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Valannic
Valannō Lyore
Type Fusional
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Mixed
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders no
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 1%
Statistics
Nouns 3%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words 29 of 1500
Creator Nahzmerhs

Valannō Lyore or Valannic is the language of Valanne, and lingua franca of the main lands and regions around the Holy Sanctuary of Ilarúnen.

Classification and DialectsEdit

Valannic is an agglutinative, polysynthetic and highly inflected language. The classical form Valannō pertheä, which will be the main subject of this page, has many features that will seem familiar to those who have basic knowledge of the early Proto-Indo-European language and of Uralic/Altaic languages. It means that nouns and adjectives are inflected in up to eleven cases, nouns and verbs have four numbers, including a dual form, and verbs are conjugated for all grammatical verb-related features. There are rudimental traits of vowel harmony, which stem from the Proto-Valannic language. A few features from Bantu languages, mainly Kiswahili, may also occur, such as word classes and implementation of (in)direct object and preposition markers within the verbs.

With the passing of time, more vulgar and simplified variations have emerged, mainly the vernacular Low-Valannic tongue Valannō mangreä ('vulgar Valannic'), spoken in the valleys around Mēoran.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Consonants in Valannic are regular and are always pronounced as given in the table below. Voiced consonants at the end of a word or syllable for instance, will not lose its voice, as is common in some languages. However, some consonants may undergo changes in conjugations or contraction of words. This depends heavily on the consonants that they interact with, or a probable shift of word accent. Mostly voiceless plosives may become aspirated or voiced in such cases.

Geminated consonants are pronounced longer than their single equivalents, but do not undergo other changes. The following consonants appear also in geminated form: mm, nn, ll, rr, pp, tt, cc, ss.

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ny ng
Plosive p b t d ty gy c g
Fricative ph bh f v th dh s z y ch gh h
Affricate
Approximant hw (w)
Trill rr

hy* ry*

Flap or tap r rh**
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l ly ll

When two consonants are in the same box, they represent the voiceless (left) and voiced (right) variation of the same sound. The consonants marked with an asterisk * qualify as a voiceless alveolar fricative trill (hy) and the voiced equvalent (ry), respectively. The /rh/-sound is an aspirated version of the regular alveolar tap.

All of the above consonants are represented in the alphabet by one letter, geminated consonants will have a diacritical mark to identify them as geminated. Some consonants have a labialised equivalent, which do not qualify as an single sound, even though they are represented by a single letter. These consonants are:
consonant labialised equivalent pronunciation
m mw warm water
n nw ringworm
t tw twice
d dw dwarf
c qu question
g gu Antigua
r rw carwash r is pronounced as an tap, so more like a Scotsman would say the word carwash
l lw Elwood

Note that in the latinised representation, /qu/ and /gu/ are written with a u and not a w.

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
High i ī ý ȳ u ū
Near-high
High-mid e ē o ō
Mid
Low-mid æ ǣ
Near-low
Low a ā

All vowels have a short and a long equivalent. The long vowels carry a macron to indicate its lenghtened pronunciation. The length of the short vowels can be under the influence of its position before a stop or a liquid/sibilant consonant ,but so will their long equivalents.

All written vowels are pronounced. Lyore is pronounced with two syllables: Lyo - re. [LYO -ray].

Valannic has several diphthongs, these diphthongs can also appear in short and long variations, in which the lenghtening is expressed in the first part of the diphthong:

sound pronunciation
ai /ai/ pronounced like i in kite
āi /ai:/ pronounced like i in mine
au /au/ pronounced like ou in pout
āu /au:/ pronounced like ou in loud
æi /æɪ̯/ pronounced like a in cat, directly followed bij an open /i/ sound. Cf scandinavian languages, like Norwegian 'nej' . Cf Ancient Greek diphthong
ǣi /æɪ̯:/ longer equivalent of /æɪ̯/
ei /ei/ pronounced like ei in eight
ēi /ei:/ longer equivalent of /ei/
eu /eʋ/ pronounced like eu in Latin neuter,
ēu /eʋ:/ longer equivalent of /eʋ/
ie /iə/ pronounced like ia in Mia
īe /iə:/ longer equivalent of /iə/
oi /oi/ pronounced like oi in oil
ōi /oi:/ longer equivalent of /oi/
ou /oʋ/ pronounced like ou in soul
ōu /oʋ:/ longer equivalent of /oʋ/
ui /ui/ pronounced like ui in ruin but the end-i is more open.
ūi /ui:/ longer equivalent of /ui/

