ic- a part or particle of the whole or of the material
    • sande = sand ➜ sandice = a grain of sand
    • sale = salt ➜ salice = a grain of salt
    • himpate = snow ➜ himpatice = a snowflake
    • towfe = hair (the whole) ➜ towfice = a single hair
  • -idr- leader, ruler, boss
    • urbe = city ➜ urbidre = mayor
    • probince = province/state ➜ probincidre = gobernor
    • lande = country ➜ landidre = president, king/queen, etc.
    • safine = ship ➜ safinidre = captain
  • -ih- offspring, son
    • wome = person/human ➜ womihe = child
    • myawe = cat ➜ myawihe ➜ kitten
    • faraxe = butterfly ➜ faraxihe = caterpillar
    • kronule = king/queen ➜ kronulihe = prince/princess
  • -is- -ir- -ip- the first one is for women the second one for men and the third one is for non-binary people
    • ayte = parent ➜ aytise = mother; aytire = father; aytipe = non-binary parent
    • aypenge = boy/girlfriend ➜ aypengise = girlfriend; aypengire = boyfriend
    • ihe = son/daughter ➜ ihise = daughter; ihire = son
    • ise = a woman (for humans, female for other living beings)
    • ire = a man (for humans, male for other living beings)
    • ipe = non-binary person
    • These suffixes should not be used in excess, only when it's really necessary to mention gender/sex of the person/living being in question.
  • -ik- means science or pseudoscience that studies X field (most words that in English end in -ics and -logy)
    • ike = science
    • nume = number ➜ numike = mathematics
    • wene = language ➜ wenike = linguistics
    • dyose = god ➜ dyosike = theology
    • helse = health ➜ helsike = medicine
    • bite = life ➜ bitike = biology

Addressing Esperanto's inconsistensies

Ki- and no-

The word no can be used in a similar way to ki- but they are not the same, the first one is the negation of the meaning, while the second one is the opposite meaning. Sometimes both arrive at the same meaning, in those cases ki should be used, but no may be used when ki does not create the correct meaning or doesn't make sense at all.

There are words that could have been created through ki, but two separate roots have been chosen because either a shorter word was needed (such as for prepositions), a root that started in a vowel was needed (for suffixes such as eg and it), or the two words should be different for better understanding (such as pre and pos).

Family words

There are four main family words:

  • ayte = parent
  • ihe = offspring (son/daughter)
  • erme = sibling
  • espe = spouse

With those, the -is-/-ir-/-ip- suffixes for gender, and the -it-/-eg- suffixes for age, we can create most of the family words that a culture may need. For example:

  • aytayte = grandparent
  • aytiraytise = the mother of my father
  • ermihe = nephew/niece
  • ayterme = uncle/aunt
  • aytermespe = uncle's/aunt's spouse
  • aytermihe = cousin
  • ihihe = grandson/granddaughter
  • ermisite = younger sister
  • ermirege = older brother
  • ermespire = a sibling's husband
  • and many many more...

Short words not worthy of being classified

Some words and phrases in many languages like "very", "too", "and", "but", "at least", "still" and so on, are difficult to classify and usually don't follow the same rules. In Terwene that means that these words don't take any ending in their usual form. Here is a list:

  • He and
    • Mi manca pane he trinka cate = I eat bread and drink tea
  • Or inclusive or
  • Xor exclusive or
  • Tan but
  • Hen very
    • Tu swa hen beli = You are very beautiful
  • Tay too (in the sense of too much)
    • Dati swa tay egi = That one is too big
  • Amba both
  • Ye also, too
    • Mi aya wofes, mi aya ye myawes = I love dogs, I love cats too
    • Tu manca pane, ye mi manca pane = You eat bread, I also eat bread
  • Mas plus, more, anymore
    • Plus in maths: Wan mas dos swa san =One plus two is three
    • More: Mi kya mas pane = I want more bread
    • More and -er in comparisons: Tu swa mas tali ke mi = You are taller than me
    • Anymore when with no: Mi no mas dorma bono = I don't sleep well anymore
  • Mos
    • Most and -est in comparison
    • Mose maximum (noun): Xenun swa mose? = How much is the maximum?
    • Mosi maximum (adj): Mosi ose swa ten = The maximum amount is ten
    • Moso at most: Mi kya moso ten = I want at most ten
  • Kimas
    • Minus in math: san kimas dos swam wan = three minus two is one
    • Less: mi xam ko kimas sukare = I like it with less sugar
    • Less in comparison: ta swam kimas tali ke tu = she is less tall than you
  • Kimos
    • Least in comparison: Tu swa kimos teligi = You are the least intelligent
    • Kimose Minimum (noun): Xenun swa kimose? = How much is the minimum?
    • Kimosi minimum (adj): Kimosa une swa ten = The minimum amount is ten
    • Kimoso at least: Kimoso ten wome holel = At least ten people came
  • Kwasi
    • Almost: Mi kwasi lenda = I'm almost arriving
    • + no barely: Mi kwasi no dorma = I barely sleep
  • Ankor
    • Still: Ta ankor manca = He's still eating
    • + no yet: Tu ankor no manca = You haven't eaten yet
  • Yam
    • Already: Mi yam tafaha = I already understand
    • Yet: Tu yam manca hoer ma? = Have you eaten here yet?
    • + no no longer: Mi yam no manca rowe = I no longer eat meat
  • Sun soon
  • Preoto yesterday
  • Hooto today
  • Posoto tomorrow
  • Oto daily
  • Lunabo weekly
  • Luno monthly
  • Yaro annually
  • Iben even
    • Iben tu tafaha date = Even you understand that
  • Hus just (recently)
    • Mi hus fa so = I just made it
  • Tuy immediately
    • Holam tuy! = Come immediately

