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Kǒgchô /ˈkɒgʧɤ/[]

Writing[]

ipa spelling ipa=spelling
ɛ ě a
ɐ ǎ b
ɑ â d
ɒ ǒ e
ɜ ǔ f
ɤ ô g
ɘ ê h
ɵ é i
ə á k
ɔ aw l
ʊ û m
ʉ ú n
ɯ ù o
ʌ uh p
ɶ à q
ɪ ǐ s
ɨ î t
y ů u
ʏ è v
r ř w
ɹ r z
θ th ʘ
ɾ ǀ
ɖ ǃ
ɗ d’ ǂ
ʑ ž ǁ
ʐ no

more letters that share ipa and spelling

ʒ zh
ɮ žh
ð dh
j y
ʃ sh
ŋ ng
ɽ
ɻ ŕ
ɺ
ʁ
ʀ
ʤ j
ʥ ǰ
ɟ jy
ʄ j’
ʝ
ʎ ŷ
c ĉh
ʧ ch
g͡b gb
k͡p kp
ɓ b’
ʙ
ʣ dz
ɸ ph
ɢ ǧ
ɠ g’
ʛ ǧ’
ɦ
ħ
ɧ hw
ɥ yw
ʜ
ɫ
ɭ
ʟ gl
ɱ
ɳ
ɲ ny
ɴ ňg
ʂ
ɕ šh
ç shy
ɬ slh
ʈ
ʦ ts
ʨ chy
c͡ç čh
β
ʋ
ʍ wh
ɰ ĝ
x kh
ɣ gh
χ ḵh
ʔ ʻ
ʡ
ʕ ř
ʢ ǧh

Not even all of them

Some rules[]

  • Syllable structure: (C)(C)V(C)
  • Stress pattern: Penultimate — stress is on the second last syllable

Grammar[]

  • Main word order: Verb Subject Object (Prepositional phrase). “Mary opened the door with a key” turns into Opened mary the door with a key.
  • Adjective order: Adjectives are positioned after the noun.
  • Adposition: prepositions

Nouns[]

Nouns have six cases:

  • Nominative is the doer of a verb: dog bites man.
  • Accusative is the done-to of a verb: man bites dog.
  • Genitive is the possessor of something: dog’s tail hits man.
  • Dative is the recipient of something: man gives ball to dog.
  • Locative is the location of something: man is in town.
  • Ablative is movement away from something: man walks from town.
Nominative No affix

ṣum̌ /ʂuɱ/

dog (doing the verb)

Accusative If starts with vowel: Prefix k͡p-

Else: Prefix k͡pe̞- kpe̞ṣum̌ /ˈk͡pe̞ʂuɱ/ (verb done to) dog

Genitive Prefix ɨ-

îṣum̌ /ˈɨʂuɱ/

dogʼs

Dative Prefix ʋə˞-

w̌á˞ṣum̌ /ˈʋə˞ʂuɱ/

to dog

Locative If starts with vowel: Prefix bn-

Else: Prefix bnɨ- bnîṣum̌ /ˈbnɨʂuɱ/ near/at/by dog

Ablative If starts with vowel: Prefix t̠͡ɹ̠̊˔-

Else: Prefix t̠͡ɹ̠̊˔ɤ̞- t̠͡r̠̊˔ô̞ṣum̌ /ˈt̠͡ɹ̠̊˔ɤ̞ʂuɱ/ from dog

Singular Plural
Definite No affix

ṣum̌ /ʂuɱ/

the dog

Prefix ħɤ̞-

ḫô̞ṣum̌ /ˈħɤ̞ʂuɱ/

the dogs

Indefinite Prefix æ-

æṣum̌ /ˈæʂuɱ/

a dog

Prefix fre̞-

fře̞ṣum̌ /ˈfre̞ʂuɱ/

some dogs

Articles[]

Kǒgchôian /kɒgʧɤian/ encodes definite article ‘the’, and indefinite article ‘a’ in noun affixes. See Noun section.