In conjugations of nouns and verbs, and a few other words, one will sometimes find a tilde ~ over a letter. A tilde also lengthens a vowel sound, but slightly more melodical. These vowels or diphthongs are the result of contraction or ellipsis of phonemes when conjugated, e.g:

  • quenāin (inf. to grow) -> aorist equẽinan (I grew)
  • auvāin (inf. to wake (s.o. up)) -> aorist hãuvan (I woke)
  • laulõin (inf. to tell).

PhonotacticsEdit

Not all combinations of consonants are allowed in Valannic, though the amount of phonemes is significant.

The nucleus of a phoneme is always a vowel, which can be any of the above listed vowels or diphthongs. Though a single vowel can technically form an entire phoneme, most phonemes also contain at least one consonant, typically preceding the vowel. Hence the typical structure of a phoneme or syllable is:

(C)(C) C V (C)(C).

Allowed onsets are all single consonants and labialised consonants, including /ng/, /ps/, /ts/ and /x/, i.e. essentially all single consonant letters from the alphabet. Geminated consonants are not allowed. Consonant clusters can be non-palatal plosives followed by liquids /r/ and /l/. This includes the aspirated plosives. Of these clusters, the ones with a voiceless non-palatal, non-aspirated plosive can also be preceded by an /s/. The labiovelar /qu/ sound preceded by an /s/ is also allowed as an onset.

Onset consonant clusters
sibilant plosive liquid approx
s l sl
s p sp r (s)pr
l (s)pl
ph r phr
l phl
b r br
b l bl
s t st r (s)tr
th r thr
d r dr
s c sc r (s)cr
l (s)cl
w squ
ch r chr
l chl
g r gr
g l gl

The coda of a phoneme is mostly a vowel, but consonants are common. Fairly common consonant endings are a nasal /n/ of /m/, a liquid /l/ or /r/, or a sibilant /s/. Fricative or plosive endings are also allowed. Non-palatal plosives tend towards their voiced equivalents. The voiceless equivalents will tend towards the the fricative, aspirated sounds. The velar nasal sound /ng/ is also allowed.

The only consonant clusters at the end of a phoneme are /nd/ /ld/ and /rd/. At the end of a word, these phonemes change to /ns/, /ls/ and /rs/ respectively. Earlier phonemes in Proto-Valannic may have been other clusters of a nasal, fricative, sibiliant or liquid, followed by a plosive or fricative, but these all seem to have been simplified to less complex sounds.

Proto-Valannic Valannic
-amb

-emph

->-amm

-> -emm

-am

-em

-enc

-eny

-> -eng

-> -enn

-eng

-en

-acht -> -ach -ach, -ah
-opht -> -oph

-> -owt

-oph

-õud

-est -isc

-asp

-> -ess

-> -iss

-> -isg

-> -ass

-> -asb

-es

-is

-ĩg

-as

-ãb

More consonant clusters are allowed in Valannic words, and it would go too far to make a table of every single one of them. However, these consonant clusters will only occur as a merging of multiple syllables, and thus phonemes, within a single word, and when broken down into syllables, they will obey the above rules.

  • Ereb Umbreon ['E-reb Um-'BRE-on] - The Land of the Black Wolves.
  • Vangyorolar [Van-'GYO-ro-lar] - the zodiac.

Stress and pitch-accents Edit

Valannic does not qualify as a tonal language: tone does not affect the meaning of function of a word. The stress in a word is often easy to recognize and will not be influenced by conjugation. However, since Valannic is an highly agglutinitive and inflected language, words can become very polysyllabic. Vowels are mainly open and often multiple long vowels appear in one word. Under these circumstances, in some longer words a second pitch accent will occur, aside form the main stress.

