ciol Vikti
/ciɑl vikti/
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Nominative-accusative
Head direction
Head-final
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


Standard Vikti (ciol Vikti /cjɑl vikti/) is an agglutinative personal conlang. It is derived from Old Vikti, making it a Wiqta language. Vikti is also a liturgical language, used for religious reasons by other Wiqta people to practice the religion Avitras.

Phonology[edit | edit source]

Consonants[edit | edit source]

Bilabial Labiodental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n (ɳ) (ɲ) (ŋ)
Plosive p~pʷ t ʈ c k ʔ
Fricative v~vʷ s z (ʂ) ɕ h
Affricate d͡z d͡ʑ
Approximate (w) ɾ l ɽ (ɭ) (j) (ɰ)
  1. /p/ becomes [pʷ] before back vowels [ʊ, ɔ]
  2. /v/ becomes [vʷ] before back vowels [ʊ, ɔ]
  3. /n/ becomes [ɳ] before retroflex consonants
  4. /n/ becomes [ɲ] before palatal consonants
  5. /n/ becomes [ŋ] before velar /k/
  6. /t/ becomes [ʈ] before back vowels /ɯ, ɑ/
  7. /s/ becomes [ʂ] before retroflex consonants
  8. /z/ becomes [d͡z] before back vowels /ɯ, ɑ/
  9. /z/ becomes [d͡ʑ] before /i/
  10. /ɾ/ becomes [ɽ] before back vowels /ɯ, ɑ/
  11. /l/ becomes [ɭ] before retroflex consonants
  12. /k/ becomes [c] before /i/
  13. /h/ becomes [s] before /ɯ/
  14. /h/ becomes [ɕ] before /i/
  15. High vowels /i, ɯ~ʊ/ become approximates [j, ɰ~w] before another vowel

Vowels[edit | edit source]

Front Back
High i ɯ~ʊ
Low æ ɑ~ɔ
  1. /ɯ/ is rounded to [ʊ] following labial [pʷ, vʷ] and glottal stop /ʔ/
  2. /ɑ/ is rounded to [ɔ] following labial [pʷ, vʷ] and glottal stop /ʔ/

Sound Changes from Old Vikti[edit | edit source]

The full phonetic inventory of Standard Vikti is the result of Old Vikti's original consonant inventory having been shaped overtime by strong allophonic influences of succeeding vowels within a syllable. 

/w̃/ => [v~vʷ]
/j̃/ => [z~d͡ʑ~d͡z]
/r/ => [ɾ~ɽ]
/r/ => [h~ɕ~s] in initial positions
/r/ => [l] in final positions
/q/ => [h~ɕ~s] in initial positions
/q/ => [k~c] in final positions
/h/ => [s] in final positions

Other notable sound changes occurred that had their own impact on not only the phonological aspects of the language, but the morphological and syntactic structure as well.

  • In many cases, instances of /j̃~n/ were lenited to /i/, often affecting surrounding consonants and vowels
    • hiwayah /hiw̃aj̃ah/ "horse" => xivais [ɕivæis]
    • kuyiru-yu /kuj̃iru-j̃u/ "to break" => coirru [kɑiɽɯ]
    • wanha-ya /w̃anhɒ-j̃a/ "perfect" => vaixi [væiɕi]
  • Similarly, /w̃~m/ became lenited to /ɯ/
    • pompoq /pɒmpɒq/ "bush" => pupok [pʷʊpʷɔk]
    • kiwi-yu /kiw̃i-j̃u/ "to dry" => ciuíu [ciɯʔiɯ]
    • owirioh-ya /ɒw̃iriɒh-j̃a/ "lethargic" => uorroxi [ɯɑɽɑɕi]
  • Cluster /pt/ sometimes experienced lenition to /mz/.
    • hiapta /hiapta/ "leaf" => ximza [ɕimzæ]
    • huptor /huptɒr/ "axel" => sumdzol [sɯmd͡zɑl]
    • qupta-ya /qʊpta-j̃a/ "strong" => sumji [sɯmd͡ʑi]
  • Instances of /r/ sometimes caused fronting of preceding back vowels /ɯ, ɑ/.
    • qor /qɒr/ "arm" => hal [hæl]
    • wurot /w̃urɒt/ "moose" => virrot [viɽɑt]
    • yiorwia /j̃uɒrw̃ia/ "serpent" => jiaria [d͡ʑiæɾiæ] "snake"
  • Clusters /rp, rk, rʔ/ sometimes underwent alveolar assimilation to /lt/
    • parpa /parpa/ "fish" => palta [pæltæ]
    • warkoyo /w̃arkɒj̃ɒ/ "carriage" => valtio [væltiɑ] "vehicle"
    • porquo /pɒrqʊɒ/ "trail" => paltto [pæɭʈɑ]