Pronouns[]

Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Locative Ablative
1st singular g’i /ɠi/

I

shyyô /çjɤ/

me

pfæg͡gh /pfæg͡ɣ/

mine

dyè /djʏ/

to me

d͡bû /d͡bʊ/

to me

w̌œžh /ʋœɮ/

from me

2nd singular nyě /ɲɛ/

you

ghá˞ /ɣə˞/

you

d͡žhû /d͡ɮʊ/

yours

tshúgʘ /ʦhʉgʘ/

to you

gúb̪͡v /gʉb̪͡v/

to you

mle /mle/

from you

3rd singular masc kr̊ɞ /kʁɞ/

he, it (masc)

î /ɨ/

his, it (masc)

n̼ǐd̠͡r̠˔ /n̼ɪd̠͡ɹ̠˔/

his, its (masc)

t̪͡thúq /t̪͡θʉq/

to his, to it (masc)

ḷâny /ɭɑɲ/

to his, to it (masc)

p̪ɞ /p̪ɞ/

from his, from it (masc)

3rd singular fem tsî /ʦɨ/

she, it (fem)

ŕǒp /ɻɒp/

her, it (fem)

shà /ʃɶ/

hers, its (fem)

y̌úh̪͆ /ʝʉh̪͆/

to her, to it (fem)

g͡ghú /g͡ɣʉ/

to her, to it (fem)

yé /jɵ/

from her, from it (fem)

1st plural k͡khǒjy͡y̌ /k͡xɒɟ͡ʝ/

we

qů /qy/

us

d̪͡dhû /d̪͡ðʊ/

ours

nyo̞ /ɲo̞/

to us

t̼îgl̠ /t̼ɨʟ̠/

to us

jyǎ /ʤjɐ/

from us

2nd plural k͡khʼú /k͡xʼʉ/

you all

b̪͡vaǃ /b̪͡vaǃ/

you all

àr̠̊˔ /ɶɹ̠̊˔/

yours (pl)

th̠i /θ̠i/

to you all

gbîḇ̥ /g͡bɨʙ̥/

to you all

m̥ot͡r̝̊ /m̥ot͡ɹ̝̊/

from you all

3rd plural n͡mù /n͡mɯ/

they

k͡khá /k͡xə/

them

qǔʻ͡h /qɜʔ͡h/

theirs

dvɞt͡p /dvɞt͡p/

to them

h̪͆ů /h̪͆y/

to them

ẖúb̮ /ɦʉⱱ/

from them

Possessive determiners[]

Possessive
1st singular třůp /tryp/

my

2nd singular flä /flä/

your

3rd singular masc nyyè /ɲjʏ/

his

3rd singular fem tʼům̌ /tʼyɱ/

her

1st plural ṭʼů /ʈʼy/

our

2nd plural dyô̞t͡ṣ /djɤ̞t͡ʂ/

your (pl)

3rd plural khʼá˞ /xʼə˞/

their

Verbs[]

Future
1st singular If starts with vowel: Prefix θ̠-

Else: Prefix θ̠ɨ- th̠îd͡ḷ˔u /ˈθ̠ɨd͡ɭ˔u/ (I) will learn

2nd singular Prefix ʃɾu-

shr̂ud͡ḷ˔u /ˈʃɾud͡ɭ˔u/

(you) will learn

3rd singular Prefix ʌ-

uhd͡ḷ˔u /ˈʌd͡ɭ˔u/

(he/she/it) will learn

1st plural If starts with vowel: Prefix tj-

Else: Prefix tjɛ- tyěd͡ḷ˔u /ˈtjɛd͡ɭ˔u/ (we) will learn

2nd plural If starts with vowel: Prefix g͡b-

Else: Prefix g͡ba- gbad͡ḷ˔u /ˈg͡bad͡ɭ˔u/ (you all) will learn

3rd plural If starts with vowel: Prefix ɑss-

Else: Prefix ɑssu- âssud͡ḷ˔u /ɑsˈsud͡ɭ˔u/ (they) will learn

Kǒgchôian uses a standalone particle word for past tense:

Past Particle before the verb: d̼ɛɺ -

d̼ěr̀ d͡ḷ˔u /d̼ɛɺ d͡ɭ˔u/

learned

Perfect aspect[]

The perfect aspect in English is exemplified in ‘I have read this book’, which expresses an event that took place before the time spoken but which has an effect on or is in some way still relevant to the present.

