Tonal Conlang by Viktor "Nonong" Medrano[]

East Asian Inspiration[]

First published in 2003
a priori

Language Description[]


Phonemic representations in the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) are given within slashes / /.


p - as in 'spot' /p/
t - as in 'stick' /t/
k - as in 'ski' /k/
b - as in 'bog' /b/
d - as in 'dog' /d/
g - as in 'gum' /g/


f - as in 'fig' /f/
s - as in 'song' /s/
x - as 'sh' in 'ship' /ʃ/
h - as in 'hum' /h/
v - as in 'van' /v/
z - as in 'zoo' /z/
j - as 'z' in 'azure' or 'j' in 'bonjour' /ʒ/


ts - as in 'tsunami' /t͡s/
tx - as 'ch' in 'chip' /t͡ʃ/
dz - as in 'adze' /d͡z/
dj - as 'j' in 'joy' /d͡ʒ/


pl, tl, kl, fl /pl tl kl fl/
bl, dl, gl, vl /bl dl gl vl/


l - as in 'lamp' /l/


n - as in 'nest' /n/
m - as in 'moon' /m/
ng - as in 'sing' (even initially) /ŋ/


a - as in 'father' /a/
e - as in 'pet' /ɛ/
i - as in 'pit' /ɪ/
o - as in 'tot' /ɔ/
u - as in 'lunar' /u/
y - as 'a' in 'about' (schwa sound) /ə/


ai, au, ei, ia, ie, io, iu, oi, ua, ue, uo, ui
/aj aw ɛj ja jɛ jɔ ju ɔj wa wɛ wɔ wɪ/

When a word begins with a vowel or diphthong, there is a glottal stop  in front of it. A 'glottal stop' is like the hiatus between the o's in the word 'co-ordinate'.


Initials (I)[]

p, t, k, b, d, g, f, v, pl, tl, kl, bl, dl, gl, fl, vl, s, z, x, j, ts, dz, tx, dj, m, n, ng, l, h

Middles (M)[]

a, e, i, o, u, y, ai, au, ei, ia, ie, io, iu, oi, ua, ue, uo, ui

Finals (F)[]

p, t, k, b, d, g, m, n, ng

Syllabic Structure[]

The structure of a syllable is (I)M(F) where I and F may or may not be present, but M is always present.

Letterals, Names of Letters[]

Remember that 'y' is a schwa sound like the 'a' in 'about'. The number 1 represents tone 1, the lowest level tone in the pitch scale. When ordering words in a list in Vling, the same algorithm as in English is used (specifically, ASCII sort order).


py1, ty1, ky1, by1, dy1, gy1, fy1, vy1, ply1, tly1, kly1, bly1, dly1, gly1, fly1, vly1, sy1, zy1, xy1, jy1, tsy1, dzy1, txy1, djy1, my1, ny1, ngy1, ly1, hy1

Vowels and Diphthongs[]

a1-ka1, e1-ka1, i1-ka1, o1-ka1, u1-ka1, y1-ka1, ai1-ka1, au1-ka1, ei1-ka1, ia1-ka1, ie1-ka1, io1-ka1, oi1-ka1, iu1-ka1, ua1-ka1, ue1-ka1, uo1-ka1, ui1-ka1


Tone Part of Speech Example
1. Low ˩ particles, prepositions, conjunctions, letterals bog1 ("after")
2. Mid ˧ nouns zu2 ("hand")
3. High ˥ verbs djai3 ("bring")
4. Falling ˥˩ adverbs ngia4 ("always")
5. Rising ˩˥ adjectives, numerals biu5 ("conscious")

Words can be converted from one part of speech to another by simply changing the tone: tsuet3 ("to be beautiful"), tsuet2 ("beauty"), tsuet5 ("beautiful"), tsuet4 ("beautifully"). It is the same with personal pronouns: ngiod2 ("I, me"), ngiod5 ("my"), ngiod4 ("in my way, like me"), ngiod3 ("to be I").

