Conlang
Advertisement

Brïïwlä /ˈbɹɪːwlɑ/[]

Spelling & Phonology[]

Consonant inventory: b c d f fː g h hː j jː k l lː m mː n nː p q r rː s sː t v vː w wː x xː z zː ç çː ð ðː ħ ħː ŋ ŋː ɓ ɟ ɣ ɣː ɲ ɲː ɹ ɹː ɾ ʀ ʀː ʁ ʁː ʃ ʃː ʍ ʍː ʎ ʎː ʒ ʒː ʔ ʘ ʙ ʣ ʤ ʤː ʦ ʧ ʧː θ θː χ χː

↓Manner/Place→ Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Palato-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
Nasal m mː n nː ɲ ɲː ŋ ŋː
Stop p b t d c ɟ k g q ʔ
Implosive ɓ
Affricate ʦ ʣ ʧ ʧː ʤ ʤː
Fricative f fː v vː θ θː ð ðː s sː z zː ʃ ʃː ʒ ʒː ç çː x xː ɣ ɣː χ χː ʁ ʁː ħ ħː h hː
Approximant ɹ ɹː j jː
Tap ɾ
Trill ʙ r rː ʀ ʀː
Lateral approximant l lː ʎ ʎː
Click ʘ

Co-articulated phonemes

↓Manner/Place→ Labial-velar
Approximant ʍ ʍː w wː

Vowel inventory: a aː e eː i iː o oː u uː y yː æ æː ø øː ɑ ɑː ɔ ɔː ə əː ə˞ ə̃ ə̃ː ɛ ɛː ɨ ɨː ɪ ɪː ʉ ʉː ʊ ʊː ʌ ʌː

Front Central Back
High i iː y yː ɨ ɨː ʉ ʉː u uː
Near-high ɪ ɪː ʊ ʊː
High-mid e eː ø øː o oː
Mid ə ə̃ ə˞ əː ə̃ː
Low-mid ɛ ɛː ʌ ʌː ɔ ɔː
Near-low æ æː
Low a aː ɑ ɑː

Syllable structure: (C)(C)V(C)

Stress pattern: Penultimate — stress is on the second last syllable

Spelling rules:[]

Pronunciation Spelling
ɛ ë
ɑ ä
ə à
ə˞ à˞
ə̃ à̃
ɔ aw
ʊ ü
ʉ ù
ʌ uh
ɪ ï
ɨ ì
y ú
r
ɹ r
θ th
ɾ
ʒ zh
ð dh
j y
ʃ sh
ŋ ng
ʁ ŕ
ʀ
ʤ j
ɟ jy
ʎ ÿ
c chy
ʧ ch
ɓ b’
ʙ
ʣ dz
ħ
ɲ ny
ç shy
ʦ ts
ʍ wh
x kh
ɣ gh
χ k̮h
ʔ ʻ
VV
CC

Grammar[]

  • Main word order: Subject Verb Object (Prepositional phrase). “Mary opened the door with a key” turns into Mary opened the door with a key.
  • Adjective order: Adjectives are positioned before the noun.
  • Adposition: postpositions ?

Nouns[]

Singular No affix

nyaak /ɲaːk/

dog

Plural Reduplicate whole word

nyaaknyaak /ˈɲaːkɲaːk/

dogs

Articles[]

Definite Indefinite
Singular bro /bɹo/

the

gàk /gək/

a

Plural dzhadhh /dʒaðː/

the

lüss /lʊsː/

some

Uses of indefinite article that differ from English:

  • Not used for non-specific mass (uncountable) nouns: non-specific means ‘Would you like some (any) tea?’ whereas specific means ‘Some tea (a specific amount) fell off the truck’

Pronouns[]

Nominative Accusative
1st singular r̂ːùùkhh /ʀːʉːxː/

I

jjà˞ /ʤːə˞/

me

2nd singular chhëj /ʧːɛʤ/

you

shhää /ʃːɑː/

you

3rd singular masc chyìì /cɨː/

he, it (masc)

wwïï /wːɪː/

his, it (masc)

