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Name: Tláymyts

Type: Flexional

Alignment: Nominative–accusative

Head Direction: Initial

Number of genders: 2

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


Modern Tláymyts (pron. [ʲtlɛmjts]) is the most important language in the planet Drion.

Its main characteristics are the loss of old second person in both singular and plural, with the adoption of old formal address fuzi as the new second person form. This reflected in a change in pronouns and a great simplification of verb conjugation.

Phonetically, the old stress pattern of unstressed, half-stressed and stressed syllables was changed to a simpler system with only stressed and unstressed syllables, which affected mostly the vowels i and u.

In nouns, a new case system was created, resulting from the use of prepositions as postpositions (which was already current in Classical Tláymyts) and then as suffixes. Articles were lost, although the number ón ([hɔn]) is still used as an indefinite article for emphasis.


In the field of phonology, Tláymyts has developed in a very interesting way.

The innovations that broke Modern Tláymyts apart from Classical Tláymyts are based on two factors:

  1. Stress became functional in both nominals and verbs.
  2. Semivowels tended to disappear, but always leaving some traces behind.


In almost all Nekturian languages, stress does not play any role in morphology or vocabulary. That was true for Tláymyts as well, up to the Classical period. In modern Tláymyts, stress has a morphologic use in nominals (nouns, adjectives, pronouns, numbers) and verbs.

In nominals, stress is used to distinguish nominative from other cases. In the nominative case, words are always stressed on the first syllable (there are some exceptions). In accusative (and, therefore, in all other cases), words are stressed on the last syllable (no exceptions). So, e.g.:

  • nêmay [ʲnemɛ] "mine" (nominative), nemaí [nemaʲhi] "mine" (accusative)
  • fárè [ʲfaɾɛ] "candle" (nominative), faré [faʲɾɛ]"candle" (accusative)
  • êlnèmts [ʲhelnɛmts] "sisters" (nominative), elnémts [helʲnɛmts] "sisters" (accusative)

In verbs, stress is used to differentiate past tenses from present/future tenses. All verbs in any present or future tense is stressed on the first syllable (there are exceptions, see below), while all verbs in any past tense is stressed on the last syllable (no exceptions). For this division, conditional is put in the group of past tenses. E.g.:

  • stressed on the first syllable:
    • éne [ʲhɛnɛ] "loves"
    • énèlanwts [ʲhɛnɛlɑnWts] "we will love"
    • énèlè [ʲhɛnɛlɛ] "you/he/she will love"
  • stressed on the last syllable:
    • ènwó [hɛnWʲhɔ] "loved"
    • ènèlaí [hɛnɛlaʲhi] "would love (sing.)"
    • ènèlé [hɛnɛʲlɛ] "you/he/she had loved"
    • dylaí ènètú [dilaʲhi (hɛ)nɛʲtu] "you/he/she would have loved"


Semivowels i and u have a tendence to disappear. However, they always leave some trace in the preceding consonants and, in some dialects, in the preceding vowels as well. A consonant that comes before the semivowel i is palatalized after it disappears, while a consonant that comes before the semivowel u is labialized after it disappears. So, we get:

  • párw [ʲpɑɾW] "beautiful"
  • méfy [ʲmɛfj] "spaceship"

Non-tonic i is written y, while non-tonic u is written w.

The standard language only recognizes alteration on vowels resulting from semivowel dropping in the case of diphthongs. All old diphthongs are turned to monophthongs in the modern language (although they are still written as diphthongs in the standard orthography). So:

  • dáy (pron. [dɛ]) from dái [ʲdai] "aunt"
  • dêw (pron. [do], [dø]) from dêw [ʲdeu] "uncle"
  • ráyw (pron. [ɾɔ], [ɾœ]) from ráiu [ʲɾaiu] "lion" (i.e., a large fierce animal resembling a lion)

In all these cases, the old orthography is maintained in the native Tláymyts alphabet.

In diphthongs in which a semivowel comes before a vowel, there is no fusion.


In modern Tláymyts a vowel can not start a syllable. When this was the case, an aspiration is used. This aspiration is also used whenever a semivowel comes before a vowel. So:

  • elaí (pron. [helaʲhi]) from old elai (pron. [eʲlai]) "would go (sing.)"
  • ènwó (pron. [hɛnɯʲhɔ]) from old enúo (pron. [ɛʲnuo]) "(you/he/she) loved"

This aspiration, although present in all Tláymyts dialects with no exception, is never represented in writing.

Syllable Dropping[]

When a word ends in a stressed vowel and the following word starts with an aspirated vowel, the starting syllable of the second word may be dropped:

  • dylaí ènètú -> dylaí 'nètú (pron. [djlaʲhi nɛʲtu]) "you/he/she would have loved"
  • fyeú híry -> fyeú 'ry (pron. [fjeʲhuɻ]) "he came"
  • fyeú árè -> fyeú 'rè (pron. [fjeʲhuɾɛ]) "she came"

Words beginning with yts- drop the semivowel together with the aspiration:

  • Old izdúlai -> ytsdúlay [hjtsʲdulɛ] -> ytsdúlay [ʲtsdulɛ] "story"

This occurs only in spoken language. It is never indicated in the standard orthography.


p [p] t [t] k [k]
b [b] d [d] g [ɡ]
f [f] v [v] ts [ts] dz [dz]
s [s] sh [ʃ] z [z] j [ʒ]
m [m] n [n] r [r] l [l]

The cosonant z becomes ts at the end of syllables. E.g.:

  • béz -> béts [bɛts] "peace"
  • izdúlai -> ytsdúlay [(hj)tsʲdulɛ] "history"

This variation of z has its own character in the standard Tláymyts alphabet.

The aspiration (h) is not considered a consonant and is not represented in Tláymyts orthography, although it happens in all current dialects.

When g comes before a stressed é, ê or í, it is pronounced as a semivowel y. So, gésè "house" is actually pronounced [ʲjɛsɛ] . In unstressed syllables there is no change, so the accusative gèsé is pronounced with a g just as it is written: [gɛʲsɛ] .

The consonant k may be pronounced as kh in stressed syllables.

In one single word, íry [ʲhiɾj] "he", and its plural form, íryts [ʲhiɾjts], there may be a retroflex variant of the consonant r, when this word comes after a stressed syllable ending in a vowel, becoming thus a suffix. So:

  • fyá íry ['fja 'hirj] or ['fjaɻ] "he goes"
  • zhikwó íry [dʒjkʍ'hɔ 'hiɾj] or [dʒjkʍ'hɔɻ] "he arrived"


When the vowel i disappears due to loss of stress, it affects the consonant which comes immediately before it by palatalizing it. The degree of palatalization is varies greatly from speaker to speaker. In the case of the letter n, the result is a palatal nasal [ɲ] in most cases.

py [pʲ] ty [tʲ] ky [kʲ]
by [bʲ] dy [dʲ] gy [ɡʲ]
fy [fʲ] vy [vʲ]
sy [sʲ] shy [ʃʲ] zy [zʲ] zhy [ʒʲ]
my [mʲ] ny [ɲ] ry [rʲ] ly [lʲ]

The degree of retention of the vowel in these cases varies from speaker to speaker. E.g.; while most speakers pronounce bykél as [bʲçɛl] (one syllable), some would pronounce it as [bʲiʲçɛl] (two syllables).

Dialect variation[]

Some consonants have variations according to dialect.

  • f -> [pf]
  • v -> [bv]
  • r -> [ɡr], [ʔɾ]
  • l -> [ɡl], [ʔl]
  • sh -> [tʃ]
  • j -> [dʒ]
  • g -> [ɣ]; [ʝ] (only before [e], [ɛ] and [i]).
  • k -> [x]; [ç] (only before [e], [ɛ] and [i]).

These variations are more and more common in the standard language.


Vowels are:


In the modern language, the vowels [ø], [œ] and [y] appear as contractions (monothongization) of [eu], [ɛu] and [iu]. A further development turns [ø] into closed [o], but this variation is not accepted by all speakers. Still more uncommon is the simplification of [œ] into [ɔ], thus mixing with original [ɔ].

In traditional transcription, the following convention is used for representing the four possibilities of the vowel e:

Unstressed Stressed
Open è [ɛ] é [ʲɛ]
Closed e [e] ê ['e]

Some examples:

  • elaí [helaʲhi]
  • vèlahí [vɛlaʲhi]
  • vwê [vWʲhe]
  • hárè [ʲhaɾɛ]
  • haré [haʲɾɛ]

There are also the vowels [o], [ø] and [œ] resulting exclusively from old diphthongs. These sounds are not "productive" in the language and the closed [o] is even considered by many speakers as "wrong", [ø] and [œ] being tolerated because it still holds characteristics of its original components [e] and [u]. Ex.:

  • ékoè [ʲhɛkœ], [ʲhɛkɔ] "water"
  • bêwrew [ʲbøɾø], [ʲboɾo] "louse"

In one single word the sequence ea is pronounced [a] ([ja] in some dialects):

  • nóreal [ʲnɔɾal] (dial. also [ʲnɔɾjal]) "woman"

but the accusative form is noreál [nɔɾeʲhal] throughout.