Stress[edit | edit source]

Primary lexical stress is not semantically important, but typically occurs on the first syllable of a word. 

Phonotactics[edit | edit source]

Vikti syllables follow a (C)V(C) syllable structure, where:

  • Onset (C) includes any consonants besides nasals /m, n/ or lateral approximate /l/
  • V is any vowel
  • Coda (C) includes any consonants besides voiced fricatives /v, z/, approximate /ɾ/, or glottal sounds /ʔ, h/

Loan words have trouble retaining phonetic integrity when translated into Vikti. Take the following words and names for example, which may maintain this integrity following strictly the phonetic inventory of Vikti, but when confronted with Vikti phonotactics become incorrect constructions.

Assumed Corrected
Michael Micail

[mi.kæ.il]

Vicail

[vi.kæ.il]

Nicaragua Nicaracua

[ni.kæ.ɾæ.kɯ.æ]

Jicaracua

[d͡ʑi.kæ.ɾæ.kɯ.æ]

Halloween Halovin

[hæ.ɭɑ.vin]

Harrovin

[hæ.ɽɑ.vin]

improv imporrov

[im.pʷɔ.ɽɒv]

imporrova

[im.pʷɔ.ɽɑ.væ]

pizzazz pizaz

[pi.zæz]

pizaza

[pi.zæ.zæ]

Ulaanbaatar Ulaánvaátar

[ɯ.læ.ʔæn.væ.ʔæ.tæɾ]

Uraánvaátal

[ɯ.ɾæ.ʔæn.væ.ʔæ.tæl]

Additionally, a given word in Vikti cannot begin in /ɾ/-initial or /ʔ/-initial syllables. While these restrictions did not exist in Old Vikti, Standard Vikti affricated initial instances of both phonemes to /h/. Therefore, Old Vikti productions like rawa-yu /raw̃a-j̃u/ "to love" and qiwarta /qiw̃arta/ "structure" became havu [hævʷʊ] and xivalta [ɕivæltæ], respectively.

Lastly, doubling of a given consonant cannot occur in medial positions. This is especially salient when suffixes are employed. For voiceless stops and /h/, the preceding coda remains and the following initial becomes /ʔ/. For nasals and their corresponding voiced fricative/affricates, the coda remains and the initial becomes /ɾ/. For liquids, the coda is deleted and the following initial remains.

Assumed Corrected
"out of the cave" suorapparak suorarak
"their rope" alcoashos alcoas
"under the table" castimvol castimrrol
"to the bucket" hampalra hampara

Orthography[edit | edit source]

Piasvak Script[edit | edit source]

Vikti abugida.png

Piasvakis the official, traditional script of the Vikti language. The name comes from Old Vikti piahvaq meaning "epigraph." Piahvaq is also the Old Vikti name of the archaic alphabet system from which modern Piasvak characters are derived. Piasvak is an abugida—syllables with /æ/ as the nuclear vowel are unmarked and written using the onset consonant only, while other vowels and coda consonants are written as diacritics around the onset consonant.

