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Head direction
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

Since Early Vishrian isn't much different from Latin, this page will concern, for the most part. the Late Vishrian variety.

General information - Idicia genralit[]

Vishrian is a Romance language spoken in 5 villages in the eastern Atlas mountains. It's history begins around 1st century B.C. It was spoken by a Hellenistic people that was completely killed off via genocide in the 8th century A.D. after resisting Arab conversions. Every Vishrian was appropriately buried with their names preserved in capital letters except for one woman whose body remains missing to this day. She has an empty grave with the name "ADREA VASRA."

The native name is Vishrunat, which comes from "avesht-romanat." Apparently, avesht is of Berber origin: compare amasheq & amazigh. Indeed many Berber loanwords seem to have an unusual sound shift of M to V (as well as N to L). Since this is not the case for native Roman words, Vishrian must have taken these words from an unidentified Berber language that has already gone through such sound shifts.

The Vishrian people are typically tan with blond hair. They are a mix Greco-Roman-Berber people & their culture reflected this.

The Vishrians where culturally different from other mediterranean peoples in one aspect. They where women ruled. This could explane why somewords normally considered masculine in most other languages are feminine here.

Phonology - Noscivet Sonu[]

Consonants - Consonut[]

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Post-alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ng
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f s z x h
Affricate v c
Approximant j
Trill r
Lateral app. l

Vowel - Semvoclat[]

Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid e o
Open a

Alphabet - Abecedria[]

In Early Vishrian inscriptions, all letters where capitalized. The earliest attested use of lower case was during the 6th century, thus marks the beginning of Late Vishrian. The Lower case from was a modified form of Half-Uncial.

In Late Vishrian, proper nouns are only capitalized when they are at the start of a sentence.

Letter a b c d e f g h i j l m n o p q r s t u v z
Sound a b k, c d e f g h i j l m n, ng o p k r s t u v z

C is pronounced as c after e & i, as k anywhere else.

N is pronounced ng before velar plosives.

Sound Changes - Mutvet Sonu[]

Latin a, aa ae au b k d e, ee f g h i ii j l m n o, oo p qu r s t th u, uu v x z
Vishrian Initial a a o b k, c d e f g h i i j l m n o p k r s t s u v k z
Vishrian Medial a a o b k, c d e f g h i i j l m n, ng o p, f k r s t s u v k z
Vishrian Final a a u n k l e f ng i i j l n n u p k l t t u k

Final s usually disapears when right after a vowel, otherwise it becomes t. Some irregular words, however, have kept the s.

P becomes f when followed by any non-labial plosive.

N is droped when comes right before a voiced plosive.

CVRV, where R represents r, l, or j becomes CRV. This does not happen if C is h, j, q, r, l, or x.

Grammar - gramatica[]

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No Yes No Yes No No

Unlike most Romance languages, the adjectives, articles, & numerals in Vishrian do not decline to match the Nouns they modify.

Nouns - Nomenut[]

Masculine Singular Feminine Singular

Masculine Plural

Feminine Plural
Nominative -u -a -ut -at
Accusative -un -an -unt -ant
Genetive -(i)ve -e -(i)vet -et

Articles - Capitla[]

Definate Article: ha

Indefinate Article: ca

Adjectives - Episeta[]

Positive: -u

Comparitive: -jul

Superlative: -isnu

Adverb Positive: -e

Adverb Comparative: -iu

Adverb Superlative: -isne

Pronouns - Nomenvet Privatu[]

Demonstratives & Interrogatives Proximal Masculine Proximal Feminine Distal Masculine Distal Feminine 'Who' 'What'
Nominative          hic hac le la qit qil
Nominative Plural hi ha li la qit qil
Accusative huc hac lun lan qen qil
Accusative Plural hot hat lot lat qen qil
Genitive hujt hujt liut liut qjut qjut
Genitive Plural horun harun lorun larun qjut qjut
Personal Pronouns 1st Person Singular 1st Person Plural 2nd Person Singular 2nd person Plural 3rd person masculine 3rd person feminine 3rd person plural
Nominative egu not tu vot it a ej
Accusative me not te vot jun an jot
Genitive mej nosri tvi vesri jut jut jorun

Verbs - Verbet Activita[]

The past tense evolved from Latin's pluperfect.

