Type Artlang / Personal Language
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders None
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Progress 20%
Nouns 19%
Verbs 32%
Adjectives 11%
Syntax 16%
Words 245 of 1500
Creator Zinga35

Tson (English: /soʊn, soʊm/; Tson: /t͡som/), sometimes called Tsonchadian, is a well attested dead language with about 17,000 second-language speakers, mainly in Russia. (Not really.)


The Tson language may have been in existence for 7,000 years or more, though some estimates place the formation of the Tson language to as recent as 3600 B.C, making it about 5,600 years old at least. It was spoken in parts of the Pontic-Caspian steppe, until the Tson people gradually migrated eastward into and past the Kazakh steppe. Eventually, they ended up near lake Baikal, where the Tson State, sometimes called Tsonchadia, was formed circa 1087 A.D., following the diffusion of paper to the area in the 10th century.

A person by the name of Motashteno is credited as having invented the Tson script. It is unclear as to whether the script derives from another script like Greek or Latin, since it was an alphabet that was visually and functionally unlike the writing systems of China and the Islamic world, and it was physically distant from the Hellenic and Roman spheres of influence. The letters of the script were in no particular order, and the order they are in today is derived from the order of the Russian alphabet.

During this time, the Tson language was influenced by the neighboring Mongol, Tatar, Mairu, and Rabostan peoples. It was especially influenced by the latter two when the Tson State was conquered by the Mairu-Rabostan Confederation in 1153. The Tson State fully broke apart from the confederation and became free again in 1198, only for it to be permanently wiped from existence by the Mongol Empire in 1206.

While the Tson spoken language disappeared over multiple centuries, the existing records of the Tson language were extensive enough to revive the language and form a modern variety. Many texts had Tson side-by-side with another language like Mongolian, allowing much of the Tson language to be translated. The modern variety of Tson has major Russian influence because, for the most part, Russian words were used to fill in the gaps of the attested Tson language.

IRL History[]

I created Tson to complement a project I had for school. My goal then was to make a realistic-enough language to go with my fake country. However, my goal has since changed to making a working language I can speak, which is why this conlang is listed as either an artlang or a personal language.

Classification and Dialects[]

While it is speculated to have derived from Proto-Indo-European, the relationship between Tson and PIE is unclear; Proto-Tson could simply have been largely influenced by PIE or vice versa.

Some Tson texts that have been recovered provide the basic phonology of the language, such as the pronunciation of each letter and the digraph that forms the /i/ sound. However, very little is known about the dialects that existed back then. There are a few clues as to how the Tson language spoken in Wosepar differs from Tson spoken anywhere else, since a letter for a /ŋ/ phoneme was used in some texts referring to the dialect. The pronunciation of modern Tson is based mostly on a slightly formal form of Tson spoken by the people who wrote the texts, and it is thought that this pronunciation is closest to that of Tson people in Menech, which was the Tson State's largest city.


Below is the phonology of Tson spoken today. The dialect from Wosepar is not included because of how little information about it exists.


Bilabial Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Uvular
Nasal m n
Plosive p t / d
Fricative θ s / z ʃ / ʒ χ
Affricate t͡s
Approximant w
Flap or tap ɾ
Lateral app. l


Front Back
High i
Mid ɛ o
Low æ a


The syllable structures of Tson are (C1)(C2)V(C) and (N)V(C), where C is a consonant, N is a nasal consonant, and V is a vowel.

  • C1 can be any non-nasal consonant phoneme including /t͡s/ but excluding /w/, /ɾ/, and /l/.
  • C2 is restricted to /w/, /ɾ/, or /l/ if C1 is a plosive, not present, or a fricative other than /s/, /ʃ/, or /θ/. If C1 is /s/ or /ʃ/, C2 can be any of the three, /χ/, or /θ/, while if C1 is /θ/, C2 can be any of the three or /χ/.

Diphthongs are not allowed in Tson. Two vowels that are side-by-side are pronounced in separate syllables. For example, the word for pig, ао / ao is pronounced /ˈa.o/.

Stress usually falls on the penultimate (second to last) syllable of a word, but there are two vowel sounds capable of diverting the stress to a different syllable. Sometimes, /a/ diverts primary stress to the last syllable, as is the case with отидá / otidá (/ˌo.tiˈda/). In other places, it diverts primary stress to the third to last syllable like in пáроҫо / párotho (/ˈpa.ɾoˌθo/). Also, the phoneme /æ/ always receives some amount of stress and may divert primary stress to the ultimate syllable but not to the third to last syllable. For example, миәр / miær is pronounced /miˈæɾ/, and ætorse is pronounced /ˌæˈtoɾ.sɛ/. Words like хәтәр / chætær have stress on the penultimate syllable: /ˈχæˌtæɾ/.