The semivowels are y and w, corresponding to i and u.


Old diphthongs (and triphthongs) do not exist anymore. They are pronounced as a single vowel (called a monophthong) or divided by an aspiration, depending on where stress falls on the word.

  • ai -> ay [ɛ] or [aʲhi]
  • êu -> ew [ø]/[o] or [eʲhu]
  • éu -> èw [œ]/[ɔ] or èú [ɛʲhu]
  • aiu -> ayw [œ]/[ɔ] or ayú [ɛʲhu]



There is no definite article in modern Tláymyts. Old u/e are completely lost.

The indefinite article (the same as the number one), ón [hɔn], is generally not used, but is accepted and is regularly used in some dialects.



Modern Tláymyts has developed a new declension system with seven cases.

Nominative is the base form of the word and is stressed always on the first syllable:

  • gésè [ʲjɛsɛ] "house"
  • únan [ʲhunan] "man"
  • gláymzè [ʲglɛmzɛ] "child"

If the first syllable has the vowel i or u, it may be stressed or not. If not, stress is shifted to the second syllable:

  • títsklèzè [ʲtitsklɛzɛ] or tytsklézè [tjtsʲklɛzɛ] "disgrace"
  • búlgèlay [ʲbulgɛlɛ] or bwlgélay [bWljɛlɛ] "crap"

In these words, the form with the first syllable stressed (that is, with a stressed i or ú) is considered more "classical", "formal" or even "old-fashioned", while the form with the second syllable stressed is considered more colloquial, modern.

The accusative case has no ending, but stress is shifted to the last syllable:

  • gésè [ʲjɛsɛ] -> gèsé [gɛʲsɛ] "house"
  • únan [ʲhunan] -> wnán [hWʲnan] "man"
  • gláymzè [ʲglɛmzɛ] -> glaymzé [glɛmʲzɛ] "child"
  • títsklèzè [ʲtitsklɛzɛ] -> tytsklèzé [tjtsklɛʲzɛ] "disgrace"

If the word ends in a monophthong (that is, a vowel resulting from an old diphthong), the components are separated and an aspiration is placed between them:

  • dáy [dɛ] -> daí [daʲhi] "aunt"
  • dêw [dø] -> deú [deʲhu] "uncle"
  • búlgèlay [ʲbulgɛlɛ] -> bwlgèlaí [bWlgɛlaʲhi] "crap"
  • nóreal [ʲnɔɾal] -> noreál [nɔɾeʲhal] "woman"
  • bêwrew [ʲbøɾø] -> bewreú [boɾeʲhu] "louse"

In some dialects, all monophthongs, including those inside a word, are unfolded in the accusative, so:

  • glaymzé [glahɪmʲzɛ] "child"
  • gwesé [gWheʲsɛ] "thing"
  • wofetú [hWhɔfeʲtu] "(internal) ear"

Standard language has: [glɛmʲzɛ], [gweʲsɛ]/[gøʲsɛ], [hwɔfeʲtu].

The other cases are built upon the accusative, by means of one-consonant endings:

  • Genitive/possessive: -t (corresponding to preposition "of" or ending "´s")
  • Dative-Ablative: -b (corresponding to prepositions "to", "for", "toward")
  • Locative: -n (corresponding to prepositions "in", "at", "on")
  • Commitative-Instrumental: -g (corresponding to prepositions "with")
  • Abortive: -z (corresponding to prepositions "without")

As these endings are remnants of old prepositions used as postpositions, they come after the plural ending.


Singular Plural
Nominative gélw [ʲjɛlW], [jœl] gélwts [ʲjɛlWts], [jœlts]
Accusative gèlú [gɛʲlu] gèlúts [gɛʲluts]
Genitive gèlút [gɛʲlut] gèlútst [gɛʲlutst]
Dative-Ablative gèlúb [gɛʲlub] gèlútsb [gɛʲlutsb]
Commitative-Instrumental gèlúg [gɛʲlug] gèlútsg [gɛʲlutsg]
Abortive gèlúz [gɛʲluz] gèlútsz [gɛʲlutsz], [gɛʲlutz]

Abortive plural is rarely used, either because of the meaning ("without shoes" would be the same as "without a shoe") or because of the resulting clumsy consonant cluster (tsz).

It is very common in speech to add a final -a to the case endings. E.g.:

  • reíb [ɾeʲhiba] "to him"
  • gèsén [gɛʲsɛna] "in the house", "at home"
  • mútst [ʲmutsta] "of us"

Prepositions require the genitive case. E.g.:

  • baldún bwldét [balʲdun bWlʲdɛt]"by the door", "next to the door"
  • zwplín nysét [zWʲplin njʲsɛt]"on the table"

Prepositions always end with the locative ending (n). The most common are:

  • baldún [balʲdun] "by", "next to"
  • zwplín [zWʲplin] "on"
  • gwnún [gWʲnun] "like"
  • pyajún [pjaʲdʒun] "under"
  • rètún [ɾɛʲtun] "beside"
  • amdlín [hamʲdlin] "between", "among"
  • rwmshín [ɾWmʲʃin] "far from"
  • rwmkún [ɾWmʲxun] "along"
  • tamdlún [tamʲdlun] "inside"
  • vwlén [vWʲlɛn] "out of"


  • rètún gwnbodètúlt [ɾɛʲtun gWnbɔdɛʲtult] "next to the computer"
  • pyajún nysét [pjaʲdʒun njʲsɛt] "under the table"
  • gwnún reít [gWʲnun ɾeʲhit] "like you/him/her"

A special use of the commitative case is taking over the taks of the conjunction "and". In this use it can appear together with other case endings, coming always as the last element in a word and often receiving the helping -a to make pronunciation easier. Ex.:

  • yó reíg [hjɔ ɾeʲhig] "I and you"
  • fúzy níg [fuzj nig] "you and I"
  • êzw byáb nyábg [ʲhezW bjʲhab njʲhabga] "This is for the father and for the mother"
  • laí híry baytét zoé gèlétg [laʲhiɻ bɛʲtɛta zɔʲhɛ gɛʲlɛtga] "He was laughing because of the joke and because of your face."

Nominative vs. Accusative[]

As has been stated above, in principle the only difference between the nominative and the accusative forms of a word is stress. However, due to how the language evolved phonologically, there are words that show great differences from one form to the other. Some examples:

  • dêw [dø], acc. deú [deʲhu]"uncle"
  • dáy [dɛ], acc. daí [daʲhi] "aunt"
  • nyá [nja], acc. nyá [njʲha]"mother"
  • byá [bja], acc. byá [bjʲha]"fater"
  • êlnèw [ʲhelnœ], acc. elnèú [helnɛʲhu]"brother"
  • gésè [ʲjɛsɛ], acc. gèsé [gɛʲsɛ]"house"
  • gélw [jɛlW]/[jœl], acc. gèlú [gɛʲlu]"car, vehicle"
  • béw [bœ], acc. bèú [bɛʲhu] "bread"
  • nóreal [ʲnɔɾal], acc. noreál [nɔɾeʲhal] "woman"
  • géw [jœ], acc. gèhú [gɛʲhu]"dog"
  • ékoè [ʲhɛkœ], acc. èkoé [hɛkɔʲhɛ] "water"

However, in most words the difference is limited to stress:

  • zêtèty [ʲzetɛtj], acc. zetètí [zetɛʲti] "town"
  • négemè [ʲnɛgemɛ], acc. nègemé [ʲnɛgemɛ] "machine"
  • êmtsdedodw [ʲhemtsdedɔdW], acc. emtsdedodú [hemtsdedɔʲdu] "institute"


Plural of nouns is in -(i)ts. There are some irregularities according to the original ending of the word.