3rd singular fem dr̀ë /dɾɛ/

she, it (fem)

nr̈onyy /nroɲː/

her, it (fem)

1st plural ngüü /ngʊː/

we

va /va/

us

2nd plural shhà˞ /ʃːə˞/

you all

b̮äf /ʙɑf/

you all

3rd plural chàà /ʧəː/

they

r̂ë /ʀɛ/

them

Possessive determiners[]

Possessive
1st singular r̂ːùùkhh /ʀːʉːxː/

my

2nd singular chhëj /ʧːɛʤ/

your

3rd singular masc chyìì /cɨː/

his

3rd singular fem dr̀ë /dɾɛ/

her

1st plural ngüü /ngʊː/

our

2nd plural shhà˞ /ʃːə˞/

your (pl)

3rd plural chàà /ʧəː/

their

Verbs[]

Present No affix

shyyær̀ʻù /ˈçːæɾʔʉ/

learn

Past If ends with vowel: Suffix -ʃræː

Else: Suffix -ɪːʃræː shyyær̀ʻùshr̈ææ /çːæɾˈʔʉʃræː/ learned

Future If ends with vowel: Suffix -ʒ

Else: Suffix -ʌʒ shyyær̀ʻùzh /ˈçːæɾʔʉʒ/ will learn

Imperfective aspect[]

The ‘imperfective’ aspect refers to ongoing actions, such as I am learning and habitual actions, such as I learn (something new every day).

Brïïwläian uses an affix for imperfective:

Imperfective If ends with vowel: Suffix -hː

Else: Suffix -ʉhː shyyær̀ʻùhh /ˈçːæɾʔʉhː/ learns/is learning

Numbers[]

Brïïwläian has a base-10 number system:

  • 1 - chhi
  • 2 - vr̀ee
  • 3 - r̂æ
  • 4 - gà̃
  • 5 - rrà̃à̃
  • 6 - gæ
  • 7 - benyy
  • 8 - gu
  • 9 - woy
  • 10 - väk̮hh
  • 100 - ee
  • 1000 - fäwh

Derivational morphology[]

  • Adjective → adverb = If ends with vowel: Suffix -ʁːɪ
    • Else: Suffix -ə̃ʁːɪ
  • Adjective → noun (the quality of being [adj]) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -ʒː
    • Else: Suffix -ə˞ʒː
  • Adjective → verb (to make something [adj]) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -ɣ
    • Else: Suffix -eɣ
  • Noun → adjective (having the quality of [noun]) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -ʍː
    • Else: Suffix -ɨʍː
  • Noun → adjective relating to noun (e.g. economy → economic) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -f
    • Else: Suffix -ɑf
  • Noun to verb = Suffix -ɑʃ
  • Verb → adjective (result of doing [verb]) = Suffix -ə˞g
  • Tending to = Suffix -ə̃d
  • Verb → noun (the act of [verb]) = Suffix -o
  • Verb → noun that verb produces (e.g. know → knowledge) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -ð
    • Else: Suffix -ɪð
  • One who [verb]s (e.g. paint → painter) = Suffix -æ
  • Place of (e.g. wine → winery) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -ɾ
    • Else: Suffix -ʊɾ
  • Diminutive = Suffix -aʍː
  • Augmentative = If ends with vowel: Suffix -r
    • Else: Suffix -er

Brïïwläian - English Dictionary[]

Key: spelling /pronunciation/ part of speech. definition(s)

adj. adjective | adv. adverb | art. article | conj. conjunction | det. determiner | interj. interjection | n. noun | num. numeral | prep. preposition | pron. pronoun | v. verb