Writing System[]

Tson is written using Tson script (most common), Cyrillic script, or Latin script. The language uses 22 letters in its Cyrillic script alphabet, 22 letters in its Latin script alphabet, and 22 letters in its Tson script alphabet, though each alphabet contains one letter that represents the /ŋ/ sound and is widely considered to be obsolete. Each letter of the Cyrillic script alphabet correlates to a letter in the Tson script alphabet. ⟨ch⟩, ⟨ng⟩, ⟨sh⟩, ⟨th⟩, ⟨ts⟩, and ⟨zh⟩ are considered separate letters in the Latin script alphabet, and each correlate to a character of the Tson script alphabet, while ⟨i⟩ or Cyrillic ⟨и⟩ correlates to a letter of the Tson script alphabet made of two characters. The Tson script alphabet is unicase.

Tson Cyrillic Script[]

The table below shows the Cyrillic script alphabet for the Tson Language.

Letter А а Ә ә В в Д д Ж ж З з И и Л л
Sound /a/ /æ/ /w/ /d/ /ʒ/ /z/ /i/ /l/
Letter М м Н н Ң ң О о П п Р р С с Ҫ ҫ
Sound /m/ /n, m/ /ŋ/ /o/ /p/ /ɾ/ /s/ /θ/
Letter Т т Х х Ц ц Ш ш Э э Á á
Sound /t/ /χ/ /t͡s/ /ʃ/ /ɛ/ stressed /a/

Tson Latin Script[]

The table below shows the Latin script alphabet for the Tson Language.

Letter A a Ch ch D d E e I i L l M m N n
Sound /a/ /χ/ /d/ /ɛ/ /i/ /l/ /m/ /n, m/
Letter Ng ng O o P p R r S s Sh sh T t Th th
Sound /ŋ/ /o/ /p/ /ɾ/ /s/ /ʃ/ /t/ /θ/
Letter Ts ts W w Z z Zh zh Æ æ Á á
Sound /t͡s/ /w/ /z/ /ʒ/ /æ/ stressed /a/
  • In the word final position, н / n is pronounced /m/, even if the next word begins in an alveolar consonant. However, in fast speech, it can be pronounced as [n] if the next word begins in an alveolar consonant and [n̪] if the next word begins in ҫ / th.
  • The letter Ң ң / Ng ng is a direct equivalent to the Tson letter making the same sound, and the Tson letter was only used in transcribing the dialect spoken in Wosepar during the existence of the Tson state, which still distinguished all word final nasals and had the /ŋ/ sound word finally in some circumstances.

Tson Script Alphabet[]

Tson Script Alphabet, Punctuation, and Numerals

To the right is the Tson script alphabet, which reads left to right and then top to bottom. The order of the letters was not established until modern times, and it is related to the order of the Russian alphabet and the Tson Cyrillic script alphabet. The Cyrillic and Latin script alphabets are depicted above the Tson script alphabet, and the phonemes are depicted below the alphabet.


The punctuation of Tson is also shown on the right, and it consists of a stop, a question mark, an emphasization mark, separators, and quotation marks. There is no distinction between a long pause like from a period and a short pause like from a comma, though the distinction is sometimes made in the Cyrillic or Latin scripts. An emphasization mark is used for exclamations, interjections, and any sentence that is said with intensity, so even a whisper can use this mark if it is said intensely. Generally, it is transliterated into either a period or exclamation point in Tson Cyrillic and Tson Latin scripts. Separators can enclose a section of a sentence and are often used in free variation with quotation marks, but one separator can stand by itself, meaning it encloses all of the sentence before or after it. Quotation marks require a beginning mark and an end mark, and they are most often used for quoting multiple sentences at a time. Often, the vertical placement of separators and quotation marks varies between different people.


There are 20 numerals used in Tson plus one symbol that represents 5 to the power of 15. The number system is base 5, and there are different numerals and words for numbers in the first five places. For example, 125 (1000 in base 5) is оҫ / oth, while 5 (10 in base 5) is written with a separate numeral, ир / ir. Powers of 5 from 55 to 59 are written with the same twenty numerals with a symbol, пэв / pew, added after. Powers of 5 from 510 to 514 are written with the 20 numerals with a symbol, хри / chri, added after, while 515 has its own symbol, called мажэ / mazhe.