  1. Words ending in a vowel, semivowel or in -m add -z:
    • véneray [ʲvɛneɾɛ] "family", pl. vénerayts [ʲvɛneɾɛts]
    • zêtèty [ʲzetɛtj] "town", pl. zêtètyts [ʲzetɛtjts]
    • êlnèm [ʲhelnɛ(m)] "sister", pl. êlnèmts [ʲhelnɛ(m)ts]
  2. Words ending in -l add -its:
    • nóreal [ʲnɔɾal] "woman", pl. nórealyts [ʲnɔɾaljts]
  3. Some words ending in -ts change this to -sits, others remain unchanged:
    • byáts [bjats] "country", pl. byásyts [bjasjts]
    • rébets [ʲɾɛbets] "pencil", pl. rébets [ʲɾɛbets]
  4. Words ending in -n change -n to -mts:
    • únan [ʲhunan] "man", pl. únamts [ʲhunamts]
  5. Words ending in -èr change this to -yats:
    • vêmèr [ʲvemɛɾ] "ending", pl. vêmyats [ʲvemjats]
  6. Words ending in -er change this to -ets:
    • péler [ʲpɛleɾ] "barrel", pl. pélets [ʲpɛlets]
  7. Some masculine words ending in monophthong -o (from èw) just add -ts regularly:
    • êlnèw [ʲhelnɔ] "brother", pl. êlnèwts [ʲhelnɔts]
    • úlkèw [ʲhulkɔ] "organ", pl. úlkèwts [ʲhulkɔts]
  8. Feminine words and some masculine words ending in monophthong -èw change this to -wits:
    • vlézèw [ʲvlɛzɔ] "fraction", pl. vlézwits [ʲvlɛzWits]
    • pérèw [ʲpɛɾɔ] "balloon", pl. pérwits [ʲpɛɾWits]
  9. Some other masculine words ending in monophthong -èw) change this to -éyts; however, these words are rare in modern Tláymyts and, when used, tend to use a regular plural:
    • géw [ʲjœ], [ʲjɔ] "dog", pl. géyts [ʲjɛjts] (rare, géjwlw [ʲjɛʒWlW], pl. géjwlwts [ʲjɛʒWlWts] is used instead)
    • gébedèw [ʲjɛbedɔ] "captain", pl. gébedèyts [ʲjɛbedɛjts] (or simply gébedèwts [ʲjɛbedɔts])


Adjectives have only two cases, nominative and oblique. The oblique form is used for accusative and for all the other cases. Plural follows the same rules indicated for nouns.

In the following example you can see the adjective múfw "new" declined along with a masculine noun (gélw, "car") and a feminine noun (lwóbè, "piece of cloth"):

Masculine Feminine
Singular Plural
Nominative múfw gélw [ʲmufW ʲjɛlW] múfwts gélwts [ʲmufWts ʲjɛlWts]
Accusative mwfú gèlú [mWʲfu gɛʲlu] mwfúts gèlúts [mWʲfuts gɛʲluts]
Genitive mwfú gèlút [mWʲfu gɛʲlut] mwfúts gèlútst [mWʲfuts gɛʲlutst]
Dative-Ablative mwfú gèlúb [mWʲfu gɛʲlub] mwfúts gèlútsb [mWʲfuts gɛʲlutsb]
Commitative-Instrumental mwfú gèlúg [mWʲfu gɛʲlug] mwfúts gèlútsg [mWʲfuts gɛʲlutsg]
Abortive mwfú gèlúz [mWʲfu gɛʲluz] mwfúts gèlútsz [mWʲfuts gɛʲlutsz]
Singular Plural
Nominative múfè lwóbè [ʲmufɛ ʲlwɔbɛ] múfèts lwóbèts [ʲmufɛts ʲlwɔbɛts]
Accusative mwfé lwobé [mWʲfɛ lwɔʲbɛ] mwféts lwobéts [mWʲfɛts lwɔʲbɛts]
Genitive mwfé lwobét [mWʲfɛ lwɔʲbɛt] mwféts lwobétst [mWʲfɛts lwɔʲbɛtst]
Dative-Ablative mwfé lwobéb [mWʲfɛ lwɔʲbɛb] mwféts lwobétsb [mWʲfɛts lwɔʲbɛtsb]
Commitative-Instrumental mwfé lwobég [mWʲfɛ lwɔʲbɛg] mwféts lwobétsg [mWʲfɛts lwɔʲbɛtsg]
Abortive mwfé lwobéz [mWʲfɛ lwɔʲbɛz] mwféts lwobétsz [mWʲfɛts lwɔʲbɛtsz]

There are adjectives with a masculine and a feminine form, and adjectives with a single form for both genders. E.g.:

  • múfw m., múfè f. "new", "young"
  • klémty m./f. "great"
  • vêmèr m./f. "final"

Only adjectives in -w have a feminine form which is always in . Adjective pún "good" has the feminine form pwé.



The comparitive of superiority is formed with the adverb nyáts placed before the adjective:

  • nyáts fárew "older"
  • nyáts múfw "newer"
  • nyáts vúldy "stronger"

In the modern spoken language, there are two possibilities for the pronunciation of this construction:

  1. the adverb is pronounced as a noun in the accusative or locative case: nyáts fárew [njʲhats ʲfaɾo], nyátsn fárew [njʲhatsn ʲfaɾo]
  2. the adverb is used as a prefix to the adjective: nyáts faro [ʲnjaffaɾo]

This last form is the most current. When this happens, the final -ts of the adverb is assimilated to the first consonant of the following word, resulting in a doubled consonant. In the nominative case, stress is shifted to the prefix, while in the other cases accent falls regularly on the last syllable:

  • nyáts farew [ʲnjaffaɾo] "older", Acc. nyáts fareú [njaffaɾeʲhu]
  • nyáts mwfw [ʲnjammWfW] "newer", Acc. nyáts mwfú [njammWʲfu]
  • nyáts vwldy [ʲnjavvWldj] "stronger", Acc. nyáts vwldí [njavvWlʲdi]

The complement is put in the genitive case:

  • nyáts farew reít [ʲnjaffaɾo ɾeʲhit] "older than him"
  • nyáts mwfw wodlút [ʲnjammWfW (hw)ɔʲdlut] "newer than the other"
  • nyáts vwldy mútst [ʲnjavvWldj mutst] "stronger than us"

There are four adjectives that keep old Nekturian irregular comparatives:

  • pún [pun], comp. nírewl [ʲniɾol]
  • nér [nɛɾ], lyún [ljun], comp. bêwl [bol]
  • klémty [klɛmtj], comp. nyáwl [njɔl]
  • bygámw [bjʲgamW], comp. námwl [ʲnamWl]


Relative superlative ("the most ...") has exactly the same form as the comparative of superiority:

  • nyáts fárew [ʲnjats ʲfaɾo], nyáts(n) fárew [njʲhats(n) ʲfaɾo], nyáts farew [ʲnjaffaɾo] "the oldest"
  • nyáts múfw [ʲnjats ʲmufW], nyáts(n) múfw [njʲhats(n) ʲmufW], nyáts mwfw [ʲnjammWfW] "the newest"
  • nyáts vúldy [ʲnjats ʲvuldj], nyáts(n) vúldy [njʲhats(n) ʲvuldj], nyáts vwldy [ʲnjavvWldj] "the strongest"

Absolute superlative ("very ...", "extremely ... ") is formed with the adverb nyúdw "very" placed before the adjective:

  • nyúdw fárew "very old"
  • nyúdw múfw "very new"
  • nyúdw vúldy "very strong"

In spoken language, this adverb nyúdw is used either as a noun in the locative case (nyudún) or as a prefix. When prefixed to the adjective, the last syllable (-dw) is assimilated to the first consonant of the adjective, resulting in a doubled consonant, and, in the nominative case, stress is shifted to the prefix. So:

  • nyudún fárew [njuʲdun ʲfaɾo], nyúdw farew [ʲnjuffaɾo] "very old"
  • nyudún múfw [njuʲdun ʲmufW], nyúdw mwfw [ʲnjummWfW] "very new"
  • nyudún vúldy [njuʲdun ʲvuldj], nyúdw vwldy [ʲnjuvvWldj] "very strong"


Attributive adjectives generally come before nouns. They can, however, come after nouns, with no change in meaning. Ex.:

  • pwè êtaay [pwɛ ʲhetahɛ], êtaay pwè [ʲhetahɛ pwɛ] "good idea"
  • mézewmèr gúmgolzw [ʲmɛzømɛɾ ʲgumgɔlzW], gúmgolzw mézewmèr [ʲgumgɔlzW ʲmɛzømɛɾ] "national contest"
  • fárew nátsdly [ʲfaɾø ʲnatsdlj], nátsdly fárew [ʲnatsdlj ʲfaɾø] "old master"
  • nyreúl nwtún [njɾeʲhul nWʲtun], nwtún nyreúl [nWʲtun njɾeʲhul] "in a better way"


Personal Pronouns[]

Modern Tláymyts has replaced old second person pronouns by treatment forms which were originally 3rd person. So, except for the nominative form of the personal pronouns, Tláymyts has a two-person pronominal system, with a single form shared by 2nd and 3rd persons. This system affects pronouns (in the oblique forms), possessives and verbs.

So, to avoid confusion, new accusative forms appeared, following the general rule of regular stress shift to the last syllable. These alternative forms are used only in colloquial language and exclusively when needed to make clear if one means 2nd or 3rd person. An alternative form for the fisrt person singular also exists, but is rejected by most speakers.

The following table presents the personal pronouns in both the nominative and the accusative forms. Other cases are built upon the accusative by means of suffixes (ses above).