  • a /a/ n. war
  • ää /ɑː/ v. care
  • äättø /ˈɑːttø/ n. glue
  • ànbuu /ˈənbuː/ n. grease
  • b’à /ɓə/ n. court (of law), tribunal
  • b’ak̮hh drà̃ /ɓaχː dɹə̃/ n. orchard
  • b’ïsh /ɓɪʃ/ adj. past
  • b̮à /ʙə/ v. influence
  • bahh /bahː/ n. face, side, front, expression, facade, surface
  • bë /bɛ/ adv. quite, rather
  • b̮ììgfa /ˈʙɨːgfa/ v. employ, recruit
  • blanyye /ˈblaɲje/ v. lose
  • bne /bne/ n. wing
  • br̀a /bɾa/ v. educate
  • br̀akïdh /ˈbɾakɪð/ n. building
  • br̀ì /bɾɨ/ adj. white, clear
  • bü /bʊ/ n. star
  • búú bà̃ /byː bə̃/ n. midnight
  • chë /ʧɛ/ n. staff, crew
  • chhææ /ʧhæː/ v. tread, step on
  • chher /ʧːeɹ/ n. resource
  • chhü /ʧːʊ/ n. community, colony
  • chtëbläŕ /ˈʧtɛblɑʁ/ v. cry, shout, sob, weep
  • chyächhe /ˈcɑʧːe/ n. air, oxygen
  • chyøøp /cøːp/ v. feel (examine by touch)
  • da /da/ n. weather, climate
  • däk̮hh /dɑχː/ adj. real
  • dhà˞dh /ðə˞ð/ n. wood
  • dhhæpzii /ˈðːæpziː/ v. call (refer to by name), dub
  • dhhúr̀zæ /ˈðːyɾzæ/ adj. best
  • dhuh /ðʌ/ v. hit, beat (strike), slap, collide
  • drà̃ /dɹə̃/ n. garden, park
  • drà̃æ /ˈdɹə̃æ/ n. gardener
  • dramìwhh /ˈdɹamɨʍː/ adj. heavy
  • dr̀ì bà̃ /dɾɨ bə̃/ adv. tonight
  • drur̈ /dɹur/ n. law
  • dvëërmà˞ /ˈdvɛːɹmə˞/ adj. black, blue
  • dyü /djʊ/ n. section, compartment, piece
  • dzazhh /ʣaʒː/ n. ability
  • dzhaw /dʒɔ/ n. smoke, gas
  • dzhuu /dʒuː/ v. regret, lament
  • ë /ɛ/ adj. sorry, sad
  • ëzhh /ɛʒː/ n. sadness
  • fày /fəj/ n. nest, den
  • ffëëo /ˈfːɛːo/ n. repetition
  • fr̈a /fra/ n. death
  • fr̀æ /fɾæ/ v. torture, oppress
  • frï /fɹɪ/ v. sneeze
  • fr̀iwwo /ˈfɾiwːo/ n. perception
  • frujey /ˈfɹuʤej/ v. discuss
  • ftawwzhh /ftɔːʒː/ n. confidence
  • füür̈à̃ŕːï /fʊːˈrə̃ʁːɪ/ adv. previously
  • fyëë /fjɛː/ n. fan (enthusiast)
  • gächh /gɑʧː/ n. language, dialect
  • gææv /gæːv/ n. employee
  • gee /geː/ v. twist
  • ghe /ɣe/ n. child (son or daughter of any age)
  • ghheg /ɣːeg/ prep. from
  • ghhúú /ɣːyː/ n. line
  • ghnæshyúr̀ /ˈɣnæçyɾ/ n. grocer
  • ghr̀à˞y /ɣɾə˞j/ n. bar (pub)
  • ghüü /ɣʊː/ v. jump, skip
  • glæo /ˈglæo/ n. appearance (act of appearing)
  • gøchy /gøc/ v. leave (depart), depart
  • gŕìdnye /ˈgʁɨdɲe/ adv. never
  • gugh /guɣ/ adj. early
  • ḫːäg /ħːɑg/ n. second (time)
  • ḫæ /ħæ/ v. hope
  • ḫawg /ħɔg/ n. hag (old woman)