Stress in a word is expressed by tonal height; the stressed syllable has a high (H) tone, the unstressed ones are low (L). In short words (two or three syllables), the main stress is on the second- or third-to-last syllable, so HL(L) of LHL.

  • Calba 'apple´ [CAL-ba]: HL
  • Sýnome 'temperament' [SÝ-no-me]: HLL
  • Anyara 'queen' [a-NYA-ra]: LHL

In words from the vowel classes, the stress does not change during conjugation, as in non-compound words conjugations never have a tonal influence. So sýnome (HLL) and sýnomelerun (HLLLL) ('of the specific temperaments') have the same stress, and no second pitch accents,

In words from the consonant classes, the main stress may change during conjugation, but this effect is consistent during more extended conjugation. This phenomenon is known as 'metric stress' in the singular nominative and accusative cases.

  • Orrýn' 'horse' [OR-rýn], but orrýnā 'horses: [or-RÝN-a:] and orrýnyainen: [or-RÝN-yai-nen]
  • Nomoguntýs 'archer' [no-mo-GUN-tys], but nomoguntýrā 'archers': [no-mo-gun-TÝ-ra:]

In longer coumpound words and long conjugated verbs with object markers, a second pitch-accent may occur.

  • Lyorongarodhār 'the Speaking Mountains' [LYO1-ron-ga-RO2-dha:r]: HLLHL
  • Lauleōiquelyamen 'May I tell (it) you all some day' [LAU1-le-OI:2-que-lya-men]: HLHLLL

Writing SystemEdit

The writing system of Valannic is an alphabet, consisting of 44 consonant sounds and 16 vowel sounds, so 60 in total. These do not only represent single letters, but also the vowel diphthongs and some of the consonant clusters, mentioned above. These letters also have adjustments for length by applying diacritical marks, which are not given below. Interpunction is provided within the below table in grey.

In the yellow boxes the plosives and derived fricatives are given. The fourth column represents the labialised and nasal variants. The red boxes are the remaining nasal sounds. The green boxes form the rest group of liquids and sibilants and their derived forms.

The blue boxes are the 7 vowels and 9 diphthongs that form single letters. These can be adjusted for length or fused vowels/diphthongs by applying diacritical marks, but these are not viewed as different letters.

Letterssounds

Alphabet

GrammarEdit

Valannic grammar is rather regular and there are very few exceptions to the rules.

NounsEdit

Nouns are divided in a/e-class, o/u-class, and consonant classes. These classes do not qualify as genders, and there is no gender congruency with for instance adjectives. A noun can be declined in eleven different cases and in four numbers, so that a noun has 44 different forms.

First, here´s an overview of the cases:

nominative subject of a sentence, also the case used for objects in sentences with a copula.
partitive expression of partialness, or an unspecified - or unquantified - amount of something.

Used in several different specific occasions. cf French du in 'je bois du lait' (or similar constructions)

accusative direct object of a sentence
genitive signifies possession, 'belongs to'
dative indirect object, mostly used to express the aspect of 'in favour of' or 'to the disadvantage of'
instrumental signifies 'with' as in 'using a...' of 'by means of...'
locative indicates location, static. On, at, in, upon
allative indicates movement towards, going up on or in the direction of
ablative indicates movement away from, or coming off from
essive describes the state of being of something, or used as a comparison. Sometimes also used as the adjective form of a noun.
comitative signifies 'with' as 'accompanied by' of 'together with'
A/E-class Pertheä
calba- singular dual plural 1 plural 2
nominative calbas calbais calbar calbaler the apple(subject)
partitive calbā calbata calbarta calbalīta (of the) apple
accusative calban calbain calbain calbalīn the apple (direct object)
genitive calbō calbatū calbarun calbalerun of the apple
dative calbē calbate calbarin calbalerin for the apple
instrumental calbam calbãm calbainen calbalīnen with/using the apple
locative calbōa calbōta calbōinen calbalūnen on/at the apple
allative calbōnna calbõnna calbōinna calbalūnna towards the apple
ablative calbōssa calbõssa calbōissa calbalūssa off/away from the apple
essive calbama calbãma calbarma calbalīma as/being the apple
comitative calbani calbãni calbaini calbalīni (together) with the apple
O/U-class Pertheä
nyoro- singular dual plural 1 plural 2
nominative nyoros nyorois nyoror nyorolar the ring (subject)
partitive nyoroa nyorota nyororta nyorolarta (of the) ring
accusative nyoron nyoroin nyoroin nyorolain the ring (direct object)
genitive nyorū nyorotū nyororun nyorolarun of the ring
dative nyorō nyorote nyororin nyorolarin for the ring
instrumental nyorom nyorõm nyoroinen nyorolainen with/using the ring
locative nyorūa nyorūta nyorūinen nyorolōnen on/at the ring
allative nyorūnna nyorũnna nyorūinna nyorolōnna towards the ring
ablative nyorūssa nyorũssa nyorūissa nyorolōssa off/away from the ring
essive nyoroma nyorõma nyororma nyorolarma as/being the ring
comitative nyoroni nyorõni nyoroini nyorolaini (together) with the ring
Consonant class