Person Nominative Accusative Alternative Accusative
1s [hjɔ] [ni] ( [hjʲhɔ])
2s fúzy [ʲfuzj] reí [ɾeʲhi] fwzí [fWʲzi]
3s m. íry [ʲhiɾj], [hɻ] reí [ɾeʲhi] yrí [hjʲɾi]
3s f. árè [ʲhaɾɛ] reí [ɾeʲhi] aré [haʲɾɛ]
1p múts [muts] múts [muts] -
2p fúzyts [ʲfuzjts] reíts [ɾeʲhits] fwzíts [fWʲzits]
3p m. íryts [ʲhiɾjts], [hɻts] reíts [ɾeʲhits] yríts [hjʲɾits]
3p f. árèts [ʲhaɾɛts] reíts [ɾeʲhits] aréts [haʲɾɛts]

Subject personal pronouns must always be used, even when the verb ending clearly indicates the person. Both subject and object pronouns generally come before the verb, but inversions may be used if a special effect is wanted, mainly in poetry or in songs. However, inversions have no effect on the meaning of the sentence. Examples:

  • Yó reí físhw [hjɔ ɾeʲhi ʲfiʃW], Reí yó físhw [ɾeʲhi hjɔ ʲfiʃW], Reí físhw yó [ɾeʲhi ʲfiʃW hjɔ], "I see you/him/her"
  • Reíb têkè fúzy ezú [ɾeʲhib ʲtexɛ ʲfuzj heʲzu], Ezú reíb têkè fúzy [heʲzu ɾeʲhib ʲtexɛ ʲfuzj], Têkè fúzy ezú reíb [ʲtexɛ ʲfuzj heʲzu ɾeʲhib] "(You) tell it to him/her."

When expressed by nominal expressions with a noun as a nucleus, however, subject always comes before the verb, while objects always come after the verb:

  • Yó físhw mwzú blwvyzúl [hjɔ ʲfiʃW mWʲzu blWvjʲzul], Físhw yó mwzú blwvyzúl [ʲfiʃW hjɔ mWʲzu blWvjʲzul] "I see our teacher."
  • Múzw blúvyzwl múts fí [ʲmuzW ʲbluvjzWl muts fi], Múzw blúvyzwl fí múts [ʲmuzW ʲbluvjzWl fi muts] "Our teacher sees us."

Inversions with nominal syntagms may occur, but is not very common:

  • Mwzú blwvyzúl físhw yó [mWʲzW blWvjʲzul ʲfiʃW hjɔ] "I see our teacher"
  • Múts fí múzw blúvyzwl [muts fi ʲmuzW ʲbluvjzWl] "Our teacher sees us."

In these cases there is no ambiguity, as the difference of stress in the nominative and oblique cases makes it clear who is the subject and who are the objects; cf. múzw blúvyzwl (nom.) x mwzú blwvyzúl (acc.).

Possessive Pronouns[]

Properly speaking, there are only three possessive adjectives:

  • nyó [njɔ] "my"
  • múzw [ʲmuzW] "our"
  • zyó [zjɔ] "thy", "your", "his", "her", "their"

But, to avoid ambiguity, the genitive form of the second and third person pronouns are used:

  • reít [ɾeʲhit], fwzít [fWʲzit] "thy", "your (s.)"
  • reít [ɾeʲhit], hyrít [hjʲɾit] "his"
  • reít [ɾeʲhit], harét [haʲɾɛt] "her"
  • reítst [ɾeʲhitst], fwzítst [fWʲzitst] "your (pl.)"
  • reítst [ɾeʲhit], hyrítst [hjʲɾitst] "their (m.)"
  • reítst [ɾeʲhit], harétst [haʲɾɛtst] "their (f.)"

The actual possessives nyó, múzw and zyó are adjectives and so are declined for gender, number and case (nominative and oblique):

  • nyó [njɔ] (m.), nêmay [ʲnemɛ] (f.)
  • múzw [ʲmuzW] (m.), múzè [ʲmuzɛ] (f.)
  • zyó [zjɔ] (m.), zóè [ʲzɔhɛ] (f.)

Demonstrative Pronouns[]

Demonstrative pronouns are the following:

  • ízy [ʲhizj] (m.), ázè [ʲhazɛ] "this"
  • égyry [ʲhɛgjɾj], [ʲhɛjiɾj] (m.), égarè [ʲhɛgaɾɛ] "that"

They are declined for number and case. When functioning as adjectives, they have only the nominative and the general oblique case, but when used as pronouns they receive case endings like nouns. Ex.:

  • Ázè vúdw nyáts párè a ègaré vwdút. [ʲhazɛ ʲvudW ʲnjappaɾa hɛgaʲɾɛ vWʲdut] "This picture is more beautiful than that picture."
  • Ázè vúdw nyáts párè a ègarét. [ʲhazɛ ʲvudW ʲnjappaɾa hɛgaʲɾɛt] "This picture is more beautiful than that (one)."

Relative Pronouns[]

The Tláymyts relative pronoun par excellence is gy [ji] "that", "which", "who". In the nominative case, it is sometimes reduced to [i] in connected speech. In the other cases, however, it is always stressed. Ex.:

  • Gélè gy jykwó wmdán [ʲjɛlɛ (j)i ʒjkWʲhɔ (hW)mʲdan] "The guy who arrived yesterday"
  • Gólzw gy gwnázè wshín [ʲgɔlzW (j)i gWʲnaz(ɛ h)Wʲʃin] "The course that starts today"
  • Únan gí fê yó zamdlún [ʲhunan ji fe hjɔ zamʲdlun] "The man (that) I saw downtown"
  • Nóreal gíg vèrèfé fúzy [ʲnɔɾal ʲjig(a) vɛɾɛʲfɛ ʲfuzj] "The whoman you were talking to"

The genitive case of gy is also used for both "why?" and "because":

  • Gít tysetsdeó fúzy? [ʲjit(a) tjsetsdeʲhɔ ʲfuzj] "Why did you give up?"
  • Gít méw zhèmzí dámew yó. [ʲjit(a) mœ ʒɛmʲzi dam jɔ] "Because I have got no chance."

Interrogative Pronouns[]

The following interrogative words are in use:

  • gy [ji], accus. [ji] "what", "which"
  • gan [gan], [ɣan] "who"
  • góèr [gœɾ], accus. goér [gɔʲhɛɾ], pl. góyats [ʲgɔjats] (m./f.) "which", "which one"

The other ones are now used with the locative ending:

  • gwnún [gWʲnun] "how"
  • wmtín [hWmʲtin] "where"
  • goèmtún [gœmʲtun] (also [gohɛmʲtun]) "when"

The old forms gúnw [ʲgunu], úmty [ʲhumti] and góèmtu [ʲgɔhɛmtu] are still found in some dialects.

Indefinite Pronouns[]

The following words are declined regularly:

  • Érkon [ʲhɛɾkɔn] (m.), érkonè [ʲhɛɾkɔnɛ] (f.) "some", "any"
  • Mámeon [ʲmam(eh)ɔn] (m.), mámeonè [ʲmam(eh)ɔnɛ] (f.) "no", "none"
  • Dútw [ʲdutW] (m.), dútè [ʲdutɛ] (f.) "all", "every", "each"
  • Wódlw [ʲhwɔdlW] (m.), wódlè [ʲhwɔdlɛ] (f.) "other", "another"
  • Nyúdw [ʲnjudW] (m.), nyúdè [ʲnjudɛ] (f.) "much", "a lot of"
  • Nyúdwts [ʲnjudWts] (m.), nyúdèts [ʲnjudɛts] (f.) "many", "a lot of"
  • Bwógw [ʲbwɔgW] (m.), bwógè [ʲbwɔgɛ] (f.) "few"
  • Bwógwts [ʲbwɔgWts] (m.), bwógèts [ʲbwɔgɛts] (f.) "a few"
  • Záldw [ʲzaldW] (m.), záldè [ʲzaldɛ] (f.) "a certain"
  • Félewts [ʲfɛløts] (m.), félayts [ʲfɛlɛts] (f.) "several"
  • Démdw [ʲdɛmdW] (m.), démdè [ʲdɛmdɛ] (f.) "so much"
  • Démdwts [ʲdɛm(d)Wts] (m.), démdèts [ʲdɛmdɛts] (f.) "so many"
  • Góèrgal [ʲgœɾgal] "whatever", "whichever"

The following words are invariable:

  • Érkw [ʲhɛɾkW] "something", "anything"
  • Dótw [ʲdɔtW] "everything", "all"
  • Métè [ʲmɛtɛ] "nothing"
  • Érkan [ʲhɛɾkan] "someone", "somebody", "anyone", "anybody"
  • Mêmkan [ʲmemkan] "nobody"
  • Gétè [ʲjɛtɛ] "each", "every"


Cardinal Numbers[]