1st person singular  1st person plural       2nd person singular 2nd person plural 3rd person singular 3rd person plural
Gerund Nominative -du -du -du -du -du -du
Gerund Accusative -dun -dun -dun -dun -dun -dun
Participle -nt -nt -nt -nt -nt -nt
Present -mu -t -tit -t -nt
Perfect -vi -vimut -visi -visit -vit -verunt
Imperfect -ban -bamut -bat -batit -bat -bant
Past -veran -veramut -verat -veratit -verat -verant

Particles - Particlut[]

Infinitive/Supine: ir

Future tense: veru

Subjunctive: ur

Conditional: haba

The Copula - Ha Verba Tri[]

Unlike Latin which has active/passive distinctions, Vishrian uses the copula verb trit "to be". It preserves the future tense.

1st Person Singular 1st Person Plural 2nd Person Singular 2nd Person Plural 3rd Person Singular 3rd Person Plural
Past trisran trisramut trisrat trisratit trisrat trisrant
Perfect tri trimut trisi trisit trit trirunt
Present trit trisun trist tritit trist trint
Imperfect trisan trisamut trisat trisatit trisat trisant
Future trisamu trisamut trisatu trisatote trisatu trisantu

Numerals - Copiat[]

Vishrian has two sets of numbers, Roman & Berber. The Berber numerals translates as "other one", "other two" & so on. They only go up to 10. Roman numbers are used for larger numbers.

Number Roman Berber
0 zeru
1 unu jel
2 du sil
3 tret cral
4 catru cush
5 qincu sevu
6 sec sedi
7 seften sa
8 octu ta
9 noven cia
10 decen la
11 decenunu
12 decedu
20 viginti
21 vigintunu
30 triginta
40 cadraginta
50 qincaginta
60 secsaginta
70 seftaginta
80 octoginta
90 nonaginta
100 centu
200 ducentu
300 trecentu
1000 mile


about - in

above/beyond/over - supra

among/between - intel

at/by/near - aput

before/in front - pra

during/through - pel

for - on

from/by - ant

to - al

under/beneath/behind - sun

upon/on - supel

with/along - cu

within/in - intru


however/although - camvit

and/also - ac

as if/just as - tancan

as soon as - con

because - qia

but/also - sel

if/whether - si

or - vel

provided that - dumodu

since - etenin

so/therefore/thus - ita

while/as long as/until - donec

Syntax - Compositra[]

Word order is generally free, though VSO is quite common. Check the examples bellow to see finer details of word order tendencies.

Alighnment in the Southwest Dialect[]

The Southwest Dialect is notable for having an ergative-absolutive alignment. This is especially different from the common Vishrian spoken elsewhere as well as other Romance languages, but not that of Berber languages. An example is givin bellow.

Vocabulary - Vocablariu[]

Vishrian has many words borrowed from an unidentified Berber language, but most of it's vocabulary is Roman. Some Berber words include the following.

Berber Word Berber Meaning Vishrian, Nominative Singular Vishrian, Accusative Singular Vishrian, Genitive Singular Vishrian, Nominative Plural Vishrian Accusative Plural Vishrian Genitive Plural Vishrian Meaning
adrar Mountain adru adrun adrive adrut adrunt adrivet Plantless Mountain
agadir Wall, Castle agadra agadran agadrive agadrat agadrant agadrivet Castle
abaghus Monkey abahu abahun abahive abahut abahunt abahivet Monkey
asif River asfa asfan asfive asfat asfant asfivet Desert River
asamas sunday asava asavan asave asavat asavant asavet Sunday
aynas monday ela elan elve elat elant elvet Monday
asinas tuesday asila asilan asilve asilat asilant asilvet Tuesday wednesday acla aclan aclive aclat aclant aclivet Wednesday
akwas thursday aqa aqan aqve aqat aqant aqvet Thursday
asimwas friday asiva asivan asive asivat asivant asivet Friday
asid.yas saturday asidia asidian asidive asidiat asidiant asidivet Saturday