Kǒgchôian uses an affix for the perfect aspect:

Perfect If starts with vowel: Prefix tr-

Else: Prefix tre- třed͡ḷ˔u /ˈtred͡ɭ˔u/ have learned

Numbers[]

Kǒgchôian has a base-10 number system:

  • 1 - qô
  • 2 - ǧ’̥i
  • 3 - ṣʼe̞
  • 4 - chyaw
  • 5 - hwø
  • 6 - khuph
  • 7 - ṭʼažh
  • 8 - nîthʼ
  • 9 - khyù
  • 10 - pfø
  • 100 - ṇ̊ěslû
  • 1000 - ǧ’̥à

Derivational morphology[]

  • Adjective → adverb = If ends with vowel: Suffix -c͡çe̞
    • Else: Suffix -ʉc͡çe̞
  • Adjective → noun (the quality of being [adj]) = If starts with vowel: Prefix q-
    • Else: Prefix qɒ-
  • Adjective → verb (to make something [adj]) = Suffix -ɵɭ̆
  • Noun → adjective (having the quality of [noun]) = Prefix b͡βɞ-
  • Noun → adjective relating to noun (e.g. economy → economic) = If starts with vowel: Prefix df-
    • Else: Prefix dfɨ-
  • Noun to verb = If ends with vowel: Suffix -ɠ̊o
    • Else: Suffix -eɠ̊o
  • Verb → adjective (result of doing [verb]) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -ɠ̊
    • Else: Suffix -ʏɠ̊
  • Tending to = Suffix -ɤ̞ɹ
  • Verb → noun (the act of [verb]) = Prefix ʊ-
  • Verb → noun that verb produces (e.g. know → knowledge) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -ʧʼ
    • Else: Suffix -ɛʧʼ
  • One who [verb]s (e.g. paint → painter) = Prefix ɪ-
  • Place of (e.g. wine → winery) = Suffix -äp͡ɸ
  • Diminutive = If ends with vowel: Suffix -ʔ
    • Else: Suffix -uʔ
  • Augmentative = If ends with vowel: Suffix -çtə˞
    • Else: Suffix -ɛçtə˞

Kǒgchôian - English Dictionary[]

Key: spelling /pronunciation/ part of speech. definition(s)

adj. adjective | adv. adverb | art. article | conj. conjunction | det. determiner | interj. interjection | n. noun | num. numeral | prep. preposition | pron. pronoun | v. verb