0 sálw [ʲsalW]
1 ón (m.) [ʲhɔn]
1 ónè (f.) [ʲhɔnɛ]
2 twêts (m.) [ʲtwets], [ʲtøts]
2 tóèts (f.) [ʲtɔhɛts]
3 dlíts [ʲdlits]
4 góèdlw [ʲgœ(d)lW]
5 zêmgw [ʲzemgW]
6 zyêts [ʲzjets]
7 zády [ʲzadj]
8 wêdw [ʲhwedW], [ʲhødW]
9 múfy [ʲmufj]
10 táts [tats]
11 úmsy (m.) [ʲhumsj]
12 tusy (m.) [ʲtusj]
13 dlísy [ʲdlisj]
14 góèdwlsy [ʲgœdWlsj]
15 gêmsy [ʲjemsj]
16 tísyzyets [ʲtisjzjets]
17 tísyzady [ʲtisjzadj]
18 tíswedw [ʲtiswedW], [ʲtisødW]
19 tisymúfy [ʲtismWfj]
20 fêmdy [ʲfemdj]
30 dlêmdè [ʲdlemdɛ]
40 góèlamdè [ʲgœlamdɛ]
50 zêmgoamdè [ʲzemg(ɔ)amdɛ]
60 zyzámdè [zjʲzamdɛ]
70 zydámdè [zjʲdamdɛ]
80 wedámdè [hweʲdamdɛ], [høʲdamdɛ]
90 mwfámdè [mWʲfamdɛ]
100 zán [zan]
1,000 (ón) nêr [(hɔn) neɾ]
1,000,000 (ón) nêrayw [(hɔn) ʲneɾœ]
1,000,000,000 (ón) pêrayw [(hɔn) ʲpeɾœ]

Other numbers are formed by compounding. So:

200 twêts zan (m.) [ʲtwetszan], [ʲtøtszan]
200 tóèts zan (f.) [ʲtɔhɛtszan], [ʲtœtszan]
300 dlíts zan [ʲdlitszan]
400 góèdlw zan [ʲgœ(d)l(W)zan]
500 zêmgw zan [ʲzemgWzan]
600 zyêts zan [ʲzjetszan]
700 zády zan [ʲzadjzan]
800 wêdw zan [ʲhwedWzan], [ʲhødWzan]
900 múfy zan [ʲmufjzan]
2,000 twêts ner (m.) [ʲtwetsneɾ], [ʲtøtsneɾ]
2,000 tóèts ner (f.) [ʲtɔhɛtsneɾ], [ʲtœtsneɾ]
3,000 dlíts ner [ʲdlitsneɾ]
4,000 góèdlw ner [ʲgœ(d)l(W)neɾ]
5,000 zêmgw ner [ʲzemgWneɾ]
6,000 zyêts ner [ʲzjetsneɾ]
7,000 zády ner [ʲzadjneɾ]
8,000 wêdw ner [ʲhwedWneɾ], [ʲhødWneɾ]
9,000 múfy ner [ʲmufjneɾ]
1,234 nêr twêts zan dlêmdè góèdlw [neɾ ʲtwetszan ʲdlemdɛ ʲgœdlW]
2,007 twêts nêr zády [ʲtøtsneɾ ʲzadj]

Ordinal Numbers[]

Although each number, up to infinity, has an ordinal form, ordinal numbers higher than 10 are rarely used. All ordinal forms are declined like regular adjectives.

1 blênyelw [ʲblenjelW]
2 zykómtw [zjʲkɔmtW]
3 dílzyelw [ʲdilzjelW]
4 góèldw [ʲgœldW]
5 gêmdw [ʲjemdW]
6 zítsdw [ʲzitsdW]
7 zádenw [ʲzadenW]
8 wêdèfw [ʲhwedɛfW]
9 múmw [ʲmumW]
10 tázenw [ʲtazenW]
11 ómtazenw (m.) [ʲhɔmtazenW]
12 tówtazenw (m.) [ʲtɔwtazenW]
3 tázenw dílzyelw [ʲtazenW ʲdilzjelW]
4 tázenw góèldw [ʲtazenW ʲgœldW]
5 tázenw gêmdw [ʲtazenW ʲjemdW]
6 tázenw zítsdw [ʲtazenW ʲzitsdW]
7 tázenw zádenw [ʲtazenW ʲzadenW]
8 tázenw wêdèfw [ʲtazenW ʲhwedɛfW]
9 tázenw múmw [ʲtazenW ʲmumW]
20 fêshasenw [ʲfeʃasenW]
30 dlêshasenw [ʲdleʃasenW]
40 góèdeshasenw [ʲgœdleʃasenW]
50 gêmgoèshasenw [ʲjemgœʃasenW]
60 zígzèshasenw [ʲzigzɛʃasenW]
70 zíbdoèshasenw [ʲzibdœʃasenW]
80 úgdèshasenw [ʲhugdɛʃasenW]
90 múmèshasenw [ʲmumɛʃasenW]
100 zámdasenw [ʲzamdasenW]
1,000 nêrasenw [ʲneɾasenW]
1,000,000 nêrewmasenw [ʲneɾømasenW]
1,000,000,000 pêrewmasenw [ʲpeɾømasenW]



Verbs in Tláymyts are conjugated for 2 Voices (Active and Medio-passive), 4 Moods (Indicative, Subjunctive, Conditional, Imperative), 7 Tenses (Present, Preterite Perfect, Preterite Imperfect, Pluperfect, Future, Present Perfect, Future Perfect), 2 Persons (first and second/third) and 2 Numbers (singular and plural). There are also two nominal forms: Participle and Gerund.

There is a high number of irregular verbs.


Old Tláymyts had an active voice, a reflexive voice built with reflexive pronouns and a passive voice built with the auxiliary verb zíl. Modern Tláymyts, while still recognizing the old passive voice (with zíl), extended the use of the old reflexive form to the passive voice, resulting in what is currently called the medio-passive voice. The old passive voice is still found in dialects.

Active Voice Old Passive Voice Medio-Passive Voice
blíbèlw "(I) am preparing" zú blíbèlètw "I am being prepared" ní blíbèlw "I am preparing myself", "I am get prepared", "I am being prepared"
"(you/he/she) see(s)" á fêtsdw "(you/he/she) is/are seen" zí fí "(you/he/she) see(s) your/him/herself", "(you/he/she) is/are seen"
blwgolènúts "we looked for" vwnúts blúgolètwts "we were looked for" múts blwgolènúts "we looked for ourselves", "we were looked for"
vylaín "(you/they) used to hurt" alén víletwts "(you/they) were hurt", "(you/they) used to be hurt" zí vylaín "(you/they) used to hurt your/themselves", "(you/they) were hurt", "(you/they) used to be hurt"

The reflexive pronouns are:

1st person singular
múts 1st person plural
2nd and 3rd persons, singular and plural

Elision is common with verbs beginning with an aspirated vowel, sometimes causing ambiguity:

  • zí èjwó íry [zi ʒwʲhɔɻ] "he has been found", "he has found himself"
  • ní wplekyê yó [ni plekjʲhe hjɔ] "I forced myself (to)", "I was forced (to)"
  • zí yryfèlén íryts [zi ɾjfɛʲlɛn hɻts] "they were lifted", "they lifted themselves"
    • (cf.) zí ryfèlén íryts [zi ɾjfɛʲlɛn hɻts] "they were taken away", "they took themselves away (=they went out)"

The agent of the passive voice is marked with the genitive case:

  • Zí blamtyó íry bwrezaírt [zi blamtjʲhɔɻ bWɾezaʲhiɾt] "He was arrested by the policeman."
  • Ázè námzèshan zí nèmtwó telydúlt [ʲhazɛ ʲnamzɛʃan zi nɛmtWʲhɔ teljʲdult(a)] "This message was sent by the director."

As the genitive case has other uses, there may appear ambiguous sentences. E.g.:

  • Zí nèdwó hárè reít. [zi nɛdWʲhɔɾɛ ɾeʲhit(a)] "She was killed by him." but also "She killed herself because of him."
  • Ízy rêflw zí ytsglyfyó mwzú enbylètúlt. [ʲhizj ʲɾeflW zi tsgljfjʲhɔ mWʲzu nbjlɛʲtult(a)] "This book was written by our emperor.", but also "This book was written in favour of our emperor."

Indicative and subjunctive, working basically like the Italian counterparts, are current and represent the core verb moods of the language. Conditional is very limited in tenses, only the present being in current use. The imperative mood has one single form (called the present). Mood is indicated by different sets of endings. Examples:

  • fámew [ʲfamø], [ʲfamo] "(I) come" (indicative)
  • fámay [ʲfamɛ] "(that I) come" (subjunctive)
  • felaí [felaʲhi] "(I) would come" (conditional)
  • fámay [ʲfamɛ] "come" (imperative)

In practice, there is not really an imperative mood, as it has exactly the same forms as the subjunctive mood.


Tenses correspond roughly to those used in Spanish or Portuguese.