Romanized Vikti Alphabet[edit | edit source]

The Romanized Vikti alphabet is used to write Vikti in media which do not support the traditional Piasvak script. Standardization of the Romanized Vikti alphabet treats many allophones as distinguished phonemes, resulting in distinctions between ⟨t⟩⟨tt⟩, ⟨z⟩⟨dz⟩⟨j⟩, ⟨r⟩⟨rr⟩⟨l⟩, ⟨c⟩⟨k⟩, and ⟨h⟩⟨s⟩⟨x⟩. Standard Latin letters B, E, F, G, Q, W, and Y are not used in the Romanizated Vikti alphabet, but do have names based on Greek equivalents. The letter D is used only in the digraph ⟨dz⟩.

Grapheme Name Sound(s)
A a a [æ]
B b vita
C c ci [k, c]
D d dzulta
E e ipxirron
F f xiu
G g cama
H h has [h]
I i i [i]
J j ji [d͡ʑ]
K k ca [k]
L l il [l, ɭ]
M m im [m]
N n in [n, ŋ]
O o o [ɑ, ɔ]
P p pi [p, pʷ]
Q q cu
R r ura [ɾ, ɽ]
S s is [s, ʂ]
T t ti [t, ʈ]
U u u [ɯ, ʊ]
V v vi [v, vʷ]
W w vi ciscotin
X x xik [ɕ]
Y y i Caraicoti
Z z zat [z]
´ oióva [ʔ]
` carava

According to Vikti's (C)V(C) rules, syllables are constructed according to the following chart:

-/æ/ -/i/ -/ɒ/ -/ɯ/
/p/ pa

[pæ]

pi

[pi]

po

[pʷɔ]

pu

[pʷʊ]

-p

-[p]

/v/ va

[væ]

vi

[vi]

vo

[vʷɔ]

vu

[vʷʊ]

-m

-[m]

/t/ ta

[tæ]

ti

[ti]

tto

[ʈɑ]

ttu

[ʈɯ]

-t

-[t]

/z/ za

[zæ]

ji

[d͡ʑi]

dzo

[d͡zɑ]

dzu

[d͡zɯ]

-n

-[n]

/ɾ/ ra

[ɾæ]

ri

[ɾi]

rro

[ɽɑ]

rru

[ɽɯ]

-l

-[l]

/k/ ca

[kæ]

ci

[ci]

co

[kɑ]

cu

[kɯ]

-k

-[k]

/ʔ/ á

[ʔæ]

í

[ʔi]

ó

[ʔɔ]

ú

[ʔʊ]

/h/ ha

[hæ]

xi

[ɕi]

ho

[hɑ]

su

[sɯ]

-s

-[s]

Morphology[edit | edit source]

Nouns[edit | edit source]

Vikti nouns are declined according to number, person, and case. Aside from unmarked singular number, nominative case, and accusative case, all nouns receive declensions by suffixing. In instances where multiple suffixes are applied, the morpheme heirarchy is stem>number>person>case. For any suffix, phonotactic rules are subsequently applied.

Plural suffixes employ a reduplication system of the last two sounds. If an unmarked noun ends in a vowel and it's suffix begins with a vowel, the glottal stop is placed in between.

Singular Plural
"word" o oó
"bug" ik icik
"stone" ta tata
"floor" izam izavam
"stick" tico ticoco
"fox" sultas sultahas

Personal markers employ the addition of respective suffixes to the end of a noun. 

Person Singular Plural
1st -n -dzon
2nd -l -rrol
3rd -s -hos

For singular personal suffixes, nouns that already end in a consonant reduplicate the preceding vowel.

1st singular 1st plural 2nd singular 2nd plural 3rd singular 3rd plural
"word" on odzon ol orrol os ohos
"bug" icin ikdzon icil ikrrol icis ikhos
"stone" tan tadzon tal tarrol tas tahos
"floor" izavan izamdzon izaval izamrrol izavas izamhos
"stick" ticon ticodzon ticol ticorrol ticos ticohos
"fox" sultahan sultasdzon sultahal sultasrrol sultahas sultasós

Vikti has 14 marked cases. In addition to standard suffixing, the vocative case implements a preceding particle ho as well as capitalization of the noun. Both nominative and accusative nouns are unmarked by case suffixes, however, they are differentiated by word order. 