Other vocabulary

Animal and human parts

  • Kepe = extremity, limb (arms, legs, tails, trunks)
    • Sorkepe = arm
    • Xyakepe = leg
    • Kiamamkepe = tail
    • Ganda = to smell ➜ gandile = nose ➜ gandilkepe = trunk
  • Bisa = to see ➜ bisile = eye
  • Ganda = to smell ➜ gandile = nose
  • Tinga = to hear ➜ tingile = ear
  • Onte = lip
    • Ontoge = mouth
  • Oste = bone
  • Towfe = hair
  • Bisiltowfe = eyelash
  • Frente = forehead
  • Bisilfrente = eyebrow
  • Pyele = skin
  • Xente = body
  • Mane = hand
  • Kepite = finger, toe
  • Fute = foot
  • Kepitedire = nail (dire = shield)
  • Neke = neck
  • Maneneke = wrist
  • Pensa = to think ➜ pensile = brain
  • Towe = head
  • Towmyene = face
  • Dile = heart
  • Dente = tooth

Rooms

  • Rume = room
  • Cefa = to cook ➜ cefrume = kitchen
  • Dorma = to sleep ➜ dormerume = bedroom
  • Manca = to eat ➜ mancerume = dining room
  • Limpa = to wash ➜ limperume = washing room
  • Bana = to take a bath ➜ banerume = bathroom (with shower)
  • Nya = to need ➜ nyerume = bathroom (with or without a shower)
  • Bite = life ➜ bitrume = living room

Person, human, man and woman

The word for human, man and woman is "wome" which may take a suffix to specify gender. However, even though some languages, like Chinese, have only one word for person/human, I decided to have a separate word for person, since humans are a species, while person is more like an intelligent being. Think about it, would you rather call an Artificial Intelligence which is as smart and concious as us a human or a person? Would you rather call an intelligent alien a human or a person? Also the word "person" is used for other meanings, such as "juridical person". So, the word for person is "persone".

IUPAC nomenclature

Alkanes (alkanes), alkenes (alkenes) and alcynes (alkines) use Terwene numbers as prefixes.

Number of carbons 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 20
Prefix wan dos san kwar kwin low ci co naw ten tenwan tendos dosten

Ex.:

  • Wanalkane = methane
  • Dosalkene = ethene
  • Tenwanalkine = undecyne

This is just an example. Similar prefixes and suffixes can be created from Terwene's own words to create a scientific vocabulary much more comprehensible to common people, not just scientists who studied for years.

Example text

The North Wind and the Sun

The North Wind and the Sun were disputing which was the stronger, when a traveler came along wrapped in a warm cloak. They agreed that the one who first succeeded in making the traveler take his cloak off should be considered stronger than the other. Then the North Wind blew as hard as he could, but the more he blew the more closely did the traveler fold his cloak around him; and at last the North Wind gave up the attempt. Then the Sun shined out warmly, and immediately the traveler took off his cloak. And so the North Wind was obliged to confess that the Sun was the stronger of the two.

Nora Winte he Sole

Nora Winte he Sole kiakordel baw xenule swa mas lial, datim boyule holel bolbedi en gari kowte. Tasu akordel ke ule wanio pahunca ifa boyule i saka os kowte, datule dwa swa kaoledi i mas lial inter ambe. Datim Nora Winte soplel lio xeno ta cel, tan mas ta soplel, mas tango boyule bolbosel en kowte; he endo Nora Winte likayel tenta. Datim Sole xaynekel garito, he boyule tuy saka os kowte. He kos date Nora Winte dwel amita ke Sole swa mas lial inter ambe.

Mars (planet) Wikipedia article

Marse (planete).

Marse swa kwari planete fro Sole he dosi mas iti planete en Soli Sisteme pos Merkure. So ha nome de romi dyose de harbe, he so plurimo swa nomedi "Kunari Planete" kos kunaroydi feri oxigaxe sor os te myene dan to so kunaroydi oyde ke swa kibehifi inter astes bisipli to akeli bisile. Marse swa petri planete ko kidensi ayreparate, so ha myeni myases oydi to Lune te krateres he to Tere te bales, sahares, he poli barfi parates.

Marse te oti imege he gari cikle ye swa oydi to Tere te, kos tasu te klines, xeni kosa gara cikle. Sor Marse swa Olimpus Monte, mos egi hwomonte he dosi mos tali konedi monte en Soli Sisteme, he ye swa Bale Marineris xeni swa wan de mos egi bales en Soli Sisteme. Kirofi Norpoli Diprese en nori dosabesfire okupa kwarten interpaye de planete he iplo swa egegi kratere. Marse ha dos lune: Fobose he Deymose, ambi swa iti he ko kireguli morfe. Sosu iplo swa trapedi astites, xeno 5261 Eureka, Marsi troyane.

Dictionary

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