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Kihā́mmicEdit

To do listEdit

  1. Redo translations (because of updated declensions)
  2. Explanation in interrogative pronouns section
  3. Add relative pronouns to page (with explanations)
  4. Indefinite pronouns (with explanations)
  5. Negative pronouns (with explanations)
  6. Perhaps definitive pronouns? i.e. "самый", "the very (same)"
  7. Tidy up voices and continuous sections
  8. Explanation of how to use verb tenses
  9. Add articles for all irregular verbs and replace existing tables with new style table
  10. Explanation of verbal prefixes
  11. Explain the use of articles
  12. Redo word order section and explain with more examples of changing focus
  13. Complete Swadesh list
  14. Explanation of nominal prefixes and suffixes
  15. Add capitalisation rules
  16. Tables of correlatives
  17. Word formation
  18. Predicatives use instrumental in Church Kihā́mmic

Blank verb tableEdit

Conjugation of infinitive (translation)
Participles Present -ámô Past -amô
Singular
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Indicative Present
Simple
Past
Imperfect
Perfect a- a- a-
Pluperfect aiya- aiya- aiya-
Future
Imperfect
Perfect a- a- a-
Conditional Present ban- ban- ban-
Past bana- bana- bana-
Imperative
Plural
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Indicative Present
Simple
Past
Imperfect
Perfect ar- ar- ar-
Pluperfect aiyar- aiyar- aiyar-
Future
Imperfect
Perfect ar- ar- ar-
Conditional Present ban- ban- ban-
Past banar- banar- banar-
Imperative

Garanáþ (first conjugation, -áþ)Edit

Conjugation of garanáþ (to play)
Participles Present garanámô Past garanázamô
Singular
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Indicative Present
Simple garanói garanéi garanúi
Past
Imperfect garanáz garanazā́ garanazū́
Perfect agaranáz agaranazā́ agaranazū́
Pluperfect aiyagaranáz aiyagaranazā́ aiyagaranazū́
Future
Imperfect garantóp garantopā́ garantopū́
Perfect agarantóp agarantopā́ agarantopū́
Conditional Present bangaranói bangaranéi bangaranúi
Past banagaranáz banagaranazā́ banagaranazū́
Imperative garanaþố garanaþá garanaþû́
Plural
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Indicative Present
Simple garanóim garanéim garanúim
Past
Imperfect garanázm garanazā́m garanazū́m
Perfect argaranázm argaranazā́m argaranazū́m
Pluperfect aiyargaranázm aiyargaranazā́m aiyargaranazū́m
Future
Imperfect garantópm garantopā́m garantopū́m
Perfect argarantópm argarantopā́m argarantopū́m
Conditional Present bangaranóim bangaranéim bangaranúim
Past banargaranázm banargaranazā́m banargaranazū́m
Imperative garanaþmố garanaþmá garanaþmû́

Kasū́t (second conjugation, -ū́t)Edit

Conjugation of kasū́t (to drink)
Participles Present kasámô Past kasû́samô
Singular
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Indicative Present
Simple kasû́n kasûnā́ kasûnī́
Past
Imperfect kasû́s kasûsā́ kasûsū́
Perfect akasû́s akasûsā́ akasûsū́
Pluperfect aiyakasû́s aiyakasûsā́ aiyakasûsū́
Future
Imperfect kasrót kasrotā́ kasrotū́
Perfect akasrót akasrotā́ akasrotū́
Conditional Present bankasû́n bankasûnā́ bankasûnī́
Past banakasû́s banakasûsā́ banakasûsū́
Imperative kasūtố kasūtá kasūtû́
Plural
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Indicative Present
Simple kasû́nm kasûnā́n kasûnī́n
Past
Imperfect kasû́sn kasûsā́n kasûsū́n
Perfect arkasû́sn arkasûsā́n arkasûsū́n
Pluperfect aiyarkasû́sn aiyarkasûsā́n aiyarkasûsū́n
Future
Imperfect kasrótn kasrotā́n kasrotū́n
Perfect arkasrótn arkasrotā́n arkasrotū́n
Conditional Present bankasû́nm bankasûnā́n bankasûnī́n
Past banarkasû́sn banarkasûsā́n banarkasûsū́n
Imperative kasūtnố kasūtná kasūtnû́