Swadesh & Comparison with Latin

English Latin Vishrian
I ego egu
thou tu tu
he is, ille it
we nos not
you vos vot
they ej
this hic, is hic
that ille le
here hic al hic
there ibi alle
who quis qit
what quid qil
where ubi ubi
when quando qadu
how quam, quomodo qan
not non non
all omnis omnu
many multi multu
some aliqui, aliquot aliqu
few pauci pocu
other alter, alius altru
one unus unu
two duo du
three tres tret
four quattuor qatru
five quinque qinqe
big magnus, grandis magu
long longus logu
wide latus latu
thick creber crebru
heavy gravis gravu
small parvus parvu
short brevis brevu
narrow angustus ogustu
thin macer macru
woman femina, mulier femina
man (adult male vir viru
man (human being) homo, hominem homa
child/infant, son/daughter, boy/girl, baby/neonate puer/puella, filius/filia, neonatus/neonata pru/pra, flu/flia
wife uxor, mulier ucra
husband maritus maritu
mother mater matra
father pater patru
animal animal animla
fish piscis piscu
bird avis/ave, avicellus (dim), aucellus (Contraction) ava
dog canis canu
louse pediculus pediclu
snake serpens serpensa
worm vermis vermu
tree arbor arbra
forest silva silva
stick fustis fustu
fruit fructus fructa
seed semen semu
leaf folium folia
root radix radica
bark cortex cortecu
flower flos fla
grass herba herba
rope funis funu
skin cutis cuta
meat caro cru
blood sabguis sabga
bone os u
fat (n) pinguis pigu
egg ovum
horn cornu corna
tail cauda coda
feather penna pena
hair capillus, coma, crinis coma
head caput capa
ear auris oru
eye oculus ocla
nose nasus nasu
mouth os, oris (bucca+cheek) ora
tooth dens densu
tongue lingua liga
fingernail unguis uga
foot pes pa
leg crus cra
knee genu gena
hand manus mana
wing ala ala
belly venter ventra
guts viscera viscra
neck collum, cervix clu
back tergum tergu
breast pectus, mamma mama
heart cor cra
liver iecur jecru
to drink bibere bibre
to feast edere edre
to bite mordere mordre
to suck sugere sugre
to spit sputare sputre
to vomit vomere vomre
to blow flare flare
to breath spirare sprare
to laugh ridere ridre
to see videre vidre
to hear audire audre
to know scire scre
to think putare putre
to smell olere olre
to fear timere timre
sleep dormire dormre
to live vivere vivere
to die mori mori
to kill necare necre
to fight pugnare pugre
to hunt venari venri
to hit pulsare pulsre
to cut secare secre
to split scindere, partiri scindre
to stab perforare perfrare
to scratch radere, scabere scabre
to dig fodere fodre
to swim natare natre
to fly volare volre
walk gradi gradi
to come venire venre
to lie (as in the bed) iacere jacre
to sit sedere sedre
to stand stare stre
to turn vertere vertre
to fall cadere cadre
to give dare dre
to hold tenere tenre
to squeeze comprimere comprimre
to rub fricare fricre
to wash lavare lavare
to wipe tergere tergre
to pull trahere trare
to push pellere, urgere pelre
to throw iactare jactre
to tie stringere, ligare ligre
to sew serere srere
to count numerare numrare
to say dicere dicre
to sing canere canre
to play ludere ludre
to float fluctuare fluctre
to flow fluere flere
to freeze gelare glare
to swell tumere tumre
sun sol sla
moon luna lunu
star stella stela
water aqua acu
rain pluvia plu
river fluvius flu
lake lacus lacu
sea mare maru
salt sal
stone lapis, petra petru
sand arena arena
dust pulvis plu
earth terra tru
cloud nimbus, nubes nuba
fog caligo, nebula neblu
sky caelum cla
wind ventus venta
snow nix nica
ice glacies glacia
smoke fumus fumu
fire ignis iga
ashes cineres cinru
burn ardere ardre
road via vu
mountain mons monsu
red ruber rubru
green viridis viridu
yellow flavus flavu
white albus, candidus albu
black niger, ater, fuscus, prettu atru
night nox nocu
day dies dia
year annus ana
warm calidus calidu
cold frigidus frigidu
full plenus plenu
new novus novu
old vetus vetu
good bonus bonu
bad malus malu
rotten puter, putridus putru
dirty sordidus sordidu
straight rectus rectu
round rotundus rotudu
sharp (as a knife) acer acru
dull (as a knife) hebes hebu
smooth levis levu
wet umidus umidu
dry siccus sicu
correct rectus rectu
near propinquus propu
far longinquus logu
right (adj) dexter dectra
left (adj) sinister sinstru
at ad al
in in in
with cum cun
and et ac
if si si
because quia, quoniam qia
name nomen noma