  • a /a/ n. data
  • æ /æ/ v. shift, vary
  • b’é /ɓɵ/ n. magic
  • b̮̟a /ⱱ̟a/ v. lose
  • ḇ̥e /ʙ̥e/ v. cook (heat food)
  • b̮î /ⱱɨ/ n. hell
  • blu /blu/ adj. current
  • ḇǒ fʼǎ /ʙɒ fʼɐ/ n. notebook
  • bǔ /bɜ/ n. hand
  • búĝàgǂ /ˈbʉɰɶgǂ/ v. live, exist
  • b̪͡vaǃ /b̪͡vaǃ/ pron. you all
  • b͡v̌ɞdvůžh /ˈb͡βɞdvyɮ/ adj. comfortable
  • b͡v̌ɞňgo̞ʻ͡h /ˈb͡βɞɴo̞ʔ͡h/ adj. skilled
  • b͡v̌ɞṛ̊ø /ˈb͡βɞɽ̊ø/ adj. buxom
  • b͡v̌ɞŷ̝ů /ˈb͡βɞʎ̝y/ adj. golden
  • ĉhaẓ /caʐ/ n. bow (weapon)
  • ĉh͡shyîäp͡ph /ˈc͡çɨäp͡ɸ/ n. armory
  • chyêm /ʨɘm/ v. turn on
  • chywé /ʨwɵ/ n. cloak
  • ĉhʼikhʼ /cʼixʼ/ adj. loud, noisy
  • d’̥â /ɗ̥ɑ/ adv. later
  • d’isshyæv /ˈɗisçæv/ v. dream
  • d̼aw /d̼ɔ/ adj. hot, hot (attractive)
  • d̪͡dhé /d̪͡ðɵ/ n. experience
  • dfâ /dfɑ/ v. say, tell, declare, explain, mention, instruct, express
  • dfîm̌ú /ˈdfɨɱʉ/ adj. economic
  • dh̼è /ð̼ʏ/ n. bowl, cup, pot, mug
  • dh̠u /ð̠u/ n. rumor, gossip, scandal
  • d͡ḷ˔u /d͡ɭ˔u/ v. learn
  • d̠͡r̠˔ǐ /d̠͡ɹ̠˔ɪ/ conj. and
  • d̠͡r̠˔ǔ /d̠͡ɹ̠˔ɜ/ v. chase
  • d͡r̝ů /d͡ɹ̝y/ n. frog
  • dvâǧ /dvɑɢ/ v. play (have fun)
  • dyô̞t͡ṣ /djɤ̞t͡ʂ/ det. your (pl)
  • dzè /ʣʏ/ n. wave (ocean), surge
  • d͡žhǐ /d͡ɮɪ/ v. vote, elect
  • d͡ẓû /d͡ʐʊ/ n. lip
  • é /ɵ/ adj. same
  • êj’̊ /ɘʄ̊/ adj. flat, smooth
  • ěsǔk /ˈɛsɜk/ adv. always, all the time
  • fætslhʼǎ /ˈfætɬʼɐ/ n. music
  • fǐ /fɪ/ v. provide, cater
  • flaw /flɔ/ n. belt, strap
  • fřawǧǀ /frɔɢǀ/ n. cat
  • fřawǧǀuʻ /ˈfrɔɢǀuʔ/ n. kitten
  • fr̂ø /fɾø/ n. capital (city)
  • fyîr̥̂ /fjɨɾ̥/ adv. far, away
  • g’am /ɠam/ v. miss (not hit), miss (not take advantage of)
  • g’ů /ɠy/ prep. of
  • gá˞pʼ /gə˞pʼ/ n. information
  • gbûngʘ /g͡bʊŋʘ/ v. send, transfer
  • gèjy͡y̌ /gʏɟ͡ʝ/ n. cut
  • g͡ghø /g͡ɣø/ n. steam
  • g͡gl̝ù /g͡ʟ̝ɯ/ n. nut, seed, egg
  • ghnæ /ɣnæ/ n. moment
  • ghřàg’̊o /ˈɣrɶɠ̊o/ v. die
  • ǧhûq͡ḵ /ʢʊq͡ʡ/ v. leave (let remain), desert
  • gizû /ˈgizʊ/ n. idiot
  • gliĉh͡shye̞ /ˈʟic͡çe̞/ adv. suddenly
  • gl̝ů /ʟ̝y/ n. beverage
  • gr̊ǎh̃ /gʁɐh̃/ n. thread
  • gr̊ǐŕ /gʁɪɻ/ n. violence
  • ĝú /ɰʉ/ det. whose
  • gyî /gjɨ/ adj. old, former, ancient, antique
  • h̃e /h̃e/ v. organize, book, set up
  • h̪͆i /h̪͆i/ adv. somewhat, fairly, pretty
  • ẖniô̞r /ˈɦniɤ̞ɹ/ adj. critical
  • h̪͆œf t͡ḷ̊˔êžh /h̪͆œf t͡ɭ̊˔ɘɮ/ n. infant
  • h̃û /h̃ʊ/ n. shell
  • ḫukẖœ /ˈħukɦœ/ n. event (occurrence), incident