The Tson people believed that there were exactly 30,517,578,125 (515) things in the universe at any time. This likely came from a misconception about their number system or simply a guess. It is possible that their number system extended past 515 at some point and that everything after 515 was removed because it would never be useful. However, it is also possible that the Tson people believed the statement because of the limitations that already existed in their number system.



Nominative Accusative Genitive
1st Person ро / ro ор / or о / o
1st Person Plural Inclusive (includes speaker, audience, and possibly others) эдо / edo эдом / edom эдо(N) / edo(N)
1st Person Plural Exclusive эро / ero эром / erom эро(N) / ero(N)
1st Person Dual Inclusive (includes only one person talking and one person being talked to) эо / eo эом / eom эо(N) / eo(N)
2nd Person Singular рә / ræ ән / æn рә(N) / ræ(N)
2nd Person Plural рэв / rew ровн / rown рэв(N) / rew(N)
3rd Person Singular си / si сэн / sen со / so
3rd Person Plural эси / esi эсэн / esen эсо(N) / eso(N)
  • (N) is the nasal consonant that corresponds to the beginning of the next word, and, if the word is in isolation, (N) is н or n. If the next word begins in anything except for м / m or п / p, (N) is н / n. If it begins in м / m or п / p, (N) is м / m. Keep in mind that word final н / n is pronounced /m/, so the difference between м / m and н / n in that position is purely visual.
  • The first person plural эдо / edo and its other forms must include three or more people including the person or people being talked to.
  • The first person plural эо / eo and its other forms can only include two people, which are the speaker and the person being talked to.


Nouns can be one of two numbers, which are singular and plural. If a noun begins in a consonant, its plural form contains an extra э- / e- at the beginning. For example, "хон" / "chon", meaning "person", becomes "эхон" / "echon" when plural. If a noun begins in a vowel, эн- / en- is added to the beginning to make it plural. For example, "ао" / "ao", meaning "pig", becomes "энао" / "enao" when plural.


There are only three ways (as of yet) to conjugate a verb. Two ways involve tense, while one involves changing the mood so as to suggest something.

Past Tense, "did" Future Tense, "will" Deontic Mood (?), "should"
-новэ / -nowe -ноо / -noo -иди / -idi
  • In order to communicate that someone should do something in the future or should have done something, the suffix -иди / -idi should be added to the verb, and an adverb such as лэтор / letor (late, etymologically unrelated) or әтор / ætor (early) should be added to the verb. For example, if you want to say that you bought goods, you would say this: "Ро тэндэновэ этэпро." / "Ro tendenowe etepro." However, if you want to say you should have bought goods, you would say this: "Ро әтор тэндэиди этэпро." / "Ro ætor tendeidi etepro."


I'm gonna rewrite someday.

The Tson language follows a SVO word order. Because of very little inflection, the word order is rather strict, and the subject cannot be left out. Sentences do, however, change to an OSV word order if they are interrogative. If the object and subject are difficult to distinguish in an interrogative sentence, a closing separator is sometimes used after the object with no space. There are no articles in Tson.

Tson uses two different types of conjunctions: short and long. A long conjunction is used to connect two clauses that have different subjects, verbs, or adverbs. Examples of sentences that would be translated to have long conjunctions are:

  • "I eat fish and eat at a restaurant." (The preposition in English changes, which corresponds to an adverb change in Tson.)
  • "I walk to a road and point to a road." (The verb changes.)

A short conjunction connects two parts of the same clause, and the clause contains multiple subjects or objects. Some examples of sentences that would use a short conjunction are: "I eat an apple and a banana." "The person and I go to a shop." The second part of the first sentence can be thought of as having the same implied subject, verb, and preposition (corresponding to an adverb) as the first part, and the first part of the second sentence can be thought of as having the same verb, preposition, and object as the second part. Each sentence is considered to have one clause.

  • An additional example is: "Ро ом монэхэ махаэрэзиходом паа хон си." / "Ro om moneche machaerezichodom paa chon si." / "I go to a restaurant and the person does too." The word си / si is added at the end to make the word хон / chon a subject, and паа / paa indicates that it is a subject of the same sentence. The sentence in Tson is still one clause.

In this language's equivalent of the dative case, the verb и / i and the adverb эрэ / ere become important. Below are translations of these sentences and explanations of them: "I give you a ball." "I give a ball to you."

"Ро ом мәцо ән паав эрэ и шэл."

"Ro om mætso æn paaw ere i shel."

<insert Leipzig glossing>

Because the subject is the same in both parts of both sentences, the word ро / ro can be taken out of the second part of the sentences. Because the verb is the same, и / i can replace мәцо / mætso in the second part of the sentence. To clear the adverb ом / om, эрэ / ere is added before и / i.

