Tenses refer to what part of time the verb is dealing with, in this lesson we will go through how Umbrean deals with it.


Tense in its strict sense is just a temporal frame work. Most languages only have three tenses, past, present, and future. Some languages, like English, do not have the future tense as a true tense, instead using an auxiliary verb, which in English it is "Will". Other languages can have even finer distinction such as near-past, Near-future and so on.

In Umbrean there is only three tenses, the past, the future and the present.


the grammatical aspect of a verb defines the temporal flow (or lack thereof) in the described event or state. English have the "have" one, also known as perfect aspect where it tells hat the event in question still have consequences into the tense. English also has the "-ing" form where it refers to a state that is progressing, it is known as "Progressive" aspect.

Umbrean have seven aspects, namely:

Aspect Description Example
Perfective This is the simple one, standard I walked
Pausative That it is momentarily stopped to be later
I paused working
Perfect Describes an action to take place at a previous
moment but affects the current tense
I will have gone
Inceptive The action is started/Initiated Im starting to cook
Continuative The action is still ongoing and haven't yet been
finished, may also be used for progressive
I am still cooking
Terminative The action is being terminated or recently did I finished cooking
Genericative The action is generally done, may be used for
habitual as well
Apples generally fall


Tense and aspect is decided along with negation by a suffix which is placed onto the root (if nothing else is already placed on) and then followed by person.

Tempus 0% Irregular
Aspect Positive Negative
Past Present Future Past Present Future

a few random examples will be here with the particle underlined

Tense Aspect Example Translation
Past Inceptive adwijo loymyamavy The water started to fall
Present Terminative adwijo loymagniavy The water is stopping to fall
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