Tense English Correspondent
Present Simple Present, Present Continuous
Preterite Perfect Simple Past, Present Perfect
Preterite Imperfect Simple Past, Past Continuous, "used to"
Pluperfect Past Perfect
Future Simple Future ("will"), Near Future ("going to"), Future Continuous
Present Perfect Present Perfect
Future Perfect Future Perfect

Old progressive tenses, built with the auxiliary zíl and the gerund, are also recognized, although used only in the literary language and in some dialects:

Tense English Correspondent
Present Progressive Present Continuous
Preterite Progressive Past Continuous
Future Progressive Future Continuous
Person and Number[]

Verbs in Tláymyts are conjugated in a two-person system, in which the first person has a separate form, with second and third persons sharing a common form. Singular and plural have distinct forms. Ex.:

vérw [ʲvɛɾW] "(I) speak"
vérè [ʲvɛɾɛ] "(you) speak", "(he/she) speaks"
vérènwts [ʲvɛɾɛnWts] "(we) speak"
vérèn [ʲvɛɾɛn] "(you) speak", "(they) speak"

Personal pronouns are always used with verbs, so there is no ambiguity. As for the position, personal pronouns may come before or after the verb:

Pronoun before the verb Pronoun after the verb
yó vérw [hjɔ ʲvɛɾW] "I speak"
fúzy vérè [ʲfuzj ʲvɛɾɛ] "you speak"
íry vérè [hɻ ʲvɛɾɛ] "he speaks"
árè vérè [ʲhaɾɛ ʲvɛɾɛ] "she speaks"
múts vérènwts [muts ʲvɛɾɛnWts] "we speak"
fúzyts vérèn [ʲfuzjts ʲvɛɾɛn] "you speak"
íryts vérèn [hɻts ʲvɛɾɛn] "they (m.) speak"
árèts vérèn [ʲhaɾɛts ʲvɛɾɛn] "they (f.) speak"
vérw yó [ʲvɛɾjɔ] "I speak"
vérè fúzy [ʲvɛɾɛ ʲfuzj] "you speak"
vérè íry [ʲvɛɾɛɻ] "he speaks"
vérè árè [ʲvɛɾɛ ʲhaɾɛ], [ʲvɛɾaɾɛ] "she speaks"
vérènwts múts [ʲvɛɾɛnWts muts] "we speak"
vérèn fúzyts [ʲvɛɾɛn ʲfuzjts] "you speak"
vérèn íryts [ʲvɛɾɛn hɻts] "they (m.) speak"
vérèn árèts [ʲvɛɾɛn ʲhaɾɛts] "they (f.) speak"

Verbs in Tláymyts are divided in three types, according to the old Nekturian verb types. The differences from one type to the others are minimal but can be found throughout the whole system. The three verb types are called "conjugations" (gúmshokèzwyts), and are called by the ending of the infinitive form: -él, -íl and -êl.

Infinitive and Gerund[]

Note that, although the names of the conjugations use tonic vowels (é, í, ê), the infinitive form of the verb is mostly stressed on the first syllable, because it is considered to be a noun in the nominative case. When used as the complement of another verb, however, the infinitive is stressed regularly on the last syllable for the accusative case. So:

  • Gémdèl vézer á. [ʲjɛmdɛl ʲvɛzeɾa] "Singing is easy." (gémdèl is the subject of the sentence, so it is in the nominative case.)
  • Árè zépy gèmdél. [ʲhaɾɛ ʲzɛpj jɛmʲdɛl] "She can sing", "she knows (how) to sing" (gèmdél is the complement of the verb zépy, so it is in the accusative case.)

For other cases, the gerund is used instead of the infinitive. Ex.:

  • Fyeú íry gèmdèmtúb. [fjeʲhuɻ gɛmdɛmʲtub] "He came (in order) to sing.", "He came for singing."
  • Gémzètè árè á gèmdèmtút. [ʲjɛmzɛtaɾa gɛmdɛmʲtut] "She is tired of singing."
  • Zí vwlén íryts gèmdèmtúz. [zi vWʲlɛn hɻts gɛmdɛmʲtuz] "They left without singing."
    • Also: Zí vwlén íryts zán gèmdèmtút. [zi vWʲlɛn hɻts zan gɛmdɛmʲtut] "They left without singing."

The gerund in the locative case is used with a conditional meaning which in English is translated with the conjunction "if". Ex.:

  • Reí famtún fúzy, ní éfesy vèfúlt. [ɾeʲhi famʲtun ʲfuzj, ʲnifesj vɛʲfult(a)] "If you see him, please tell me."
  • Gyamtún méfy ázè, dútwts núlylèw. [jamʲtun ʲmɛf(j) ʲ(h)azɛ, dutts ʲnuljlœ] "If this shipe falls down, everybody will die."
  • Bèkèmtún bèzèshán fúzy, búty amdlél. [bɛkɛmʲtun bɛzɛʲʃan ʲfuzj, ʲbut(j h)amʲdlɛl] "If you pay for a ticket, you will be able to get in.}}

In some dialects, the gerund in the locative case is used as a kind of progressive tense:

  • Gèmdèmtún yó [gɛmdɛmʲtun hjɔ] "I am singing."
  • Gèmdèmtún íry [gɛmdɛmʲtun hɻ], [gɛmdɛmʲtunaɻ] "He is singing."

Regular Conjugation[]

Here follow the conjugation tables for regular verbs.

First Conjugation: -él
singular plural
1st 2nd/3rd 1st 2nd/3rd
Indicative Present én-w én-è én-ènwts én-èn
Preterite Imperfect èn-èfé èn-èfé èn-èfènúts èn-èfén
Preterite Perfect èn-yê èn-wó èn-ènúts èn-èlén
Pluperfect èn-èlé èn-èlé èn-èlènúts èn-èlén
Pluperfect II demaí èn-ètú demaí èn-ètú demaynúts èn-ètú demaín èn-ètú
Present Perfect dámew èn-ètú dán èn-ètú dánwts èn-ètú dán èn-ètú
Future én-èlyê én-èlè én-èlanwts én-èlèw
Future Perfect dílye èn-ètú dílè èn-ètú dílawts èn-ètú dílèw èn-ètú
Subjunctive Present én-y én-y én-anwts én-an
Present Perfect dámay èn-ètú dámay èn-ètú dámaynwts èn-ètú dámayn èn-ètú
Preterite Imperfect èn-èzí èn-èzí èn-èzanúts èn-èzán
Preterite Perfect defazí èn-ètú defazí èn-ètú defazynúts èn-ètú defazán èn-ètú
Future én-èl én-èl én-èlnwts én-èlan
Future Perfect dêfal èn-ètú dêfal èn-ètú dêfalnwts èn-ètú dêfalan èn-ètú
Conditional Present èn-èlaí èn-èlaí èn-èlaynúts èn-èlaín
Preterite Perfect dylaí èn-ètú dylaí èn-ètú dylaynúts èn-ètú dylaín èn-ètú
Imperative én-y én-anwts én-an
Other forms Participle
  • én-ètw (adjective)
  • èn-ètú (verb)
  • én-èl (nominative)
  • èn-él (accusative)
  • èn-èmtún (locative = adverbial use)
  • èn-èmtúb (dative/ablative)
  • èn-èmtút (genitive)
  • èn-èmtúz (abortive)