  • hhaj /hːaʤ/ n. plan, strategy (plan), program
  • hi /hi/ n. slave
  • høøæ /ˈhøːæ/ n. visitor
  • húng /hyŋ/ n. chemical
  • hyäzvà̃ /ˈhjɑzvə̃/ n. pencil
  • hyúú /hjyː/ n. need
  • ïï /ɪː/ adj. former
  • jää /ʤɑː/ prep. throughout
  • jaw /ʤɔ/ n. fur
  • jëbaw /ˈʤɛbɔ/ adv. once
  • jjà˞ /ʤːə˞/ pron. me
  • jjùb’ /ʤːʉɓ/ n. rod, shaft, bar, cylinder, axle
  • jyà̃ /ɟə̃/ n. forest, jungle
  • jyaanyænyy /ˈʤjaːɲæɲː/ v. catch, capture, seize
  • jyësh /ɟɛʃ/ conj. even
  • jyïr̀ /ɟɪɾ/ n. winery
  • kà̃b’ /kə̃ɓ/ n. gold
  • khäq /khɑq/ prep. of
  • khee /xeː/ n. sheep
  • k̮hhààzhh /χːəːʒː/ n. width
  • khhi /xːi/ n. muscle
  • k̮hhùùf /χːʉːf/ adj. religious
  • khle /xle/ n. ash, coal
  • khr̈uhkhyuh /ˈxrʌxjʌ/ n. impulse
  • khr̈úwh /xryʍ/ v. chase
  • kkhabiw /ˈkxabiw/ v. starve
  • knà̃ /knə̃/ n. species
  • kr̈à̃th /krə̃θ/ v. wonder
  • kshï /kʃɪ/ n. plague
  • kvæ /kvæ/ n. question
  • kyä /kjɑ/ n. knife
  • kyaww /kjɔː/ v. make, produce (manufacture), create, prepare, organize, compel, induce, put (cause to be)
  • làà /ləː/ n. energy (strength, stamina)
  • lë /lɛ/ n. mouth, beak, language
  • lëzh kyejy /lɛʒ kjeɟ/ n. dungeon
  • llæzhààæ /lːæzˈhəːæ/ n. leader
  • lüss /lʊsː/ art. some
  • makhh /maxː/ v. may
  • mlà˞ /mlə˞/ n. cat
  • mlii /mliː/ v. chew
  • mmææʻøøjyà˞zhh /mːæːˈʔøːɟə˞ʒː/ n. sickness
  • mmø /mːø/ adj. fat, big, obese
  • mmuu /mːuː/ n. interview
  • mpæqi /ˈmpæqi/ adj. stubborn
  • mr̀àà /mɾəː/ n. person
  • múŕː /myʁː/ n. victim
  • naaghh /naːɣː/ adj. guilty
  • ndà̃ /ndə̃/ n. loop
  • ngashæŕːï /ngaˈʃæʁːɪ/ adv. clearly
  • nggøø /ŋːøː/ n. throne
  • ni /ni/ n. effort
  • nløø /nløː/ adj. local
  • nno /nːo/ n. mask, veil
  • nr̈uhhvnuhh /ˈnrʌːvnʌː/ n. beach
  • núshvú /ˈnyʃvy/ n. culture
  • nyaa /ɲaː/ n. tail
  • nyaak /ɲaːk/ n. dog
  • nyëë /ɲɛː/ n. desk
  • nyü /ɲʊ/ n. past
  • nyùth /njʉθ/ prep. like
  • nyyï /ɲːɪ/ v. enjoy
  • øwh /øʍ/ v. please
  • pææm /pæːm/ n. dragon
  • päznùb̮ /ˈpɑznʉʙ/ v. defend, protect, secure, resist, prevent, justify
  • pìnyy /pɨɲː/ n. cord
  • pshyezz /pçezː/ v. damage, impair
  • psü /psʊ/ adv. down
  • puhss /pʌsː/ n. shadow
  • qà̃à̃ /qə̃ː/ adv. so, very, really
  • qeŕzo /ˈqeʁzo/ n. task
  • ŕːæʘ /ʁːæʘ/ v. return, go back
  • r̈ːëk /rːɛk/ n. friend
  • r̈ːoo /rːoː/ v. clear
  • r̂ːùùkhh /ʀːʉːxː/ pron. I