  • hwù /ɧɯ/ n. rain
  • ʻ͡hîh̥ /ʔ͡hɨʜ/ prep. like
  • iäp͡ph /ˈiäp͡ɸ/ n. grocer
  • ǐdvâǧ /ˈɪdvɑɢ/ n. player
  • ǐḵ͡h̥ /ɪʡ͡ʜ/ n. education
  • ǐḷůqǀ /ˈɪɭyqǀ/ n. author, writer
  • ǐqøṛ /ˈɪqøɽ/ n. worker, employee
  • ǐŷ̝ad’ /ˈɪʎ̝aɗ/ n. dentist
  • j’ǐngǀ /ʄɪŋǀ/ n. city, metropolis
  • jyǎ /ʤjɐ/ pron. from us
  • jyi /ɟi/ v. have, must, have to, own
  • jyůp fr̊ůs /ʤjyp fʁys/ n. spine
  • jy͡y̌ô /ɟ͡ʝɤ/ n. battle, clash
  • ḵ̆è /ʡ̆ʏ/ n. plane
  • khě /khɛ/ n. north
  • ḵhô /χɤ/ n. god
  • khů /xy/ adj. delicious
  • ḵ͡h̥uk͡kh /ʡ͡ʜuk͡x/ prep. during
  • khʼád̼aw /ˈxʼəd̼ɔ/ n. environment (natural world)
  • khʼip m̥e /xʼip m̥e/ n. psychology
  • kî /kɨ/ n. lesson, lecture
  • kkhèg’̊o /ˈkxʏɠ̊o/ v. meet
  • k͡khʼi /k͡xʼi/ adj. vague, ambiguous, fuzzy, obscure
  • ḵ̆ô /ʡ̆ɤ/ n. blade, razor
  • kpɞk /k͡pɞk/ v. hunt
  • krœ /kɹœ/ v. crush, grind, cram
  • ku /ku/ adj. sharp, acute, steep
  • kyô /kjɤ/ n. wolf
  • ḵʼôzwo̞ /ˈʡʼɤzwo̞/ n. pig
  • ḷ̊˔îgǁ /ɭ̊˔ɨgǁ/ v. walk
  • ḷ̥̆e /ɭ̥̆e/ n. camera
  • ḻot̠͡r̠̊˔a /ˈɫot̠͡ɹ̠̊˔a/ adj. live
  • ḻůchʼ /ɫyʧʼ/ n. product (item made)
  • m̥â /m̥ɑ/ n. present (time)
  • mlû /mlʊ/ v. drag, tow, draw
  • m̥ot͡r̝̊ /m̥ot͡ɹ̝̊/ pron. from you all
  • n̼â /n̼ɑ/ n. file, folder
  • nè /nʏ/ n. ship
  • ṇěngga /ˈɳɛŋga/ n. face, forehead, brow, side, expression, character, facade
  • ňgàchyûḻ /ˈɴɶʨʊɫ/ n. distance, length, span, gap, cleavage
  • ng̊î /ŋ̊ɨ/ n. crime
  • ng͡mø̞d’̥ /ŋ͡mø̞ɗ̥/ n. system
  • ngu /ŋu/ n. trunk (of tree), stem
  • ṇǐ /ɳɪ/ v. trick, deceive, distort, bluff
  • ṇô̞ /ɳɤ̞/ v. sew
  • nřèfʼ /nrʏfʼ/ adj. usual
  • n̼ûňgǂ /n̼ʊɴǂ/ adj. blank
  • nyěm̌ǐ /ˈɲɛɱɪ/ n. dungeon
  • nyø /ɲø/ n. fruit
  • nyu /ɲu/ n. uniform
  • nyyè /ɲjʏ/ det. his
  • ô̞g’ /ɤ̞ɠ/ n. root
  • o̞slh /o̞ɬ/ n. wizard
  • pawgǁ /pɔgǁ/ v. complete
  • p̪ɞnyôž /ˈp̪ɞɲɤʑ/ v. like, love, admire, enjoy
  • p̪͡fůnǐ /ˈp̪͡fynɪ/ adj. right (direction)
  • phʼáḵ̆ɞǀ /ˈɸʼəʡ̆ɞǀ/ n. rib
  • pǐ /pɪ/ n. child (son or daughter of any age)
  • pø̞ṭ /pø̞ʈ/ n. trial
  • pr̈é /pʀɵ/ adj. perfect, pure
  • pshyêgl̆uh /ˈpçɘʟ̆ʌ/ v. hear
  • pûy /pʊj/ n. sign, signal
  • qâgǃ /qɑgǃ/ pron. everybody
  • qiňgǃǔ /ˈqiɴǃɜ/ n. sex
  • q͡ḵhǒl /q͡χɒl/ n. mess, rubble, debris
  • qo̞ /qo̞/ n. committee, tribunal
  • qǒj’â /ˈqɒʄɑ/ n. width
  • qøṛ /qøɽ/ n. work
  • qů /qy/ n. leader
  • qʼø /qʼø/ n. wife
  • ŕ˔ê /ɻ˔ɘ/ n. bulb (plant root)