Basic Sentence Structure[]

A sentence may contain the constituents Subject (S), Verb (V), and Object (O). In English, the standard word order is SVO ("The cat (S) eats (V) the fish (O)"), but Vling has free word order: SVO, SOV, VSO, VOS, OVS, or OSV. The order determines emphasis. The constituents closer to the beginning of a phrase have more emphasis than those near the end. The subject is preceded by the marker a1 and the direct object by the marker o1:

a1 ob2 mia3 o1 txain2.
SUBJ cat eat OBJ fish
The cat eats the fish.
mia3 o1 txain2 a1 ob2.
eat OBJ fish SUBJ cat
The cat eats the fish.
o1 txain2 mia3 a1 ob2.
OBJ fish eat SUBJ cat
The cat eats the fish.

Vling is a "pro-drop" language in that portions of phrases which can be deduced from context may be dropped, unsaid. For example, an entire subject can be dropped.

mia3 o1 txain2.
eat OBJ fish
[...] eats the fish.

Noun Definiteness[]

There is no definite article ('the') and no indefinite article ('a/an'). Only used when concision is required, the closest equivalents would be nua5, ik5, and pliang5 ('this, that, yonder') to show definiteness or xua5 ('one') to show indefiniteness. There is a marker ton1 to indicate newly introduced information and a marker kim1 to indicate previously introduced information. These are used only when concision is required.

a1 ton1 ob2 mia3 o1 kim1
SUBJ NEW cat eat OBJ OLD fish
A cat (newly introduced) eats the fish (previously talked about).

Noun Number[]

The bare noun is numberless, neither plural nor singular. Plurality can be shown by using numerals, as well as the adjectives gain5, mua5, and giu5 ('many, few, several').


Adjectives and numerals may be placed before or after the noun.

o1 giu5 txain2 mia3 a1 ik5 ob2 glu5 gliag5.
OBJ several fish eat SUBJ that cat big three
Those three big cats eat several fish.

Temporal Tense[]

Tense is completely optional. Often context disambiguates when an event occurs. However, if you would like to be specific about time, there are adverbs which are placed before the verb. Combinations of these with other adverbs are possible.

fliop4 past
neid4 present
dlaung4 future
nguat4 short time distance
dloip4 medium time distance
zag4 long time distance
tsab4 short time interval
hion4 medium time interval
djait4 long time interval
a1 tsiun2 fliop4 djait4 djin3.
The king sneezed for a long time.
a1 tsiun2 zag4 djin3.
The king sneezed a long time ago or will sneeze a long time from now.
a1 tsiun2 fliop4 zag4 djin3.
The king sneezed a long time ago.

Spatial Tense[]

If you would like to be specific about spatial tense, there are adverbs for it which are placed before the verb. Combinations of these with other adverbs are possible.

me4 here
gia4 there
vaing4 there yonder
paig4 short spatial distance
glud4 medium spatial distance
vuing4 long spatial distance
tlok4 short spatial interval
vlueb4 medium spatial interval
zon4 long spatial interval
a1 tsiun2 me4 djin3.
SUBJ king HERE sneeze
The king sneezes here.
a1 tsiun2 vuing4 djin3.
The king sneezes very far from here.
a1 tsiun2 zon4 djin3.
The king sneezes for a long stretch (of space).

Verb Aspect[]

An aspectual adverb may be placed before a verb to describe the action. Here is a list of the aspectual adverbs:

Marker Aspect English Example
moing4 perfective I was eating a mango when she entered.
txiud4 imperfective I was eating a mango when she entered.
gaing4 habitual I used to eat a mango every morning.
ngium4 progressive I am eating a mango.
glai4 perfect (retrospective) I have eaten a mango.
kuog4 prospective I am about to eat a mango.
kleim4 inceptive I am beginning to eat a mango.
gliep4 inchoative It is turning yellow.
djuek4 cessative I am quitting eating mangoes.
txaung4 pausative I stopped eating mangoes for awhile.
txung4 resumptive I resumed eating mangoes.
flueb4 punctual The camera flashed.
vlam4 durative I ate a mango for an hour.
plium4 delimitative I walked for a bit.
bliug4 protractive I ate mangoes on and on.
fuik4 superfective I kept eating my mango after the meal was over.
nab4 iterative I ate mangoes regularly.
die4 random I ate mangoes here and there.
giud4 frequentative I ate mangoes frequently.
te4 semelfactive I knocked on the door.
keng4 simulfactive I ate a mango in one fell swoop.
paud4 experiential I have eaten a mango before.
foi4 intentional I looked at the mango.
fep4 accidental I fell on my butt.
ging4 distributive I ate the mangoes one by one.
vuam4 alternation I ate a mango, did something else, ate a mango, did something else, etc.
loid4 generic Mangoes grow on trees.
puop4 completive Eat it all up.
nod4 intensive It glared.
gle4 moderative It shined.
paib4 attenuative It glimmered.
ke4 crescendo It glimmered, shined, then glared.
piom4 decrescendo It glared, shined, then glimmered.
tuing4 future utility I buy mangoes (for future eating).
dap4 state-change It is sunny (but it was not before).
a1 tsiun2 fliop4 ngium4 djin3.
The king was sneezing.
a1 tsiun2 fliop4 ke4 djin3.
The king sneezed a lot, sneezed a bit, then sneezed a little.
a1 tsiun2 fliop4 die4 djin3.
SUBJ king PAST RANDOM sneeze
The king sneezed here and there (at random).
a1 tsiun2 fliop4 vuam4 djin3.
The king sneezed, then did something else, sneezed again, then did something else, and so on alternating.

Verb Modals[]

English Pattern Vling Pattern Example
can V / may V nug4 V a1 ngiod2 nug4 mia3. ("I can eat / am able to eat.")
should V / must V flaim4 V a1 ngiod2 flaim4 mia3. ("I should eat / ought to eat.")
want to / wish to V vlie4 V a1 ngiod2 vlie4 mia3. ("I want to eat / wish to eat.")

Imperative mood or command is indicated by placing the marker au1 at the end of the phrase. A polite request uses ei1.

mia3 au1!
mia3 ei1!
Please eat!
a1 gleib2 mia3 au1!
Let's eat!
a1 mion2 mia3 au1!
SUBJ he/she eat COMMAND
Let him/her eat!


Intransitive verbs, vlu3 ('to be') and aum3 ('to become'), which take a noun complement, use the complement marker u1.

a1 og2 aum3 u1 ple2.
SUBJ man become COMPL spider
The man becomes a spider.
a1 og2 vlu3 u1 ple2.
SUBJ man be COMPL spider
The man is a spider.
u1 ple2 a1 og2 vlu3.
COMPL spider SUBJ man be
The man is a spider.
a1 mion2 nuob3 o1 og2 u1 ple2.
SUBJ he/she consider OBJ man COMPL spider
He/she considers the man a spider.
a1 mion2 txuong3 o1 kli2 u1 vlaid5.
SUBJ he/she paint OBJ house COMPL purple
He/she paints the house purple. 

Verb Voice[]

Vling has five grammatical verb voices: 'The cat eats' (active), 'The fish is eaten' (passive), 'The man makes the cat eat' (causative), 'The cat feeds itself' (reflexive), 'The cats feed each other / one another' (reciprocative).

Voice Marker Example
Active __ a1 og2 tug3. SUBJ man walk The man walks.
Passive zod4 zod4 mia3 a1 txain2. PASSIVE eat SUBJ fish The fish is eaten.
Causative duob4 a1 og2 duob4 tug3 o1 dli2. SUBJ man CAUS walk OBJ dog The man walks the dog.
Reflexive vliok4 a1 ob2 vliok4 tlaub3. SUBJ cat REFLEX feed The cat feeds itself.
Reciprocative pik4 a1 ob2 pik4 tlaub3. SUBJ cat RECIPROC feed The cats feed each other.