Nominative Genitive Dative Allative Ablative Inessive Adessive Perlative
"word" o otin ocon ora oparak oit oiram ozak
"bug" ik iktin ikín ikra ikparak icit iciram ikzak
"stone" ta tatin tacan tara taparak tait tairam tazak
"floor" izam izamtin izamcan izamra izamparak izavit izaviram izamzak
"stick" tico ticotin ticocon ticora ticoparak ticoit ticoiram ticozak
"fox" sultas sultastin sultascan sultasra sultasparak sultaxit sultaxiram sultaszak
Accusative Locative Subessive Prosecutive Intrative Instrumental Comitative Privative Vocative
"word" o otto ovol otia ohoral opum opim odzum  Oa
"bug" ik iktto ikvol iktia ikxiral ikpum ikpim ikdzum  Ica
"stone" ta tatto tavol tatia taharal tapum tapim tadzum  Taá
"floor" izam izamtto izamrrol izamtia izamharal izampum izampim izamdzum  Izava
"stick" tico ticotto ticovol ticotia ticohoral ticopum ticopim ticodzum  Ticoa
"fox" sultas sultastto sultasvol sultastia sultasáral sultaspum sulaspim sultasdzum  Sultaha

Pronouns[edit | edit source]

Personal Pronouns[edit | edit source]

See /Personal Pronouns

Person Singular Plural
1st jia jiara
2nd hara haára
3rd xií xiíra

Reflexive Pronouns[edit | edit source]

Person Singular Plural
1st jiujim jiujivim
2nd harujim harujivim
3rd xiujim xiujivim

Demonstrative Pronouns[edit | edit source]

Singular Plural
Proximal orruo orio
Medial asua axia
Distal ascoa ascoaóa

Interrogative Pronouns[edit | edit source]

Objective Adjectival
What? zaío? zai...
Which? zaá? zaái...
Who? zaca? zaca...
Where? zatto?
When? zaviím?
How? zaspol?
How much? zakpal? zakpalti...
How many? zakparal? zakparalti...
Why? zasta?
Whether? zancoa?

Indefinite Pronouns[edit | edit source]

Proximal Medial Distal Negative Universal Existential
Elective Assertive
Adjective ori

this ...

axi

that ...

ascoi

that ... over there

voi

no(t) ...

ilcoi

each/every ...

ipcoi

any ...

caprroi

some ...

Object orruo

this

asua

that

ascoa

that over there

vodzo

nothing

ilcoa

everything

ipcoa

anything

caprroa

something

Being olca

this person

asca

that person

ascoca

that person over there

voca

nobody/no one

ilcoca

everybody/everyone

ipcoca

anybody/anyone

caprroca

somebody/someone

Location oltto

here

astto

there

ascotto

over there

votto

nowhere

ilcotto

everywhere

ipcotto

anywhere

caprrotto

somewhere

Amount orakpal

this many/much

ahakpal

that many/much

ascoakpal

that other amount

vokpal

none/not any

ikpal

all

ipál

any amount

capral

some amount

Method olxipol

this way

asípol

that way

ascoxipol

that other way

voxipol

no way

ilcoxipol

every way

ipcoxipol

anyhow

caprroxipol

somehow

Time olviím

now

asviím

then

ascoviím

that other time

voviím

never

ilviím

everytime

ipviím

anytime

capriím

sometime

Modifiers[edit | edit source]

All modifiers in Vikti are marked by an -i ending. Typically, they follow the word the modify, with some exceptions for adjectives.

Adjectives[edit | edit source]

Adjectives are marked with -i endings. Noun roots can also be converted into an adjective, or noun adjunct, with the suffix -ti. Adjectives follow the nouns they modify, with the exception of:

For adjectival pronouns, irregular word order is fixed. For example, axi isca "that man" would be correct, while isca axi would be incorrect. For adjectival numbers, the order of modifier in relation to its noun is not fixed, and affects the meaning; adjective-first taí ontizaral means "two features", while noun-first ontizaral taí means "secondary features".

Adverbs[edit | edit source]

Adverbs are marked with the suffixes -tturi or the less common -ri. They follow the words they modify, which include adjectives and verbs.