Fûrnóš (third conjugation, -óš)Edit

Conjugation of fûrnóš (to stand)
Participles Present fûrnámô Past fûrnážamô
Singular
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Indicative Present
Simple fûrnố fûrná fûrnû́
Past
Imperfect fûrnáž fûrnažā́ fûrnažū́
Perfect afûrnáž afûrnažā́ afûrnažū́
Pluperfect aiyafûrnáž aiyafûrnažā́ aiyafûrnažū́
Future
Imperfect fûrnót fûrnotā́ fûrnotū́
Perfect afûrnót afûrnotā́ afûrnotū́
Conditional Present banfûrnố banfûrná banfûrnû́
Past banafûrnáž banafûrnažā́ banafûrnažū́
Imperative fûrnošố fûrnošá fûrnošû
Plural
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Indicative Present
Simple fûrnốm fûrnám fûrnû́m
Past
Imperfect fûrnážm fûrnažā́m fûrnažū́m
Perfect arfûrnážm arfûrnažā́m arfûrnažū́m
Pluperfect aiyarfûrnážm aiyarfûrnažā́m aiyarfûrnažū́m
Future
Imperfect fûrnótm fûrnotā́m fûrnotū́m
Perfect arfûrnótm arfûrnotā́m arfûrnotū́m
Conditional Present banfûrnốm banfûrnám banfûrnû́m
Past banarfûrnážm banarfûrnažā́m banarfûrnažū́m
Imperative fûrnošmố fûrnošmá fûrnošmû

JukpëEdit

To do listEdit

  1. Tidy up verb serialisation explanation
  2. Add translation for demonstrative pronouns
  3. Add cardinal numerals to article
  4. Derive ordinal numerals from cardinals and add to article
  5. "Nominal participle" prefixes et cetera - see here
  6. Possessive adjectives and pronouns as the same thing?
  7. Adverbs and table of correlatives
  8. How to express ages
  9. Dates and times
  10. Adpositions
  11. Conjunctions
  12. Indefinite and negative pronouns
  13. Word order - see verb serialisation examples - limited
  14. Definitive and determinative pronouns
  15. Add more irregular adverbs
  16. Diminutives and augmentatives
  17. Swadesh list
  18. Evidentials and modality
  19. Kinship system
  20. Other numerals
  21. Clause construction
  22. Focus particles

NounsEdit

GenericEdit

Class Prefix (sg) Prefix (pl) Example (sg) Example (pl) Translation
1. People m(á)- n(á)- person (people)
2. Animals v(á)- z(á)- bís bís fish
3. Plants p(ù)- b(ì)- tree(s)
4. Food h(ó)- ch(ú)- pót chúpót soup(s)
5. Body parts gb(ì)- kp(é)- gbì kpé eye(s)
6. Groups j(í)- t(í)- dhátà dhátà pride(s) of lions
7. Artefacts gh(ì)- k(é)- ghì knife (knives)
8. Other ú(ny)- ny(á)- ú nyá field(s)

SpecificEdit

Stem -stem
1. People 2. Animals 3. Plants 4. Food
Prefix (s/p) Translation Prefix (s/p) Translation Prefix (s/p) Translation Prefix (s/p) Translation
(má/ná)- (vá/zá)- (pù/bì)- (hó/chú)-
5. Body parts 6. Groups 7. Artefacts 8. Other
Prefix (s/p) Translation Prefix (s/p) Translation Prefix (s/p) Translation Prefix (s/p) Translation
(gbì/kpé)- (jí/tí)- (ghì/ké)- (úny/nyá)-

AdjectivesEdit

Class Singular Plural
1. People mèdhék nèdhék
2. Animals vèdhék zèdhék
3. Plants pèdhék bèdhék
4. Food hèdhék chèdhék
5. Body parts gbèdhék kpèdhék
6. Groups jèdhék tèdhék
7. Artefacts ghèdhék kèdhék
8. Other únyèdhék nyèdhék

PronounsEdit

Person Singular Plural
1st
2nd
3rd (m/n)
3rd (f)

RakunhanáEdit

-áreEdit

Conjugation of -áre (translation)
Participles → Present -antó
Past -adó
Future -áixó
Number → Singular Plural
Person → 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Indicative
Present -ás -ámos -axís -áme
Imperfect -ábu -ábas -ába -ábamos -ábaxís -ábame
Perfect -ís -ixá -ixámos -ixís -ixáme
Pluperfect -álu -álas -ála -álamos -álaxís -álame
Future -axú -axás -axá -axámos -áxaxís -axáme
Future perfect -áloxú -áloxás -áloxá -áloxámos -áloxaxís -áloxáme
Conditional
Present -úra -áras -ára -áramos -áraxís -árame
Perfect -úre -áres -áre -áremos -árexís -áreme
Subjunctive
Present -úe -úas -úa -úamos -úaxís -úame
Imperfect -ús -áses -ás -ámas -axísas -ámes
Perfect -úis -úes -úas -úamas -úaxíses -úames
Pluperfect -úalu -úalas -úala -úlamos -úalaxís -úalame
Imperative
Affirmative -e -a -e -áma -axí -ám