Any adjective (like 'tuong5' - blue) can be turned into a 'stative verb' (like 'tuong3' - to be blue) as in 'The man blues'.

a1 og2 tuong3.
SUBJ man blue
The man 'blues'. (The man is blue in colour.)
a1 og2 duob4 tuong3 o1 kli2.
SUBJ man CAUS blue OBJ house
The man 'blues' the house. (The man turns the house blue.)

Participles and Gerunds[]

Used as prefixes, the tense, aspect, and voice markers can be compounded to form participles and gerunds:

[TENSE]+[ASPECT]+[VOICE]+root. (Use tone1, except for the root.)

dein3 a1 ngium1-djin5 tsiun2.
exist SUBJ PROGRESSIVE-sneeze king
There is / It is the sneezing king.
a1 ngium1-djin2 plai3.
SUBJ PROGRESSIVE-sneeze be-heavy
The sneezing is heavy.
dein3 a1 zod1-lia5 gio2.
exist SUBJ PASSIVE-hide ring
There is / It is the hidden ring.
dein3 a1 dlaung1-zod1-lia5 gio2.
exist SUBJ FUTURE-PASSIVE-hide ring
There is / It is the ring about to be hidden.

Verb Serialization[]

A sequence of consecutive verbs, all sharing the same subject, is a common strategy.

a1 og2 nguig3 plap3 biab3 mia3.
SUBJ man go buy come eat
The man went out to buy something and brought it back to eat.

A group of simultaneous actions is also possible.

a1 og2 ngiab3 diu3 klop3 nguig3.
SUBJ man hurry run cross go
The man hurriedly ran across.

Compound Words[]

(a) The elements are opposite in meaning to one another.

juong1-tloi2 (night and day)
txuak1-ze2 (father and mother)
foip1-nung5 (black and white)

(b) The elements are of similar species.

dluam1-pui2 (tables and chairs)

(c) The first element further defines the second.

tun1-ngiu2 (headmaster; head of the school)
taud1-og2 (medicine man)
fueg1-ip2 (toothache)

(d) The multiple attributes are left-grouping.

saim1-tseg1-glie1-txiog2 ((old book) love) person | antique book lover

All the syllables of the compound word, except the last syllable, always have tone 1. The last syllable carries the tone that indicates the part of speech for the whole compound word. Below is a compound word which is an adjective:

saim1-tseg1-glie1-txiog5 lie2 antique-book-lover shop


Proper nouns or other proper terms, as well as foreign terms and borrowings, are preceded by the name marker tu1 and may be treated structurally as compound words. Within a name, individual syllables may or may not have any semantic value; they could be purely phonetic.

tu1 txa1-li2 da1-uin2
Charles Darwin
a1 tu1 bob2 nguig3 ueg1 tu1 pa1-li2.
SUBJ NAME Bob go to NAME Paris
Bob goes to Paris.
dein3 a1 oid2 tu1 pa1-li5.
exist SUBJ friend NAME Parisian
There is (It is) my Parisian friend.
a1 oid2 dlaim3 tu1 pa1-li4.
SUBJ friend speak NAME Paris.ADV
The friend speaks like a Parisian (speaks Paris-like).

If preferred, the foreign word or phrase may be used in its native form.

nguig3 ueg1 tu1 Paris.
go to NAME Paris
(I) go to Paris.

The name marker may precede an entire noun phrase.

tu1 tseg2 saub1 dzeit5 txa2
NAME book of magic rite
The Book of Magical Rites

The name marker is useful for borrowing from other languages.

tu1 si1-pa1-get1-ti2
a1 oid2 dau3 o1 tu1 ka1-la1-te2.
SUBJ friend practice OBJ NAME karate
A friend practices karate.
a1 oid2 tu1 ka1-la1-te3.
SUBJ friend NAME karate.VERB
A friend 'karates' (does karate).