Postpositions[edit | edit source]

While noun case in Vikti covers many instances that would be translated into English as a prepositional phrase (e.g. hamjiotto "on the bed"), these 17 cases do not cover every possible spacial, temporal, or semantic relation. To describe relations not otherwise expressed through case, Vikti uses postpositional modifiers to nouns declined in a respective case. These modifiers are marked with the suffix -(ttu)ri and are morphologically similar regular adverbs, but functionally different. The following are some of the most common Vikti postpositions:

Objective Case Example
about, concerning dzoltturi genitive pirimtin dzoltturi

"about the film"

above azaptturi locative Jialtto azaptturi

"above the Earth"

after, behind, following taratturi genitive xiapatin taratturi

"after the rain"

against, versus vaustturi allative aálciora vaustturi

"against the wind"

along pointturi perlative ttoalzak pointturi

"along the line"

amid, amidst carastturi intrative purruksural carastturi

"amidst the chaos"

around, circa xiuptturi adessive ilútiram xiuptturi

"around the bend"

as, like cuari genitive pulciktin cuari

"like a flea"

aside from, besides, except vuscatturi genitive suittorrotin vuscatturi

"aside from the bell"

because of coitcari genitive aiatin coitcari

"because of the moon"

before, ahead of, prior to onjiori genitive hairatin onjiori

"before dawn"

beside, next to cavatturi adessive taltairam cavitturi

"beside the pond"

beyond, past paitaratturi ablative uxiottotparak paitaratturi

"beyond the stars"

despite, in spite of holvatturi genitive tattovomtin holvatturi

"despite the data"

down aori genitive hapciaíatin aori

"down the stairs"

during, throughout cazaltturi inessive uirroxit cazaltturi

"during the session"

far from varistturi ablative voraparak varistturi

"far from the cave"

in accordance with uraiktatturi comitative hakrapim uraiktatturi

"in accordance with the law"

in addition to, plus iukri comitative jiarapim iukri

"in addition to us"

in case of jiokjiatturi genitive hazalústin jiokjiotturi

"in case of emergency"

in lieu of, in place of, instead of oxialtturi genitive tairapiatin oxialtturi

"in lieu of therapy"

into oxikri inessive vaárroit oxikri

"into the city"

off dzori ablative taóparak dzori

"off the roof"

on behalf of porivatturi genitive xiítin porivitturi

"on his behalf"

onto oxikri locative takátto oxikri

"onto the board"

since xitasri ablative hotparak xitasri

"since the fire"

than, versus cuari prosecutive vuiuttutia cuari

"than the others"

until xitasri allative pakra xitasri

"until the end"

up uiri genitive paspalcatin uiri

"up the ladder"

with regard to, with respect to dzoltturi vocative (sans noun capitalization) hò olcaá dzoltturi

"with regard to age"

Verbs[edit | edit source]

Vikti verbs can be conjugated according to voice aspect, mood, tense, and person & number. Unmarked verbs represent the simple, active infinitive and are easily recognizable from their -u syllable endings. Bound verbal morphemes include both prefixes and suffixes. In instances where multiple morphemes are applied to the stem, the hierarchy is polarity>mood>aspect>voice>prebase>stem>tense>person+number.

Negative verbs in Vikti are marked with the prefix vo-, while affirmative ones are unmarked.

Affirmative Negative
taáu

"to hit"

taáuvan

"I hit"

votaáuvan

"I did not hit"

sucasu

"to kick"

sucasuvadzun

"we kicked"

vosucasuvadzun

"we did not kick"

puadzu

"to kiss"

puadzul

"you kiss"

vopuadzul

"you do not kiss"

viculsu

"to scare"

viculsurrul

"you all scare"

voviculsurrul

"you all do not scare"

iuú

"to eat"

iuúrros

"she will eat"

voiuúrros

"he will not eat"

vikxijiu

"to observe"

vikxijiurrosus

"they will observe"

vovikxijiurrosus

"they will not observe"

There are three marked verbal moods in Vikti: conditional, optative, and imperative. They are marked by the following:

Conditional Optative Imperative
taáu

"to hit"

cuktaáun

"I would hit"

valtaáuvan

"if only I hit"