Second Conjugation: -íl
singular plural
1st 2nd/3rd 1st 2nd/3rd
Indicative Present fámt-w fámt-y fámt-anwts fámt-an
Preterite Imperfect famt-aí famt-aí famt-aynúts famt-aín
Preterite Perfect famt-ê famt-yó famt-anúts famt-ylén
Pluperfect famt-ylé famt-ylé famt-ylènúts famt-ylén
Pluperfect II demaí famt-etú demaí famt-etú demaynúts famt-etú demaín famt-etú
Present Perfect dámew famt-etú dán famt-etú dánwts famt-etú dán famt-etú
Future fámt-ylyê fámt-ylè fámt-ylanwts fámt-ylèw
Future Perfect dílye famt-etú dílè famt-etú dílawts famt-etú dílèw famt-etú
Subjunctive Present fámt-è fámt-è fámt-ènwts fámt-èn
Present Perfect dámay famt-etú dámay famt-etú dámaynwts famt-etú dámayn famt-etú
Preterite Imperfect famt-yzí famt-yzí famt-yzynúts famt-yzán
Preterite Perfect defazí famt-etú defazí famt-etú defazynúts famt-etú defazán famt-etú
Future fámt-yl fámt-yl fámt-ylnwts fámt-ylan
Future Perfect dêfal famt-etú dêfal famt-etú dêfalnwts famt-etú dêfalan famt-etú
Conditional Present famt-ylaí famt-ylaí famt-ylaynúts famt-ylaín
Preterite Perfect dylaí famt-etú dylaí famt-etú dylaynúts famt-etú dylaín famt-etú
Imperative fámt-è fámt-ènwts fámt-èn
Other forms Participle
  • fámt-etw (adjective)
  • famt-etú (verb)
  • fámt-yl (nominative)
  • famt-íl (accusative)
  • famt-amtún (locative = adverbial use)
  • famt-amtúb (dative/ablative)
  • famt-amtút (genitive)
  • famt-amtúz (abortive)
Third Conjugation: -êl
singular plural
1st 2nd/3rd 1st 2nd/3rd
Indicative Present béld-w béld-y béld-enwts béld-an
Preterite Imperfect bèld-aí bèld-aí bèld-aynúts bèld-aín
Preterite Perfect bèld-ê bèld-yó bèld-enúts bèld-elén
Pluperfect bèld-elé bèld-elé bèld-elènúts bèld-elén
Pluperfect II demaí bèld-etú demaí bèld-etú demaynúts bèld-etú demaín bèld-etú
Present Perfect dámew bèld-etú dán bèld-etú dánwts bèld-etú dán bèld-etú
Future béld-elyê béld-elè béld-elanwts béld-elèw
Future Perfect dílye bèld-etú dílè bèld-etú dílawts bèld-etú dílèw bèld-etú
Subjunctive Present béld-è béld-è béld-ènwts béld-èn
Present Perfect dámay bèld-etú dámay bèld-etú dámaynwts bèld-etú dámayn bèld-etú
Preterite Imperfect bèld-ezí bèld-ezí bèld-ezynúts bèld-ezán
Preterite Perfect defazí bèld-etú defazí bèld-etú defazynúts bèld-etú defazán bèld-etú
Future béld-el béld-el béld-elnwts béld-elan
Future Perfect dêfal bèld-etú dêfal bèld-etú dêfalnwts bèld-etú dêfalan bèld-etú
Conditional Present bèld-elaí bèld-elaí bèld-elaynúts bèld-elaín
Preterite Perfect dylaí bèld-etú dylaí bèld-etú dylaynúts bèld-etú dylaín bèld-etú
Imperative béld-è béld-ènwts béld-èn
Other forms Participle
  • béld-etw (adjective)
  • béld-etú (verb)
  • béld-el (nominative)
  • bèld-êl (accusative)
  • béld-emtún (locative = adverbial use)
  • béld-emtúb (dative/ablative)
  • béld-emtút (genitive)
  • béld-emtúz (abortive)

Irregular Verbs[]

There is a large number of irregular verbs in Tláymyts. The most important are the following:

  • ríl "read"
  • zépyl "know"
  • gépyl "fit (into)"
  • gílyl "want"
  • bútyl "can", "be able to", "may"
  • têsyl "say", "tell"
  • vésyl "do", "make"
  • dlésyl "bring", "carry"
  • glíl "believe"
  • tél "give"
  • éfyl "there be"
  • zíl "be"
  • díl "have"
  • fíl "see"
  • fêl "come"
  • lêl "laugh"
  • êl "go"
  • búl "put", "place"
Verb Irregular Forms
Ind. Pres. Ind. Perfect Subj. Pres.
1s ryêw [ɾjø] [ɾe] ryêè [ʲɾjehɛ]
2s/3s [ɾi] ryó [ɾjɔ] ryêè [ʲɾjehɛ]
1p ránwts [ʲɾanWts] ranúts [ɾaʲnuts] ryêènwts [ʲɾjehɛnWts]
2p/3p rían [ʲɾihan] rylén [ɾjʲlɛn] ryêèn [ʲɾjehɛn]
Ind. Pres. Ind. Perfect Ind. Pluperfect Subj. Pres. Subj. Preterite. Subj. Future.
1s zyê [zje] zwopí [zwɔʲpi] zwopalé [zwɔpaʲlɛ] zyápè [ʲzjapɛ] zwopazí [zwɔpaʲzi] zwópal [ʲzwɔpal]
2s/3s zépy [ʲzɛpj] zwopí [zwɔʲpi] zwopalé [zwɔpaʲlɛ] zyápè [ʲzjapɛ] zwopazí [zwɔpaʲzi] zwópal [ʲzwɔpal]
1p zépanwts [ʲzɛpanWts] zwopanúts [zwɔpaʲnuts] zwopalènúts [zwɔpalɛʲnuts] zyápènwts [ʲzjapɛnWts] zwopazynúts [zwɔpazjʲnuts] zwópalnwts [ʲzwɔpalnWts]
2p/3p zépan [ʲzɛpan] zwopalén [zwɔpaʲlɛn] zwopalén [zwɔpaʲlɛn] zyápèn [ʲzjapɛn] zwopazán [zwɔpaʲzan] zwópalan [ʲzwɔpalan]
Ind. Pres. Ind. Perfect Ind. Pluperfect Subj. Pres. Subj. Preterite. Subj. Future.
1s gyápw [ʲjapW] gwopí [gwɔʲpi] gwopalé [gwɔpaʲlɛ] gyápè [ʲjapɛ] gwopazí [gwɔpaʲzi] gwópal [ʲgwɔpal]
2s/3s gépy [ʲjɛpj] gwopí [gwɔʲpi] gwopalé [gwɔpaʲlɛ] gyápè [ʲjapɛ] gwopazí [gwɔpaʲzi] gwópal [ʲgwɔpal]
1p gépanwts [ʲgɛpanWts] gwopanúts [gwɔpaʲnuts] gwopalènúts [gwɔpalɛʲnuts] gyápènwts [ʲjapɛnWts] gwopazynúts [gwɔpazjʲnuts] gwópalnwts [ʲgwɔpalnWts]
2p/3p gépan [ʲjɛpan] gwopalén [gwɔpaʲlɛn] gwopalén [gwɔpaʲlɛn] gyápèn [ʲjapɛn] gwopazán [gwɔpaʲzan] gwópalan [ʲgwɔpalan]

Ind. Pres. Ind. Perfect Ind. Pluperfect Subj. Pres. Subj. Preterite. Subj. Future.
1s gálw [ʲgalW] gêts [jets] gesalé [gesaʲlɛ] gyêlè [ʲjelɛ] gesazí [gesaʲzi] gyêsal [ʲjesal]
2s/3s gál [gal] gêts [jets] gesalé [gesaʲlɛ] gyêlè [ʲjelɛ] gesazí [gesaʲzi] gyêsal [ʲjesal]
1p gylánwts [jiʲlanWts] gesanúts [gesaʲnuts] gesalènúts [gesalɛʲnuts] gyêlènwts [ʲjelɛnWts] gesazynúts [gesazjʲnuts] gyêsalnwts [ʲjesalnWts]
2p/3p gálan [ʲgalan] gesalén [gesaʲlɛn] gesalén [gesaʲlɛn] gyêlèn [ʲjelɛn] gesazán [gesaʲzan] gyêsalan [ʲjesalan]

Ind. Pres. Ind. Perfect Ind. Pluperfect Subj. Pres. Subj. Preterite. Subj. Future.
1s búzw [ʲbuzW] botí [bɔʲti] botalé [bɔtaʲlɛ] búzè [ʲbuzɛ] botazí [bɔtaʲzi] bótal [ʲbɔtal]
2s/3s búty [ʲbutj] bwtí [bWʲti] botalé [bɔtaʲlɛ] búzè [ʲbuzɛ] botazí [bɔtaʲzi] bótal [ʲbɔtal]
1p bwtánwts [bWʲtanWts] botanúts [bɔaʲnuts] botalènúts [bɔtalɛʲnuts] búzènwts [ʲbuzɛnWts] botazynúts [bɔtazjʲnuts] bótalnwts [ʲbɔtalnWts]
2p/3p bútan [ʲbutan] bwtylén [bWtjʲlɛn] botalén [bɔtaʲlɛn] búzèn [ʲbuzɛn] botazán [bɔtaʲzan] bótalan [ʲbɔtalan]

Ind. Pres. Ind. Perfect Ind. Future Ind. Pluperfect Subj. Pres. Subj. Preterite. Subj. Future. Cond. Pres. Other
1s têkw [ʲtekW] tezí [teʲzi] têlye [ʲtelje] tezalé [tezaʲlɛ] têkè [ʲtekɛ] tezazí [tezaʲzi] têzal [ʲtezal] telaí [telaʲhi] Gerund
2s/3s têts [tets] tezí [teʲzi] têè [ʲtelɛ] tezalé [tezaʲlɛ] têkè [ʲtekɛ] tezazí [tezaʲzi] têzal [ʲtezal] telaí [telaʲhi] tesamtún [tesamʲtun]
1p têsanwts [ʲtesanWts] tezanúts [tezaʲnuts] têlanwts [ʲtelanWts] tezalènúts [tezalɛʲnuts] têkènwts [ʲtekɛnWts] tezazynúts [tezazjʲnuts] têzalnwts [ʲtezalnWts] telaynuts [telɛʲnuts] Participle
2p/3p têsan [ʲtesan] tezalén [tezaʲlɛn] têlèw [ʲtelœ], [ʲtelɔ] tezalén [tezaʲlɛn] têkèn [ʲtekɛn] tezazán [tezaʲzan] têzalan [ʲtezalan] telaín [telaʲhin] têdw [ʲtedW]