  • "Ро мәцо шэл паав ом и ән." / "Ro mætso shel paaw om i æn." This is a more common and slightly shorter way to format such a sentence in Tson. The word и / i replicates the verb мәцо / mætso, and an adverb, ом / om, is added before и / i to change the meaning from "... and give you." to ".. and give to you."

Example Texts[]

The following is the lord's prayer (as I know it) in Tson Cyrillic and Tson Latin scripts, as well as the English translation.

"(Nope. Not until I can understand the thing below this lol)"

"Edon otshe, ræ om em ei, (hallowed) em ræn chonom, ræn (kingdom) she siær, ræn (will (n.)) she thæw otidá, om i (earth) tsaaw si om em ei. Ræ om she mætso sopo din ere i ero (daily bread). Paaw ræ she (forgive) erom lee i eron (trespasses), tsaaw ero (forgive) (those) esi sa (trespass) erom. Paaw ræ she (lead) erom paaw in om i (temptation), diaw ræ she (deliver) erom paaw lee i mol. (Rest of the stuff I'll do later)"

"Our Father, who art in heaven, hallowed be thy name, thy kingdom come, thy will be done, on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive those who trespass against us. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, forever. Amen."



Words that were originally nouns are listed here. These words, in their original form, can also be used as verbs or adjectives, and since they can be used as adjectives, they can also be used as adverbs.

Tson Cyrillic Tson Latin English Note
ао ao pig
шаана shaana hair A singular group of hair like that on a human head. The hair on one person's head would be "шаана" / "shaana" while the hair on multiple peoples' heads would be "эшаана" / "eshaana".
раав raaw stick
вава wawa mother
мама mama father
орар orar water Any unit of water, which can be anything from a molecule to all water on Earth to any unit of water that is larger than that. An ocean can be considered "орар" / "orar" while two molecules of water can be considered "энорар" / "enorar". There are (or will be) separate words for different bodies of water, though.
хоном chonom name
проҫ proth child
ван wan woman
нан nan man
хров chrow meat
цон tson snow The word "Tson" derives from this.
хон chon person / human
пáроҫо párotho house / home
ирэт iret bird
мәтэ mæte partner / mate Likely unrelated to "mate"
хвәтэн chwæten quilt
хиэдэ chiede soil / land The word "Tsonchadia" is an anglicized form of цом хиэдэ / tson chiede (literally "snow land"), which is what the Tson people often referred to the Tson State as.
хәтәр chætær sword Both syllables always carry some stress because of the qualities of the /æ/ vowel in Tson: /ˈχæˌtæɾ/
ҫрәв thræw table
тәтэт tætet (a thing of) music
мипроҫ miproth baby
хэт chet body
дом dom place
порохáс porochás money Any unit of money
сэхомо sechomo (a) stone
тор tor time Any unit of time
прэтэс pretes (a) power / (a) weight It is sometimes used to mean physical weight, though there is (will be) a separate word for that.
морэшхо moreshcho plan
изов izow food Any unit of food
махаэрэзиходом machaerezichodom restaurant Literally "place for conversation"
тэпро tepro good As in a thing that can be bought, sold, or consumed
хапоста chaposta (a) cabbage Loanword from Russian капуста
шэл shel sun / ball
элэсхо elescho friend
хи chi who / what
хэи chei ash /ˈχɛ.i/
хрипáроҫо chripárotho country / state Literally "vast home"
жэв zhew god
алмэ alme apple
пахно pachno word A word that is spoken
хропно chropno word A word that is written
мажэ mazhe everything Also the name of a numeral that represents 515, which was thought by the Tson people to be how many things existed at any time
напо napo cloud
эи ei sky
эрар erar sky water / rain The Tson people believed that the sky was blue because of water and that the water was channeled through clouds to eventually rain down on the land.
пиан pian fur A group of fur like that on an animal or an object made of animal fur.
пишэл pishel cat Originally used to describe Pallas' cats but is used today for any cat. Derives from пиан / pian, meaning fur, and шэл / shel, meaning ball.
сио sio leaf
исхо ischo leaves Leaves on a tree. Leaves on multiple trees would be энисхо / enischo.
опил opil tree
дин din day
пэлҫэ pelthe head
эвпэн ewpen neck
росиа rosia Russia
лэхо lecho bed
то to thing / idea Used to convert verbs and adjectives into nouns
сопо sopo this
сэпэ sepe that
хаз chaz paper Countable. Multiple papers would be эхаз / echaz.
мат mat moon
хэмпо chempo where Where specifically. Often used after хэвпэ / chewpe.
хэвпэ chewpe where Used for something in an unknown place or something far away.