ì taáu

"hit!"

sucasu

"to kick"

cuksucasudzun

"we would kick"

valsucasuvadzun

"if only we kicked"

ì sucasu

"kick!"

puadzu

"to kiss"

cukpuadzul

"you would kiss"

valpuadzul

"may you kiss"

ì puadzu

"kiss!"

viculsu

"to scare"

cukviculsurrul

"you all would scare"

valviculsurrul

"may you all scare"

ì viculsu

"scare!"

iuú

"to eat"

cuciuús

"she would eat"

variuúrros

"I hope it eats"

ì iuú

"eat!"

vikxijiu

"to observe"

cukvikxijiusus

"they would observe"

valvikxijiurrosus

"I hope they observe"

ì vikxijiu

"observe!"

Unmarked verbs in Vikti take a simple aspect that can be interpreted broadly by speakers and listeners alike, or with specificity given other contextual words. More specific verbal aspects can be marked and include perfect and continuous forms.

Simple Perfect Continuous
taáu

"to hit"

taáuvan

"I hit"

tastaáuvan

"I had hit"

hamtaáuvan

"used to be hitting"

sucasu

"to kick"

sucasuvadzun

"we kicked"

tasúcasuvadzun

"we had kicked"

hamsucasuvadzun

"we used to be kicking"

puadzu

"to kiss"

puadzul

"you kiss"

taspuadzul

"you have kissed"

hampuadzul

"you are kissing"

viculsu

"to scare"

viculsurrul

"you all scare"

tasviculsurrul

"you all have scared"

hamviculsurrul

"you all are scaring"

iuú

"to eat"

iuúrros

"she will eat"

taxiuúrros

"it will have eaten"

haviuúrros

"he will be eating"

vikxijiu

"to observe"

vikxijiurrosus

"they will observe"

tasvikxijiurrosus

"they will have observed"

hamrikxijiurrosus

"they will be observing"

Passive voice in Vikti verbs are marked by the prefix vai-.

Active Passive
taáu

"to hit"

taáun

"I hit"

vaitaáun

"I am hit"

sucasu

"to kick"

sucasudzun

"we kick"

vaisucasudzun

"we are kicked"

puadzu

"to kiss"

puadzul

"you kiss"

vaipuadzul

"you are kissed"

viculsu

"to scare"

viculsurrul

"you all scare"

vaiviculsurrul

"you all are scared"

iuú

"to eat"

iuús

"she eats"

vaiíuús

"it is eaten"

vikxijiu

"to observe"

vikxijiusus

"they observe"

vaivikxijiusus

"they are observed"

Prebases are attached to verbs to add verbal semantic value. In Vikti, the most common prebases include ​​​ipa- "to appear", hal- "to want", hai- "to like", and oca- "to avoid". Each prebase has a standalone verb equivalent, but these have become shortened to morphemes for communicative ease. Other important prebases—sup- "to be reccomended/to behoove" and tik- "to be able"—are not based on an existing root verb (infinitives vacilú "to behoove" and ttudzu "to be able"), and are often transated into English as "should" and "can", respectively. Additionally, multiple prebases can be applied to a single stem.* Prebases are optional to convey semantic information, as it is up to the speaker to decide whether or not they chose to employ multiple, separate verbs or bound morphemes.

See /Prebases

ipásu

"to appear"

harru

"to want"

haiu

"to like"

ocairru

"to avoid"

taáu

"to hit"

ipataáuvan

"I appeared to hit"

haltaáuvan

"I wanted to hit"

haitaáuvan

"I liked hitting"

supocataáuvan*

"I should have avoided hitting"

sucasu

"to kick"

ipasucasuvadzun

"we appeared to kick"

halsucasuvadzun

"we wanted to kick"

suphaisucasuvadzun*

"we should have liked kicking"

ocasucasuvadzun

"we avoided kicking"

puadzu

"to kiss"

ipapuadzul

"you appear to kiss"

suphalpuadzul*

"you should want to kiss"

haipuadzul

"you enjoy kissing"