As can be seen in the swadesh, many words have radically different final forms with little if not any regular sound change going on. Since many finals do help identify gendre, it is believed that these changes where more concious than natural. These changes may have been linked with the misandry that was common in Vishria.

Some Latin words do not survive in Vishrian. They're usually replaced with loans from Berber, if not some other language.

Example text - Tablu on Ecempla[]

English: She always closes the window before she dines.

Latin: Ea semper antequam cenat fenestram claudit.

Vishrian: Clodunt sepre a ha fensran anteqan cenant a.

Literally: Closes always she the window before dines she.

Southwest Dialect: Clodunt sepre a ha fensran anteqan cenant an.

English: I push the door & it opened.

Vishrian: Trudu egu ha janun ac recludunt it.

Literally: Push I the door & opened it.

Southwest Dialect: Trudu egu ha janun ac recludunt jun.

English: If you know, you answer. If you do not know, be silent.

Latin: Si sapis, respondes. Si non sapis, tace, tace.

Vishrian: Si sapit tu, respodet tu. Si sapit non tu, trist tacturnut.

Literally: If know you, answer you. If know not you, be silent.

The Mediterranean Pilgrimage.

English                                                   Vishrian                                                       Litteral Translation                                            

Good Christian pilgrim,

If you want to reach the Jordan

Steal bread for your days of travel,

For you will find neither bread nor wine.

Bonu bibliservu ac pregrinantu,

Si volu ir atigu tu ha jordanun

Amoju pansa on tvi diant ha mjive,

On veru nansiscu nec tu pansan ac vinan.

Good Christian and traveller,

If want to reach you the Jordan

Steal bread for your days the travel-of,

For will find not you bread and wine.

Bibliservu is the only word for christian in Vishrian,. While in Late Vishrian, it could be used without any prejudice, It's use in Early Vishrian was a different story. It translates in Early Vishrian as "Bible Slave."

The Strasbourg Oaths

English                                                  Vishrian                                                      Literal Translation                                           
For God's love & for the Christian people & for our common salvation, from this day onward, so far as God gives me knowledge & power, I will defend this my brother Charles & will be of help in everything, as a man in justice ought to defend his brother, so long as he does the same for me, & I will accept no plea from Lothar which might, by my will, damage this my brother Charles. On ha dive afectan acon ha bibliservunt acon nosri salvatan comunu, pore an huc dian, sicon logu dont divu me ha cientan ac ha virtan, veru defedu egu huc mej fratrun carlun ac trisamu praside in oman, on debitu defedut ca homu in jura jut fratrun, sicon logu facint it ha idan on me, ac veru acipu nec egu ca cosun an ludrun utra haba, an mej arbitria, corumpu huc mej fratrun carlun. For the God's love & for the Christians & for our salvation common, onward from this day, so as far gives God me the knowledge & the power, will defend I this my brother Charles & will be of help in everything, as ought to defend a man in justice his brother, so as long does he the same for me, & will accept not I a plea from lothar which might, by my will, damage this my brother Charles.