(liquids)

Pertheä
orrýn- singular dual plural 1 plural 2
nominative orrýn orrýnis orrýnā orrýnyar the horse (subject)
partitive orrýna orrýnta orrýnta orrýnyarta (of the) horse
accusative orrýn orrýnin orrýnā orrýnyain the horse (direct object)
genitive orrýnū orrýntū orrýnerun orrýnyarun of the horse
dative orrýne orrýnte orrýnerin orrýnyarin for the horse
instrumental orrýnem orrýndem orrýnenen orrýnyainen with/using the horse
locative orrýnua orrýnuta orrýnūnen orrýnyōnen on/at the horse
allative orrýnunna orrýnũnna orrýnūinna orrýnyōnna towards the horse
ablative orrýnussa orrýnũssa orrýnūissa orrýnyōssa off/away from the horse
essive orrýmma orrýndema orrýnema orrýnyarma as/being the horse
comitative orrýnni orrýndeni orrýneni orrýnyaini (together) with the horse
Consonant class

(other consonants)

Pertheä
madh- singular dual plural 1 plural 2
nominative mad madhis madhā madhār the river (subject)
partitive madha madheta madheta madharta (of the) river
accusative mad madhin madhā madhār the river (direct object)
genitive madhū madhetū madherun madharun of the river
dative madhe madhete madherin madharin for the river
instrumental madhem madhẽm madhenen madhainen with/using the river
locative madhua madhetu madhūnen madhōnen on/at the river
allative madhunna madhũnna madhūnna madhōnna towards the rivers
ablative madhussa madhũssa madhūssa madhōssa off/away from the river
essive madhema madhẽma madhema madharma as/being the river
comitative madheni madhẽni madheni madhaini (together) with the river

The above conjugations are considered regular conjugation. There are on the otherhand some irregular conjugations, mostly in short words with a complex vowel structures:

Irregular

consonant

Pertheä Pertheä
cab- sing dual plural 1 plural 2 lie sing dual plural 1 plural 2
nominative cãus cabis cabā cabār lie lyīs elyīr elyeler
partitive caba cabeta cãuta cabarta liā lieta elyīta elyelīta
accusative cãus cabin cabā cabār lien lyīn elyīn elyelīn
genitive cãu cabetū cãurun cabarun liū lietū elyerun elyelerun
dative cabe cabete cãurin cabarin lië liete elyerin elyelerin
instrumental cãum cabẽm cãunen cabainen lië liẽm elyīnen elyelīnen
locative cãu cabetu cabūnen cabōnen liū lietu elyũinen elyelūnen
allative cãunna cabũnna cabuinna cabōnna liūnna liũnna elyũinna elyelūnna
ablative cãussa cabũssa cabuissa cabōssa liūssa liũssa elyũissa elyelūssa
essive cãuma cabẽma cabema cabarma liẽma liẽma elyīma elyelīma
comitative cãuni cabẽni cabeni cabaini liẽni liẽni elyīni elyelīni

VerbsEdit

Verbs are conjugated for person, number, voice, mood, tense and aspect. A single verb can therefore take up to 624 forms, if all features are applicable (which is rarely the case).

