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The Rugenian language (Rüügernitscher spääh [ʀyːgeɳɪt͡ʃeɐ̯ ʃpɛːç]) is a Germanic language and thus is closely related to the English, Swedish, German and Icelandic languages. Rugenian currently has less than 150,000 native speakers. The vast majority of its speakers come from the north-east of Germany, the east of Denmark and north-western Poland. In addition, there are few speakers in the south of Sweden. The language gets its name from Germany's largest island, Rügen (called Rüügern in Rugenian). The language is first attested in the 10th century by a copy of the Book of Malachi found at Rønne on the Danish island of Bornholm.

Phonology and orthographyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ɳ ŋ̊ ŋ
Plosive p b t d ʈ ɖ k g ʔ
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ç ʝ x χ ʁ h ɦ
Affricate t͡s d͡z t͡ʃ d͡ʒ
Approximant l ɻ ɭ j w ʍ
Trill ɽ͡r ʀ
Grapheme IPA Notes
b [b] -
ch [x], [χ] When word final /x/ becomes [χ]
d [d] -
dz [d͡z] -
dzch [d͡ʒ] -
f [f] -
g [g] -
gh [ç] -
h [h], [ɦ], [ç] When intervocalic /h/ is realised as [ɦ] and when word final as [ç]
j [j], [ʝ] When intervocalic /j/ is realised as [ʝ]
k [k] -
l [l] -
m [m] -
n [n] -
ng [ŋ], [ŋg] When intervocalic /ŋ/ becomes [ŋg]
nk [ŋ̊], [ŋ̊k] When intervocalic /ŋ̊/ becomes [ŋ̊k]
p [p] -
r [ʀ], [ʁ] /ʀ/ may in fact be the fricative [ʁ] rather than a trill
rd [ɖ] -
rl [ɭ] -
rn [ɳ] -
rr [ɽ͡r], [ɻ] /ɽ͡r/ may in fact be the approximant [ɻ] rather than a trill
rs [ʂ] -
rt [ʈ] -
rz [ʐ] -
s [s], [ʃ] /s/ is realised as [ʃ] before /p/ and /t/
sch [ʃ] -
t [t] -
ts [t͡s] -
tsch [t͡ʃ] -
v [v] -
w [ʍ], [w] When intervocalic /ʍ/ becomes [w]
z [z], [ʒ] /z/ is realised as [ʒ] before /p/ and /t/
zch [ʒ] -
- [ʔ] A glottal stop may occur between non-diphthongised vowels

Short vowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close
Near-close ɪ ʏ ʊ
Close-mid e ø o
Mid
Open-mid ɛ œ
Near-open æ
Open a
Grapheme IPA Grapheme IPA
a [a] ä [ɛ]
æ [æ] e [e]
ë [œ] i [ɪ]
o [o] ö [ø]
u [ʊ] ü [ʏ]

Long vowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close iː yː ʉː
Near-close
Close-mid eː øː
Mid
Open-mid ɛː œː ɔː
Near-open ɐː
Open
Grapheme IPA Grapheme IPA
aa [aː] ää, äe [ɛː]
å, ar [ɐː] ee [eː]
ëë [œː] ie [iː]
oo [ɔː] öö [øː]
uu [uː] üü [yː]
ů [ʉː] - -

DiphthongsEdit

Grapheme IPA Grapheme IPA
ae [aɛ̯] ai [aɪ̯]
ao [ao̯] au [aʊ̯]
[aʏ̯] äi [ɛɪ̯]
äo [ɛo̯] äu [ɛʊ̯]
äü [ɛʏ̯] ea, är [ɛɐ̯]
ei [eɪ̯] eo [eo̯]
er [eɐ̯] eu [eʊ̯]
[eʏ̯] ëa, ër [œɐ̯]
ia, ir [iɐ̯] oa, or [oɐ̯]
oe [oɛ̯] oi [oɪ̯]
ou [oʊ̯] [oʏ̯]
öa, ör [øɐ̯] öe [øɛ̯]
ua, ur [uɐ̯] ue [uɛ̯]
ui [uɪ̯] uo [uo̯]
üa, ür [yɐ̯] üe [yɛ̯]
üi [yɪ̯] üo [yo̯]
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