Tson Cyrillic Tson Latin English Note
мох moch rub
мах mach kill
сомо somo exit
нова nowa see
эҫ eth feel (emotionally)
пар par fight
мэна mena separate / split
твэр twer take
мәцо mætso give
эм em is / am
овэц owets are Considered a separate verb from эм / em
пэриас perias build
энэм enem talk It has a connotation that you are trying to convince or manipulate someone to do something
монэхэ moneche go
сим sim rise
шим shim need
дәв dæw call (something) Not used for calling on a phone
миәр miær move
мэмáв memáw think (about) If you think about something like a person, you would say that you think something. You would say: "Ро мэмáв хон." / "Ro memáw chon."
маранáр maranár keep
эна ena acknowledge
отидá otidá do
дэз dez have
пахсо pachso speak
нэжин nezhin learn
шос shos want
сисэд sised dance
хропти chropti write
сиәр siær come / approach
пэмэр pemer work
хамәцо chamætso pay
схэс sches hurt / harm
хвәнэ chwæne wrap
мазир mazir allow
иамáз iamáz attract
новнэл nownel search
дэвэ dewe eat
дажэл dazhel count
эрэзихо erezicho converse
сэвох sewoch point out
эдэх edech call for / summon
пи pi fear
тэндэ tende buy
остажо ostazho birth / bear
и i pro-verb When used after a long conjunction, this verb replicates the verb used in the first clause, the adverbs that modify it (unless another is specified), and the object. An example is the sentence: "Ро эпло дэвэ алмэ паав ом и ҫрәв." / "Ro eplo dewe alme paaw om i thræw." / "I quickly eat an apple and (I) quickly eat an apple at a table." The verb и / i takes the meaning of the words эпло дэвэ алмэ / eplo dewe alme, since those words are the verb, adverb, and object. However, a different adverb is specified before it because the sentence does not mean "... and quickly eat the apple the table."
сэн sen like / enjoy
азо azo love
эво ewo connect / join
мир mir die
лэхэ leche sleep
порин porin make / cause
моташо motasho commit (to)
ханэх chanech breathe
энэх enech live
ҫэво thewo rain / shower
дозир dozir throw
промрон promron vomit
риатá riatá sing
вов wow say
мошо mosho hunt


Tson Cyrillic Tson Latin English Note
дор dor bad
ин in not
вис wis wet
хри chri vast / large Used in the number system as 510 or 9,765,625
мэан mean separate
жолэм zholem old
лээв leew away
хвит chwit good
хэми chemi safe
мис mis small
иан ian one
шота shota other
олэ ole many
нонә nonæ few / little (in amount)
мэнэ mene almost
мол mol evil
мэнэх menech black The largest city to exist in the Tson State, Menech, derives its name from this. Black was seen as the color of trade and commerce. This symbolism is unrelated to the term "black market".
можэшхо mozheshcho easy
отор otor soon
лэтор letor late This is etymologically unrelated to the words "late" and "later"
пэрэ pere pure / perfect
әтор ætor early
ишэс ishes maybe
маж mazh all
дэв dew two
тиш tish three
хэвто chewto four
пэв pew big Used in the number system as 3,125
эимэ eime happy / jolly
риэж riezh sharp
ипо ipo pointy
нии nii dull
дорсои dorsoi lone
моташхо motashcho dedicated / committed
пэздэ pezde important
овроз owroz long
иҫно ithno wide
пво pwo few
сио sio green Comes from сио / sio meaning leaf.
сим sim up Comes from сим / sim meaning rise.
эжпэм ezhpem modest
эил eil blue
нэхрил nechril red
дэтам detam yellow
шэпрам shepram strange A phrase шэпрам эил / shepram eil is used to refer to the color purple.
омозэ omoze glad This is used as a one word phrase meaning "thank you."


These words below are restricted to only being adverbs, while the adjectives in the above table can function as adverbs as well. As such, English adverbs such as "quickly" or "eerily" are translated with adverbs from the adjective table above, while prepositions such as "to" or "against" are translated with adverbs from the below table.

Tson Cyrillic Tson Latin English Note
ом om at / to
са sa against
лээ lee from
мвэд mwed with
махá machá for
вэх wech out (from)
эрэ ere gets rid of locational adverb This is commonly used in the language's equivalent of the dative case. More detail is provided in the syntax section in the grammar.
хэмпи chempi near / close (to)
ихэ iche in