So, yep, Old 'Nekvas that is. AKA Western dialect with less substrate.


Rejoice, those who are faithful (and those who are not), since I've came up with an explanation how the f*ck an IE language came to a conworld.

Varði originated from a group of PIE (hence the conservativity) refugees whose tribe was nearing extinction because of a war with another tribe and decided to perform a ritual which was thought to teleport the targets into a safe place. It was quite successful, as no one has seen those who underwent it any more, however due to me being the creator of this language some unknown error some of them ended up in my conworld, then in its analogue of Early Middle Ages, name of which in Varðinekvas is still undecided.


"Varði" most likely means "the bearded ones", because the neighboring Köz commonly didn't have beards.


See Varðinekvas#Phonology.

The phonology of Old Varðinekvas is largely the same, with a few exceptions:

  1. Some sounds and corresponding graphemes are absent because a substrate carried them over to the modern form of the language.
  2. é and ó are not only raised but also lengthened. In fact, <ó> represents [ʊ(:)].

Sound changesEdit

Stage 1: Proto-VarðinekvasEdit

Let's assume that PIE was like the reconstructions.

So, Proto-Nekvas is the name applied to language in its rather rudimentary form, attested from earliest inscriptions on spearheads, pottery and so on and still almost mutually intelligible with PIE.

Note that Proto-Varðinekvas always had stress on the 1st syllable of the root.

Sound changesEdit

The sound changes have simplified the phonology of PIE.

- Basic sound changes from PIE -
-- Vowel changes --
First of all, the vowels have lost the stress distinction and, as mentioned before, the stress shifted to the first syllable of the root with few exceptions.
h₁ > 0 /#_ ! /#_CC (h₁lewdʰ- > lewdʰ-)
H > 0 /V_ _V (dʰeh₁tis > dʰetis)
h₁ > a (*h₂enh₁m- > h₂enam-)
h₂ > a /#_ (h₂nēr > anēr)
h₂ > á (h₂ḱros > áḱ(ə)r-)
h₃ > o (h₃dont- > odont)
h₃e > o (h₃ekʷ- > okʷ-)
eh₂ > á (bʰreh₂tēr > bʰrát(er)
ew > au (bʰewdʰ- > bʰaudʰ-)
ey > ai ! /_V (bʰeyd- > bʰaid)
ē ō > é ó (h₂nḗr > anér) < usually stressed even if not in the first syllable
{o a} > e /Cʲ_ (ḱad- > ḱed-)
o > u /Pʷ_ (okʷo > okʷu)
-- Consonant changes --
C[+syllabic] > iC (ḱm̥tom > ḱimtom)
om > o /_# (ḱimtom > ḱimto)
all other endings > unpredictable mess
y > i /_V ! /#_V (ówyo > ówio)
w > v (ówio > ovio)
N > P /_C (mreǵʰ- > breǵʰ-)
kʷ > gʷ ! /_C [-voiced] (kʷekʷlos > gʷegʷlos)
Pʷ > Pu /_C (gʷegʷlos > gʷegulos)
Pʷ > P (gʷegulos > gegulos)
Pʰ > P /#_C (bʰrem- > brem-)
bʰ > b /_D (bʰewg- > baug-)
Pʰ > P /#_e? ! *dʰ > d /#_e (bʰer- > ber-; dʰegʰ- > dʰegʰ-)
bʰ > b /C_? (ǵembʰ- > ǵemb-)
Pʰ > F ! Pʲ > F (dʰegʰ- > ðeɣ-)
ḱ ǵ > š ž (ǵemb- > žemb-)
ḱʰ ǵʰ > x ɣ ! ḱʰ ǵʰ > š ž /_C (breǵʰ- > breɣ- ! ǵʰver- > žver-)
- Post-PIE sound changes -
np *mt > mp nt (šimto > šinto)
P F[+voiced] > P F [-voiced] /_# (varð > varþ ! varðis > varðis)
-- Stress-based ablaut --
--- Stressed ---
a > á in standalone monosyllables
e > a ^^ (brem > bram (imp.)
BUT vowel lengthening in monosyllable pronouns (eš > éš)
e > é /l_ k_ g_ (šlevas > šlévas)
{s þ} {z ð} > š ž /_V[+front] (ðiɣai > žiɣai (3sg)
P[+velar] > P[+alveolar] /_V[+front]
F[+velar] > F[+postalv.] /_V[+front]
--- Unstressed ---
{x ɣ} > k g /_a o (žiɣai > žigai)
é > i (anér > anir)
ai > e (žigai > žige)
oi ei > i (laudoi > laudi)
au > o (velauva > velova)
a > 0 /#_ ! /#_CC (anir > nir)
e, u > 0 ! /_(C)(C)# V_ _V (gegulos > geglos)
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