Person and number Edit

First of all there's person and number: Valannic recognizes a singular form, a dual and 2 plural forms, as well as a first person, a second person and third person animate and inanimate.

Verbs have three root-forms: a-stem, o-stem and consonant-stem. The consonant stem takes a e as conjugational vowel.

Below is the indicative active conjugation of the present tense of the verbs 'auvāin,' laulõin, and phanein.

person

auvāin (to wake (s.o. up)

singular 1 auvan i wake
2 auvat you wake
3 auvā animate he/she wakes
3 auval inanimate it wakes
dual 1 auvanyet the two of us/we both wake
2 auvatyet the two of you/ you both wake
3 auvait animate the two of them/ they both wake
3 auvalyet inanimate the two of those/ they both wake
plural 1 1 auvanner we (general) wake
2 auvaquer you (general) wake
3 auvar animate they (general) wake
3 auvaller inanimate they (general) wake
plural 2 1 auvanneli we (specified group) wake
2 auvaqueli you (specified group) wake
3 auvali animate they (specified group) wake
3 auvalleli inanimate they (specified group) wake
person laulõin (to tell) phanein (to die)
singular 1 laulon I tell phane i die
2 laulot you tell phanet you die
3 laulō an he/she tells phanē an he/she dies
3 laulol inan it tells phanel inan it dies
dual 1 laulonyet we both tell phanenyet we both die
2 laulotyet you both tell phanetyet you both die
3 lauloit an they both tell phaneit an they both die
3 laulolyet inan they both tell phanelyet inan they both die
plural 1 1 laulonner we tell phanenner we die
2 lauloquer you tell phanequer you die
3 laulor an they tell phaner an they die
3 lauloller inan they tell phaneller inan they die
plural 2 1 laulonneli we tell phanenneli we die
2 lauloqueli you tell phanequeli you die
3 lauloli an they tell phaneli an they die
3 laulolleli inan they tell phanelleli inan they die

Not all of these forms are used regularly and iare mostly 'book language'. Especially the dual form will only be used in relation to specifically paired items such as eyes, ears, or hands. Also a word like ruazis ('twins´) is conjugated with the dual form. The more common plural form is plural 1, which is an aspecific plural. It just refers to multiple items of the singular form, whereas the plural 2 refers to a specific group or earlier mentioned group. One could argue that this is a 'definite' form, but plural 1 can be definite as well. Valannic has no definite articles, so context mostly determines if definition is appropriate in translation.

Since conjugation of verbs is fairly regular, in further examples only the first person singular will be given.

Tense and aspect Edit

Then there's tense and aspect. Valannic has a present tense, a future and exact future tense, an imperfect tense, a perfect tense and a pluperfect tense. Furthermore there is the aorist aspect. The exact difference in aspect between imperfect, aorist and perfect is rather hard to make when taking a close look. In general one could state that imperfect refers to a state of being or an ongoing action in the past, the aorist more or less refers to single actions in the past (like a story-telling past (or present) would), and the perfect aspect refers to closed actions that took place in the past, that altered a state of being with an ongoing effect in the present.

1st person sing auvāin laulõin phanein
present tense auvan laulon phanen
imperfect tense ēuvēn elaulōn ephanin
future tense auveän* lauleōn phaneän*
aorist hãuvan elãulōn ephẽinan
perfect tense avævōn lelaulūn pephanun
pluperfect avævērun lelaulōran pephanerun
exact future tense avævissōn lelaulissūn pephanissun

*) diaeresis for clarity.

Present, imperfect and future tense are formed from the present tense root.

Perfect, pluperfect and exact future tense are formed from the perfect tense root.

Aorist has its own root.

