The author requests that you do not make significant changes to this project without first seeking approval.
By all means, please either help fix spelling, grammar and organization problems or contact the author about them. Thank you.


           Vesian (veska [‘vɛs.ka]) is a North Germanic language spoken as an official language in Vesland. Vesian is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era. The definiteness of nouns is marked primarily through suffixes (endings), complemented with separate definite and indefinite articles. The language has a comparatively large vowel inventory.



Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p, b t, d k, g
Fricative f, v h
Affricate s, (z) ʃ, (ʒ)
Approximant ɹ j
Lateral app. l


Front Unrounded Front Rounded Back
Close i u
Close-mid ʏ o
Open-mid ɛ œ ɔ
Open æ a

Writing System []


Letter i u y å e ö o ä a m n ng
Sound i u ʏ o ɛ œ ɔ æ a m n ŋ
Letter p b t d k g f v h s z sj
Sound p b t d k g f v h s z ʃ
Letter zj r j l
Sound ʒ ɹ, : j


Southern Dialect[]

Letter i u y å e ö o ä a m n ng
Sound ɪ ʉ ɪ o ɛ ʌ ɔ e ɑ m n ŋ
Letter p b t d k g f v h s z sj
Sound p b t d k g, : f v, w h s z ʃ
Letter zj r j l
Sound ʒ ɹ, : j




         Vesian nouns are declined in genders as well as number. Nouns belong to one of two genders, common for the en form or neuter for the et form. For example, the word fisk ("fish") is a noun of common gender (en fisk) and can have the following forms:

Singular Plural
Indefinite fisk fisker
Definite fisken fiskerne

The definite singular form of a noun is created by adding a suffix (-en/-et) depending on the gender of the noun. Besides the third person human pronoun hen, there are also two grammatical genders, den and det. Unlike the nouns, pronouns have an additional object form, derived from the old dative form. Han, for example, has the following nominative, possessive, and object forms:

           Hen - henem - hens

Vesian also uses third-person possessive reflexive pronouns that refer to the subject in a clause, a trait which is restricted to North Germanic languages:

           Anna gåf Maria sin bok; "Anna gave Maria her [Anna's] book." (reflexive)

           Anna gåf Maria hens bok; "Anna gave Maria her [Maria's] book." (not reflexive)

Vesian used to have genitive that was placed at the end of the head of a noun phrase. In modern Swedish, it has become an enclitic -s, which attaches to the end of the noun phrase, rather than the noun itself. Hens is also added in front of the noun in this type of noun phrase.

          hesten; "the horse" — hestens "the horse's"

          hens hesten i den blomstrande engits svart faks; "the horse in the flowering meadow's black mane"


Verbs are conjugated according to tense. With most verbs the imperative is identical to the infinitive form. Perfect and present participles as adjectival verbs are very common:

Perfect participle: en stejkte fisk; "a fried fish" (stejki = to fry)

Present participle: en stökvende fisk; "a stinking fish" (stöku = (slang) to stink)

When building the compound passive voice using the verb ad verje, the past participle is used:

          den veri målit; "it's being painted"

          den vär målit; "it was painted"

Here is a table using the verb les ("read") which can have the following forms:

Active Passive
Infinitive les lesit
Present tense lesa lesi
Past tense lås läs
Supine (hå) leset (hå) lesit
Present participle lesande
Past participle lesen

To make a verb imperative add -(d)e, from det:

sjåde!; "look!"
hjålpe!; "help!"


In a subordinate clause, the auxiliary is used.

          eg sjå ad hen hå stejkte fisken; "I see that he has fried the fish"



Vesian Pronouns
singular first person second person reflexive third person human third person common third person neutral
nominative eg du - hen den dets
accusative mig dig sig henem
genitive min din sin hens dens dens
plural first person second person reflexive third person masculine third person feminine third person neuter
nominative ver er - de de de
accusative os ider sig
genitive vår ins sin ders ders ders


  • hygsan ['hʏg.sən]
    1. thought (the process of thinking)
    2. a thought, an idea (something one is thinking about)
  • sin [sin]
    1. a sinew, a tendon
  • slangen ['slaŋ.ən]
    1. a snake
    2. a hose
  • snåk [snok]
    1. a snake
  • vaten ['va.tən]
    1. water
    2. a lake, a water