-ereEdit

Conjugation of -ere (translation)
Participles → Present -entó
Past -edó
Future -éixó
Number → Singular Plural
Person → 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Indicative
Present -és -émos -exís -éme
Imperfect -exí -exís -exé -exímos -exexís -exíme
Perfect -és -exú -exómos -ésexís -exéme
Pluperfect -erí -erás -erá -erámos -eraxís -eráme
Future -eraxú -eraxás -eraxá -eraxámos -eraxís -eraxáme
Future perfect -eloxú -eloxás -eloxá -eloxámos -eloxaxís -eloxáme
Conditional
Present -éro -éres -ére -éremos -érexís -éreme
Perfect -úro -úres úre -úremos -úrexís -úreme
Subjunctive
Present -úe -úas -úa -úamos -úaxís -úame
Imperfect -ús -áses -ás -ámas -axísas -ámes
Perfect -úis -úes -úas -úamas -úaxíses -úames
Pluperfect -úalu -úalas -úala -úlamos -úalaxís -úalame
Imperative
Affirmative -áma -axí -ám

-íreEdit

Conjugation of -ere (translation)
Participles → Present -inató
Past -ídó
Future -irixó
Number → Singular Plural
Person → 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Indicative
Present -és -émos -exís -éme
Imperfect -exí -exís -exé -exímos -exexís -exíme
Perfect -ís -ixú -ixómos -ísexís -ixéme
Pluperfect -irí -irás -irá -irámos -iraxís -iráme
Future -iraxú -iraxás -iraxá -iraxámos -iraxís -iraxáme
Future perfect -oxú -oxás -oxá -oxámos -oxaxís -oxáme
Conditional
Present -íro -íres -íre -íremos -írexís -íreme
Perfect -úro -úres úre -úremos -úrexís -úreme
Subjunctive
Present -úe -úes -úe -úemos -úexís -úeme
Imperfect -ús -áses -ás -ámas -axísas -ámes
Perfect -úis -úes -úas -úamas -úaxíses -úames
Pluperfect -úelu -úelas -úela -úlemos -úelaxís -úelame
Imperative
Affirmative -áma -axí -ám

OtherEdit

Bhàikasni rsēk - CV.CVC.CV CVC - [ˌb̪ʱɑi̯.ˈkas.n̪i ʂə̞ːk]

ConsonantsEdit

Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal n /n̪/ nj /ɲ/
Unaspirated plosive b /b̪/ t /t̪/ k /k/
g /g/
q /q/
Aspirated plosive bh /b̪ʱ/ th /t̪ʱ/ kh /kʱ/
gh /gʱ/
q /qʱ/
Fricative f /f/ s /s/
z /z/
rs /ʂ/
rz /ʐ/
Approximant l /l̪/ lj /ʎ/
Trill r /r̪/
  • /n̪/ has many allophones, becoming [ɱ] before /b̪/, /b̪ʱ/ and /f/, [n] before /s/ and /z/, [ɳ] before /ʂ/ and /ʐ/, [ɲ] before /ʎ/, [ŋ] before /k/, /g/, /kʱ/ and /gʱ/ and [ɴ] before /q/ and /qʱ/.

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i /i/ u /y/ ì /ɯ/ ù /u/
Near-close î /ɪ/ û /ʊ/
Close-mid
Mid e /e̞/ o /o̞/
Open-mid ē /ə̞ː/
Near-open ā /ɐː/
Open a /a/ à /ɑ/
  • /ɪ/ and /ʊ/ cannot be stressed
  • There are 15 diphthongs: ai [ai̯], au [au̯], ài [ɑi̯], àu [ɑu̯], āi [ɐːi̯], āu [ɐːu̯], ia [i̯a], [i̯ɑ], ìa [ɯ̯a], ä [ɯ̯ɑ], ï [ɯ̯i], ua [u̯a], [u̯ɑ], ui [u̯i], [u̯ɯ] and ùi [y̯i].

PhonotacticsEdit

Syllable structure: V, VC, CV, CCV, CCVC

Stress is penultimate

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