  • r̠˔oĝê /ˈɹ̠˔oɰɘ/ v. offer
  • r̀ä /ɺä/ v. wait, stay, linger, pause
  • ŕàg͡ghěchʼ /ˈɻɶg͡ɣɛʧʼ/ n. drawing
  • r̊è /ʁʏ/ v. try (test out), test
  • ŕèj /ɻʏʤ/ n. torch, candle
  • ṛi /ɽi/ conj. when
  • r̥̈îj /ʀ̥ɨʤ/ n. hag (old woman)
  • ṛø /ɽø/ v. polish
  • ṛ̊ødh̼ /ɽ̊øð̼/ adj. rare, weird, strange
  • rǒv̌ /ɹɒβ/ v. talk, speak
  • r̈ub͡v̌ /ʀub͡β/ v. may
  • r̼̂ǔng /ɾ̼ɜŋ/ v. require, lack
  • sfún̥ /sfʉn̥/ v. spit, hiss
  • shaw /ʃɔ/ n. public
  • shø̞ /ʃø̞/ v. bark, roar
  • shrǔr̀ /ʃɹɜɺ/ n. diet
  • shú /ʃʉ/ adj. big, great (very large), huge
  • shyùkʼ /çɯkʼ/ v. call (refer to by name), dub
  • shʼik /ʃʼik/ v. grow, flourish
  • slhʼů /ɬʼy/ v. win
  • ṣǒṛ /ʂɒɽ/ n. state (province, country)
  • ṣum̌ /ʂuɱ/ n. dog
  • ṣum̌ grů /ʂuɱ gɹy/ n. shark
  • svûr̂ǎ /ˈsvʊɾɐ/ v. listen
  • ṣʼè /ʂʼʏ/ n. cart
  • ṣʼu /ʂʼu/ n. metal
  • ṭèphʼ /ʈʏɸʼ/ n. length
  • the /θe/ v. save, rescue
  • th̼îkǀ /θ̼ɨkǀ/ n. sorrow
  • th̠ů /θ̠y/ adv. however
  • thʼúňgʘɞgl̆êḇ /θʼʉɴˈʘɞʟ̆ɘʙ/ n. drink
  • tmě /tmɛ/ v. kiss
  • třègîšh /ˈtrʏgɨɕ/ n. letter (written document)
  • tsé /ʦɵ/ v. deal, haggle
  • t͡ṣi /t͡ʂi/ n. poison, venom
  • t͡ṣùǧʘ /t͡ʂɯɢʘ/ n. nature
  • t͡ṣʼawéḷ̆ /ˈt͡ʂʼɔɵɭ̆/ v. finish
  • t͡ṣʼo /t͡ʂʼo/ v. snow
  • t̪͡thú /t̪͡θʉ/ n. female
  • tǔt͡ṣṣúḵhʼ /ˈtɜt͡ʂʂʉχʼ/ n. peace, harmony
  • tyéng /tjɵŋ/ n. altitude
  • ṭʼǒs /ʈʼɒs/ v. state, declare, say
  • ů /y/ adv. again
  • ûd̼ay /ˈʊd̼aj/ n. discovery
  • ûèḇ̥ /ˈʊʏʙ̥/ n. repetition
  • ûʻ̞à /ˈʊʔ̞ɶ/ n. pressure
  • ůlbǎřw̌ú /ylˈbɐrʋʉ/ n. rag
  • ûnyɞnyǰä /ʊˈɲɞɲʥä/ n. behavior
  • ûr̂î /ˈʊɾɨ/ n. destruction
  • úshɞ /ˈʉʃɞ/ n. mud
  • ûŷ̆ø /ˈʊʎ̆ø/ n. preparation
  • vdhi /vði/ n. needle, pin
  • vr̊ěg /vʁɛg/ adj. complicated, complex
  • vzǐ /vzɪ/ v. mean (intend)
  • w̃èḵʼ /w̃ʏʡʼ/ adv. when
  • w̌î /ʋɨ/ n. rock, stone, mountain, gravel
  • w̃ůg /w̃yg/ n. jaw
  • w̌yůr̥̈ /ʋjyʀ̥/ det. all, both
  • y̌ê /ʝɘ/ v. read
  • ŷ̆ô /ʎ̆ɤ/ n. equipment, apparatus
  • ỹôph /j̃ɤɸ/ v. care
  • ŷ̝ů /ʎ̝y/ n. gold
  • yẘing /ɥ̊iŋ/ v. sell
  • yẘů /ɥ̊y/ v. catch, grab, grasp, grip, intercept
  • ẓá /ʐə/ v. freeze
  • žhô /ɮɤ/ prep. without
  • znî /znɨ/ v. roll, revolve, rotate, spin
  • zřo /zro/ v. fit, apply
  • zvè /zvʏ/ n. media
  • ǀo̞ /ǀo̞/ n. uncle
  • ǁůʻ /ǁyʔ/ n. mood
  • ǃuh /ǃʌ/ v. ask (inquire), ask (request)
  • ʘù /ʘɯ/ v. doubt
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