Voice and mood Edit

Valannic has three voices: the active, the medium, and the passive voice. All three voices are formed synthetic, without the use of auxillary verbs, exept for the passive perfect tense.

voice

present aorist perfect
active auvan hãuvan avævōn to wake (s.o. up)
medium auvathen hãuvathen avævathan to wake up
passive auvõin ēuvõisan ēuvōn ērōn to be woken up
present aorist perfect
active laulon elãulōn lelaulūn to tell (s.o.)
medium laulothen elãulōthen lelaulothan to speak, to orate
passive laulũin elaulũisa elaulūn ērōn to be told, to be spoken to

Sometimes medium is also used to express reflexive verbs:

tastāin - to wash -> tastathein - to wash one's self, in conjugation mostly, but not obligatory, augmented bij a reflexive pronoun incorporated in the verb: tastathenar aliëm ýssē - they wash themselves with cold water.

The last feature according to which verbs can conjugate is mood. There are 5 moods, which are represented in different tenses:

mood present future
infinitive auvāin laulõin phanein auveäsein lauleōsein phaneäsein
indicative auvan laulon phanen auveän lauleōn phaneän
conjunctive auvēn laulān phanan - - -
optative auvaimen lauloimen phanimen auveäimen lauleōimen phaneäimen
imperative auvā! lauloa! phana! - - -
aorist perfect
infinitive hãuvāin lãulāin phẽināin avævōssain lelaulūssain pephanussain
indicative hãuvan elãulōn ephẽinan avævōn lelaulūn pephanun
conjunctive hãuvēn lãulān phẽinēn avævōssan lelaulūssan pephanussan
optative hãuvaiman lãulaimon phẽinaiman avævōimen lelaulūimen pephanuimen
imperative hãuvē! lãulā! phẽinē! - - -
  • The infinitve mood simply describes the action that it expresses, without conjugations.
  • The indicative mood describes an action, possibly conjugated for all verb-related features, as a fact or objective point of view. It does not express any feeling or doubt the subject may have about that which is stated.
  • The conjunctive mood expresses certain points of view that the subject of the sentence may have, related to opinion, feeling, irrealistic situation or an indirect quotation. Also the conditional mood (if..., than...) uses the conjunctive.
  • The optative mood expresses a wish or hope that the subject of the sentence may have. It means anything like: 'I wish...', 'I hope...', or 'may he...' or 'if only...'.
  • The imperative mood expresses a command or assignment for the one spoken to. The present imperative is used for urgent or direct commands (as one would give a disobedient child or e.g. in the army), whereas the aorist imperative is used for more polite or less urgent ones (cf. 'keep off the grass'-like general orders, or used in prayers). An even more polite way of ordering someone to not do something, would be using the imperative of the verb vessāin - to not want, followed by an infinitive: vessā ýdāin! - please, don't do it!

Pronouns Edit

Prepositions Edit

SyntaxEdit

LexiconEdit

Type Stem Class Translation Notes
alië noun alië- A/E water plurals are rare, but may be used.
anyaras noun anyara- A/E queen
auvāin verb auva- to wake transitive
auvathein verb auvathe- to wake up intransitive
calbas noun calba- A/E apple
cãus noun cab- cons,

other

bull
ereb noun erebh- cons,

other

land, country, realm
garod noun garodh- cons,

other

mountain
lie noun lie- A/E tree pl: elyīr
laulõin verb laulo- to tell transitive
laulothein verb laulothe- to speak, to orate intransitive
lyore noun lyore- A/E speech, tongue, language
mad noun madh- Cons,

other

river, stream
nomoguntýs noun nomoguntýr- cons,

liquid

archer, bowman
ngūs noun ngūd- cons,

other

cow pl: nyūdā
nyoros noun nyoro- O/U ring
orrýn noun orrýn- Cons,

liquid

horse
phanein verb phan- to die
ruazis noun ruazid- A/E twins takes the dual noun and

verb conjugations

rheo noun rheor- cons,

other

wolf
sýnome noun sýnome- A/E temperament, character
tastāin verb tasta- to wash transitive
tastathein verb tastathe- to wash (one's self) intransitive, can take -na- to refer to reflexive verb.
umbe adj umm- black
vanda noun vanda- A/E sky, ether
vangyoro noun vangyoro- O/U constellation
vessāin verb vessa- to not want
ýdāin verb ýda- to do, to act
ýssa adj ýss- cold

Example textEdit

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