ocapuadzul

"you stay away from kissing"

viculsu

"to scare"

ipaviculsurrul

"you all appear to scare"

halviculsurrul

"you all want to scare"

haitikviculsurrul*

"you all enjoy being able to scare"

ocaviculsurrul

"you all stay away from scaring"

iuú

"to eat"

ipaiuúrros

"she will appear to eat"

halticiuúrros*

"she wants to be able eat"

haiíuús

"she will like to eat"

ocaiuús

"she will avoid eating"

vikxijiu

"to observe"

ticipavikxijiurrosus*

"they will be able to appear to observe"

halvikxijiurrosus

"they will want to observe"

haivikxijiurrosus

"they will like observing"

ocavikxijiurrosus

"they will avoid observing"

​​​​​Tense is marked by the use of a suffix. Present verb forms are unmarked, but past and future are marked as follows:

Past Present Future
vu

"to be/exist"

vuvan

"I was"

vun

"I am"

vurron

"I will be"

su

"to do"

suvadzun

"we did"

sudzun

"we do"

surrodzun

"we will do"

ttudzu

"to be able"

ttudzuval

"you could"

ttudzul

"you can"

ttudzurrol

"you will be able"

suirru

"to speak"

suirruvarrul

"you all spoke"

suirrurrul

"you all speak"

suirrurrorrul

"you all will speak"

iuú

"to eat"

iuúvas

"he ate"

iuús

"she eats"

iuúrros

"it will eat"

hau

"to sing"

hauvasus

"they sang"

hausus

"they sing"

haurrosus

"they will sing"

Person and number are marked according to the subject of the sentence and operate in the same way as personal suffix markers in nouns. Plural suffixes -dzon, -rrol, and -hos, however, are raised to -dzun, -rrul, and -sus.

1st singular 1st plural 2nd singular 2nd plural 3rd singular 3rd plural
vu

"to be/exist"

vun

"I am"

vudzun

"we are"

vul

"you are"

vurrul

"you all are"

vus

"he is"

vusus

"they are"

su

"to do"

sun

"I do"

sudzun

"we do"

sul

"you do"

surrul

"you all do"

sus

"she does"

susus

"they do"

ttudzu

"to be able"

ttudzun

"I can"

ttudzudzun

"we can"

ttudzul

"you can"

ttudzurrul

"you all can"

ttudzus

"it can"

ttudzusus

"they can"

suirru

"to speak"

suirrun

"I speak"

suirrudzun

"we speak"

suirrul

"you speak"

suirrurrul

"you all speak"

suirrus

"he speaks"

suirrusus

"they speak"

iuú

"to eat"

iuún

"I eat"

iuúdzun

"we eat"

iuúl

"you eat"

iuúrrul

"you all eat"

iuús

"she eats"

iuúsus

"they eat"

hau

"to sing"

haun

"I sing"

haudzun

"we sing"

haul

"you sing"

haurrul

"you all sing"

haus

"it sings"

hausus

"they sing"

Thus, while it is typical to include subject pronouns in sentences, entirely meaningful and complex utterances can be communicated with the use of one verb; for example, the single word sentence "Vovaltasvaihalticiairruvan." translates to "If only I hadn't wanted to be able to be licked."

Particles[edit | edit source]

Particles are marked with the grave diacritic ( ` ) on the vowel. For particles with more than one vowel, the diacritic placement is determined by the "strength" heirarchy of vowels: low>high, then first>last. Using this heirarchy, A (a low vowel) would be prioritized over I (a high vowel), ⟨ià⟩. But, if it were following O (low, first), A (low, last) would no longer receive the diacritic, ⟨òia⟩.

Interrogative Particle[edit | edit source]

For questions that do not use interrogative pronouns like zaío or zaca, the interrogative particle  is used at the end of a sentence.

Imperative Particle[edit | edit source]

The imperative is the only mood marked with a particle, ì, which precedes a verb in the infinitive form.

Pragmatic Particles[edit | edit source]

To express surprise or hightened emotion, the particle à is used at the end of a sentence or emphasized word.

goes before the word it modifies, and is most commonly used as honorific for people of any gender. It is also used as an emphatic, and can often personify nouns that are typically non-human or abstract.