Direct quotations are set off by dak4 (quotingly) and jak4 (unquotingly).

gep3 o1 dak4 "a1 dlaing2 glaub3 puip5" (jak4).
say OBJ QUOTE "SUBJ grape taste good" (UNQUOTE)
(I) say, "The grapes taste good."
a1 dak4 "djiem2" (jak4) txuid3 klek1 ngiod2.
SUBJ QUOTE silence (UNQUOTE) be-music according-to me
The "silence" is music to me.

dak4/jak4 may be used in conjunction with the name marker.

fuim3 o1 tu1 dak4 "fliop4 nguig3 gloip1 aud2" (jak4).
see OBJ NAME QUOTE "PAST go with wind" (UNQUOTE)
(I) am seeing "Gone with the Wind."

Indirect quotations do not use dak4/jak4.

gep3 ved1 a1 dlaing2 glaub3 puip5.
say that SUBJ grape taste good
(I) say that the grapes taste good.


The question marker mo1 ends an interrogative phrase.

a1 tu1 bob2 nguig3 mo1?
Is Bob going?
a1 diop2 nguig3 mo1?
SUBJ who go QUES
Who is going?


Exclamatory phrases may be ended with a strengthening exclamatory marker mak1 or a softening exclamatory marker lei1.

puip5! Good!

puip5 mak1! Good! (strong)

puip5 lei1! Good! (soft)

Head-first Relative Clauses[]

There are two particles that can mark the beginning of a 'head-first' relative clause, djib1 (restrictive) and gop1 (non-restrictive). Restrictive clauses give information about the head which is inherent, while non-restrictive clauses give information about the head which is incidental. In English, we often distinguish these two by putting a comma (for non-restrictive) or not (for restrictive). For concision, a 'resumptive pronoun' may be used to refer to the head.

fuim3 o1 oid2 djib1 a1 kliok2 guk3 o1 mion2.
see OBJ friend RESTRICT SUBJ you know OBJ he/she
"(I) see the friend + you know him/her."
(I) see the friend whom you know.
dein3 a1 pa1-li2 djib1 a1 ngiod2 nguig3 ueg1 pot2.
exist SUBJ Paris RESTRICT SUBJ I go to it
"There is / It is Paris + I go to it."
It is Paris to where I am going.

The resumptive pronoun may be dropped.

fuim3 o1 oid2 djib1 a1 kliok2 guk3.
see OBJ friend RESTRICT SUBJ you know
(I) see the friend whom you know.
dein3 a1 pa1-li2 djib1 a1 ngiod2 nguig3.
It is Paris to where I am going.

Here are examples of non-restrictive clauses:

a1 ngiod2 viek4 fuim3 o1 oid2 gob1 a1 ngiod2 flu4 fuim3.
SUBJ I today see OBJ friend NON-RESTRICT SUBJ I yesterday see
I see the friend today, whom I saw yesterday (by the way).
fuim3 o1 oid2 gob1 duob4 tug3 o1 dli2.
see OBJ friend NON-RESTRICT CAUS walk OBJ dog
(I) see the friend, who is walking the dog.

Head-last Relative Clauses[]

A head-last relative clause has the modifying clause before the head (reverse of English). There are two particles that can mark the ending of a 'head-last' relative clause, vied1 (restrictive) and miem1 (non-restrictive). 

a1 kliok2 guk3 vied1 o1 oid2 fuim3.
SUBJ you know RESTRICT OBJ friend see
(I) see the friend whom you know.
o1 dli2 duob4 tug3 miem1 o1 oid2 fuim3.
OBJ dog CAUS walk NON-RESTRICT OBJ friend see
(I) see the friend, who is walking the dog.


A common sentence pattern is to have the topic, a word or phrase other than the subject, separate from a comment. The topic marker is za1.

za1 ban2, a1 gleib2 ploi4 mia3.
TOPIC food, SUBJ we tomorrow eat
About the food, we will eat it tomorrow.
a1 gleib2 ploi4 mia3, za1 ban2.
SUBJ we tomorrow eat, TOPIC food
About the food, we will eat it tomorrow.
za1 glu5 kiu2, dein3 gain4.
TOPIC big bird, exist many.ADV
About big birds, there are many of them.