Ind. Pres. Ind. Perfect Ind. Pluperfect Ind. Future Subj. Pres. Subj. Preterite. Subj. Future. Cond. Pres. Other
1s vézw [ʲvɛzW] vêts [vets] vesalé [vesaʲlɛ] vélye [ʲvɛlje] vézè [ʲvɛzɛ] vesazí [vesaʲzi] vêsal [ʲvesal] vèlaí [vɛlaʲhi] Gerund
2s/3s véts [vɛts] víts [vits] vesalé [vesaʲlɛ] vélè [ʲvɛlɛ] vézè [ʲvɛzɛ] vesazí [vesaʲzi] vêsal [ʲvesal] vèlaí [vɛlaʲhi] vèsamtún [vɛsaamʲtun]
1p vésanwts [ʲvɛsanWts] vesanúts [vesaʲnuts] vesalènúts [vesalɛʲnuts] vélanwts [ʲvɛlanWts] vézènwts [ʲvɛzɛnWts] vesazynúts [vesazjʲnuts] vêsalnwts [ʲvesalnWts] vèlaynúts [vɛlɛʲnuts] Participle
2p/3p vésan [ʲvɛsan] vesalén [vesaʲlɛn] vesalén [vesaʲlɛn] vélèw [ʲvɛlœ], [ʲvɛlɔ] vézèn [ʲvɛzɛn] vesazán [vesaʲzan] vêsalan [ʲvesalan] vèlaín [vɛlaʲhin] vyêdw [ʲvjedW]

Ind. Pres. Ind. Perfect Ind. Pluperfect Ind. Future Subj. Pres. Subj. Preterite. Subj. Future. Cond. Pres.
1s dlékw [ʲdlɛkW] dlwozí [dlWɔʲzi] dlwozalé [dlWɔzaʲlɛ] dlélye [ʲdlɛlje] dlékè [ʲdlɛkɛ] dlwozazí [dlWɔzaʲzi] dlwózal [ʲdlWɔzal] dlèlaí [dlɛlaʲhi]
2s/3s dléts [dlɛts] dlwozí [dlWɔʲzi] dlwozalé [dlWɔzaʲlɛ] dlélè [ʲdlɛlɛ] dlékè [ʲdlɛkɛ] dlwozazí [dlWɔzaʲzi] dlwózal [ʲdlWɔzal] dlèlaí [dlɛlaʲhi]
1p dlésanwts [ʲdlɛsanWts] dlwozanúts [dlWɔzaʲnuts] dlwozalènúts [dlWɔzalɛʲnuts] dlélanwts [ʲdlɛlanWts] dlékènwts [ʲdlɛkɛnWts] dlwozazynúts [dlWɔzazjʲnuts] dlwózalnwts [ʲdlWɔzalnWts] dlèlaynúts [dlɛlɛʲnuts]
2p/3p dlésan [ʲdlɛsan] dlwozalén [dlWɔzaʲlɛn] dlwozalén [dlWɔzaʲlɛn] dlélèw [ʲdlɛlœ], [ʲdlɛlɔ] dlékèn [ʲdlɛkɛn] dlwozazán [dlWɔzaʲzan] dlwózalan [ʲdlWɔzalan] dlèlaín [dlɛlaʲhin]

Ind. Pres. Subj. Pres.
1s glyêw [gljø] glyêè [ʲgljehɛ]
2s/3s glí [gli] glyêè [ʲgljehɛ]
1p glánwts [ʲglanWts] glyêènwts [ʲgljehɛnWts]
2p/3p glían [ʲglihan] glyêèn [ʲgljehɛn]

Ind. Pres. Ind. Perfect Ind. Pluperfect Subj. Pres. Subj. Preterite. Subj. Future.
1s [tu], twó [twɔ] tyê [tjʲhe] talé [taʲlɛ] [ti] tazí [taʲzi] tal [tal]
2s/3s [tɛ] tyó [tjʲhɔ] talé [taʲlɛ] [ti] tazí [taʲzi] tal [tal]
1p ténwts [ʲtɛnWts] tanúts [taʲnuts] talènúts [talɛʲnuts] tánwts [ʲtanWts] tazynúts [tazjʲnuts] tálnwts [ʲtalnWts]
2p/3p téw [tœ] talén [taʲlɛn] talén [taʲlɛn] tían [ʲtihan] tazán [taʲzan] tálan [ʲtalan]




Tláymyts Vowels

Development of Tláymyts stressed vowels in the Wlêshemèr ("original") style. Left column shows unstressed vowels, center column shows original accented letters and right column shows current characters for stressed vowels.

Tláymyts is written in its own alphabet, which descends from the old Arishian writing. It is a pure alphabet of the Latin type, indicating each vowel and consonant by means of a constant symbol. A diacritic with the form of a horizontal line was formerly used to indicate stress. This diacritic has now, in most writing styles, merged with the vowel letters, thus yielding a new series of symbols for stressed vowels.

One of the most characteristic features of Tláymyts writing is that the aspiration ([h]), although present in all variations of the language, is never written. That happens because, when the aspiration entered in the phonology of the language, the alphabet was already in use, and it had no symbol for this sound as it did not exist in the language earlier. Another reason is that the aspiration is completely predictable, so we can know where an aspiration must go even if it is not indicated in writing. All syllables initiating with a vowel is actually pronounced with an aspiration. For example, the word Tláymyts Elaí elaí "(I) would go", syllables are e-la-í, first and last syllables begin with vowel, so we must aspirate them, resulting in [hela'hi].


There are four major styles of the Tláymyts script: the monumental, the "original", the classical and the handwritten style.

Monumental (Nwmonamdút) Style[]

Tláymyts Monumental

The word "Tláymts" witten in the Monumental (Nwmonamdút) style.

The monumental style, widely used in the past, is used today only in special occasions like commemorative inscriptions or in titles when one wants an old-fashioned look. In this style almost all the letters have the same shape as they have in the original style, albeit some letters (notably R, U ad L) generally appear in an older form. The greatest difference from the other styles is that letters are grouped according to syllables, most like in the Korean alphabet. Text normally runs in columns from right to left, but a considerable quantity of texts written in horizontal lines also exists.

One special modern usage of the classical style is for writing fancy names or nicknames of spaceships. On the hull of vessels, the official name and identification of the vessel is written in the original style, but in the case of a ship with a popular name or nickname, the crew is allowed to write it as well, provided it is written in a different style. Sometimes the classical style is used, but the monumental style is much more popular as it helps conveying the idea of strength, solidity and resistance.

"Original" (Wlêshemèr) Style[]

Tláymyts Original

The word "Tláymts" witten in the Original (Wlêshemèr) style.

This style reflects the first adaptation to Tláymyts of the Arishian alphabet. The name "original", however, does not fully apply, as the letters used today have been considerably simplified. Both a monospace and a variable width version of this style exist.

This is the most common writing style in computational media, and also the official writing style for all military uses.

Classical (Grézegw) Style[]

Tláymyts Classical

The word "Tláymts" witten in the Classical (Grézegw) style.

The style called classical is the one which replaced the monumental as the standard script for Tláymyts. Visually, it is very similar to the old Mongol alphabet, both in the design of the letters and in the disposition of writing. Letters are joined like in Mongolian or Arabic, each letter having four slightly different forms, one used in isolation, one for initial position, one for medial position and one for final position (the letter TS has only a final position, as it consists in a variant of Z which was originally used only at the end of words).

Writing direction is both horizontally from left to right and vertically with columns going from right to left. It is considered the most beautiful style of Tláymyts, and several calligraphic variants have been developed. In this style some ligatures are used, mostly corresponding to the nominal case endings. The most common are tsn (locative plural) and tst (genitive plural).

Handwritten (Nèhút) Style[]

Tláymyts Handwritten

The word "Tláymts" witten in the Handwritten (Nèhút) style.

The handwritten style is a derivation of the real original Tláymyts alphabet. The letters of a word are written tightly together, with a considerable amout of space between words. It is considered the most difficult style for reading, as it is common for characters to be joined in ligatures that are largely dependent on personal preferences. Visually it is similar to the Egyptian Demotic alphabet, sometimes resembling also the Merovingian script with its free-floating lines.

Sample Texts[]

Tláymyts Featured
Tláymyts Featured Wleshêmèr

Ízy êtewnè oné fítsn zí tytsdègwó.
Gèoséb zyó mefírb goèretètít, zoé fylwzynyraymzét y zoéts bwzeperetètítsb osút, zí fwdwó íry tytsdègíb.


['hizj 'hetønɛ hɔ'nɛ fitsn zi tjtsdɛgwhɔ].
[gœ'sɛb zj'hɔ me'fiɾb gœɾetɛ'tit, zɔ'hɛ fjlʍzjnjɾɛm'zɛt hi zɔ'hɛts bʍzepeɾetɛ'titsb (h)ɔ'sut, zi fʍdʍ'hɔɻ tjtsdɛ'jib].


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