The particle  is typically used at the beginning of a phrase and is usually translated as "so..." or "well...".

The particle  is used to express emphasis at the beginning of a sentence, as well as the vocative case preceding the noun it modifies. 

To express happiness or excitement, ià is used at the end of a sentence.

Semantics[edit | edit source]

Lexicon[edit | edit source]

See the trans-Wiqta dictionary.

Numbers[edit | edit source]

The standard numerical system of Vikti is base ten. When counting or labelling a number, the objective form is used. When used as a modifier, adjectival numbers precede, rather than follow, the nouns they modify (see #Adjectives).

Objective Adjectival Ordinal Adverbial
0 voza voi
1 ao ai aoti aori
2 taá taí tati tari
3 xio xi xioti xiori
4 sul suri sulti sultturi
5 para parai parati paltturi
6 cuos cuxi custi
7 hapá hapxi hapti
8 zal zari zalti
9 ucil ukri ukti
10 suon suri sunti
11 suo sui suoti
12 sutaá sutaí sutatí
13 suxio suxi suxioti
14 susul susuri susulti
15 supara suparai suparati
16 sucuos sucuxi sucusti
17 suhapá suhapxi suhapti
18 suzal suzari suzalti
19 sucil sukri sukti
20 tahan tahaji tahanti
30 xiohon xiohoji xiohonti
40 sulsun sulsunji sulsunti
50 parahan parahaji parahanti
60 cusún cusúji cusúnti
70 hapáhan hapáhaji hapáhanti
80 zalhan zalhaji zalhanti
90 ucahan ucahaji ucahanti
100 jiuhata jiuhari jiuhati
1,000 dzovot dzovoti dzovotí
1,000,000 coaia coai coaiati

Complex numbers retain a restricted order. For example:

  • 10,456
  • 10+1000+4+100+50+6
  • suon dzovot sul jiuhata parahan cuos

When used as an adjectival number, complex numbers mark only the final number in the construction:

  • 99 red balloons
  • 90+9+balloons+red
  • ucahan ukri parrovom cirixi

The same construction applies to ordinal numbers:

  • 44th president
  • 40+4+president
  • sulsun sulti paraixitanta

Syntax[edit | edit source]

Sentences are typically subject-object-verb (SOV). The placements of the subject and object of a sentence are the most crucial to its meaning, as the nouns go unmarked by true case suffixes.

S O V
Jia cuitran jinjirrun.
I dog-1S walk-1S
[d͡ʑjæ kɯitɾæɲ d͡ʑiɲd͡ʑiɽɯn.]

"I walk my dog."

A verb, however, can be moved to the front of a sentence for emphasis without changing the meaning of a sentence. Adjectives almost always follow the noun(s) that they modify. The order of declined nouns depend on their relation to the other words in the sentence. 

V S O
Zacusttuvas, xilvis pikji ojiotin jia vucuvara.
soothe-PST-3S sound quiet river-GEN I sleep-ALL
[zækɯʂʈɯvæɕ, ɕilvis pikd͡ʑi ɑd͡ʑjɑtiɲ d͡ʑjæ vʷʊkɯvæɾæ.]

"It lulled me to sleep, the quiet sound of the river."

Example Text[edit | edit source]

"All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood."

Udhr piasvak.gif

[ilkɑi iskækæ tiŋkæd͡ʑi d͡ʑi pɑlzæi væɭʈɑkæit d͡ʑi d͡ʑjɑikɑkɑit væisɰiɕjɯsɯs. ɕiʔiɾæ sɯpikpɯm d͡ʑi kæʔælcitæmpɯm væiɑnsɯtkæjɯsɯs, d͡ʑi vilviɾæ hæhævit tispiʔiltæktin væɾæsɯsɯs.]

Ilcoi iscaca tincaji ji polzai valttocait ji jioicocoit vaisuixiusus. Xiíra supikpum ji caálcitampum vaionsutcaiusus, ji vilvira hahavit tispiíltaktin varasusus.

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