  • r̂à̃ /ʀə̃/ n. insect
  • ŕàày /ʁəːj/ n. floor
  • r̀alfüj /ˈɾalfʊʤ/ n. ceiling
  • ŕëë /ʁɛː/ v. separate, isolate
  • rïdhh /ɹɪðː/ v. wiggle
  • r̀on /ɾon/ n. job
  • rrii /ɹːiː/ n. stump
  • r̀u /ɾu/ adj. last (final), last (previous)
  • ŕyawf /ʁjɔf/ n. paint
  • ŕyuhh /ʁjʌː/ adj. neat, fine (okay)
  • sdà˞khh /sdə˞xː/ v. bring, carry
  • shàà /ʃəː/ adj. popular, famous
  • she /ʃe/ v. deal, haggle
  • shhää /ʃːɑː/ pron. you
  • shhïïngà˞g /ˈʃːɪːŋə˞g/ adj. final
  • shka /ʃka/ v. steal, rob, snatch
  • shlaj /ʃlaʤ/ n. lounge, couch, sofa
  • shpì /ʃpɨ/ n. list, menu, catalog, column, pillar
  • shuhh /ʃʌː/ n. flavor
  • shyee /çeː/ n. train
  • shyyà /çːə/ v. cost
  • shyyàwhh /çːəʍː/ adj. expensive
  • smà /smə/ adj. quick
  • smúp /smyp/ n. net
  • sr̈aww /srɔː/ adj. complicated, complex
  • ssääwhh /sːɑːʍː/ adj. skilled
  • stà nnàb /stə nːəb/ n. agriculture
  • stüziy /ˈstʊzij/ n. power, force
  • tägfúy /ˈtɑgfyj/ n. youth
  • thha /θːa/ v. charge
  • thhøo /ˈθːøo/ n. description
  • thräsh /θɹɑʃ/ adv. that
  • thruhzëzhh /ˈθɹʌzɛʒː/ adj. quiet, calm, shy
  • toŕzaw /ˈtoʁzɔ/ n. prostitute
  • tr̈ú /try/ n. cigarette
  • tsaash /ʦaːʃ/ n. steam
  • tsææzhh /ʦæːʒː/ n. heat
  • tshà˞ /ʦhə˞/ n. rhythm
  • tshër̂ː /ʦhɛʀː/ n. partner
  • tsù /tsʉ/ det. what
  • tsvø /ʦvø/ n. web
  • tú /ty/ v. cook (prepare food)
  • tyààk̮hhà̃ /ˈtjəːχːə̃/ n. reason, logic, rationale
  • uh /ʌ/ adj. special, rare
  • uhgvu /ˈʌgvu/ adj. big, great (very large)
  • uŕ /uʁ/ n. honor, integrity, pride
  • va /va/ pron. us
  • veng /veŋ/ adj. ready
  • voo /voː/ n. magic
  • vr̀i /vɾi/ n. excitement
  • vùùv /vʉːv/ n. cell (room in a prison)
  • vvì /vːɨ/ v. complain, criticize
  • vyïshh /vjɪʃː/ n. gun, rifle, firearm
  • wæḫmä /ˈwæħmɑ/ adj. only
  • whawkhh /whɔxː/ n. pump
  • whøḫ /whøħ/ n. thread, strand
  • wïny /wɪɲ/ v. place
  • wøtsül /ˈwøʦʊl/ n. support
  • wuu /wuː/ n. coast
  • wwee /wːeː/ n. witch
  • yààr̂ː chhúúth /jəːʀː ʧːyːθ/ n. foil
  • ÿez /ʎez/ adj. hard, solid
  • ÿù /ʎʉ/ n. bit
  • yyi /jːi/ n. shade, hue, umbrella
  • ÿÿú /ʎːy/ n. career
  • zan /zan/ n. reward, award, prize
  • zbï /zbɪ/ n. chain, bracelet
  • zbozz /zbozː/ v. like
  • zha /ʒa/ n. lot
  • zhëq /ʒɛq/ v. close, shut
  • zhïï /ʒɪː/ adv. already
  • zluho /ˈzlʌo/ n. failure
  • zødhh /zøðː/ n. tie
Advertisement