Nominalizer: "-ing, what"[]

The marker sup1 nominalizes the verb.

buang3 a1 sup1 bli3 o1 dzik5 plak2.
be-difficult SUBJ NOM learn OBJ foreign language
Learning a foreign language is difficult.
vlu3 u1 plua2 a1 sup1 vlie3 a1 mion2.
be COMPL piano SUBJ NOM want SUBJ he/she
What he/she wants is a piano.


An appositive is a noun that refers to another noun with no preposition or conjunction joining them.

a1 tu1 ma1-li2, meb1-vliang1-txiog2, vliang3 o1 koid2.
SUBJ NAME Mary, life-study-person, study OBJ plant
Mary, a biologist, studies plants. 


Numerals are consistently and regularly formed. Twenty is 'two-ten'. Forty is 'four-ten'. Fourteen is 'ten-four'. Thirty-four is 'three-ten-four'. Numerals are compound words.

one billion nine million twenty-eight thousand four hundred seven

Fractions are formed using the preposition tsoin1 ('out of'):

three out of four
three quarters

vek1 is used for decimals.

twenty-four point six seven

Ordinals are formed by the adverb mun4 ('by order'):

mun4 gi1-txod1-gliag5
ORDER seven-ten-three

Telling Time[]

The verb for telling time is xaung3. The 24-hour clock is used. 'January', 'February', 'March', and so forth are 'xua5 voi2' (one month), 'plaig5 voi2' (two months), 'gliag5 voi2' (three months), and so forth. The weekdays 'Monday', 'Tuesday', 'Wednesday', 'Thursday', 'Friday', 'Saturday', and 'Sunday' are 'xua5 txua2' (one weekday), 'plaig5 txua2' (two weekdays), 'gliag5 txua2' (three weekdays), 'bliut5 txua2' (four weekdays), 'dzig5 txua2' (five weekdays), 'nuin5 txua2' (six weekdays), and 'gi5 txua2' (seven weekdays) respectively.

xaung3 a1 ten2 mo1?
time.VERB SUBJ what QUES
What is the time?
za1 vlop2, xaung3 a1 ten5 jien2 (ten5 paing2) mo1?
TOPIC now, time.VERB SUBJ what hour (what minute) QUES
(As of now) what is the hour (and minute)?
xaung3 a1 moi5 jien2, gliag1-txod1-nuin5 paing2.
time.VERB SUBJ nine hour, three-ten-six minute
(xaung3 a1 09:36.)
The time is 09:36.
xaung3 a1 txod1-bliut5 jien2, gi5 paing2.
time.VERB SUBJ ten-four hour, seven minute
(xaung3 a1 14:07.)
The time is 14:07.
xaung3 a1 ten5 men2, ten5 voi2, ten5 mong2 mo1?
time.VERB SUBJ what year, what month, what day QUES
What is the year, month, day?
xaung3 a1 plaig1-pliak1-plaig1-txod1-klub5 men2, nuin5 voi2, txod1-nuin5 mong2, dzig5 txua2, txod1-gi5 jien2, bliut1-txod1-dzig5 paing2.
time.VERB SUBJ two-thousand-two-ten-eight year, six month, ten-six day, five weekday, ten-seven hour, four-ten-five minute
(xaung3 a1 2028.06.16, 5 txua2, 17:45.)
The date/time is the year 2028, June 16, Friday, 17:45.

The verb for time duration is ngieg3.

za1 nguot2, ngieg3 a1 ten2 mo1?
TOPIC trip, duration.VERB SUBJ what QUES
About the trip, how long is it? (What is the duration of the trip?)
za1 nguot2, ngieg3 a1 plaig5 voi2; xaung3 a1 xua5 voi2, dzig5 mong2, plog1 gliag5 voi2, dzig5 mong2.
TOPIC trip, duration.VERB SUBJ two month; time.VERB SUBJ one month, five day, until three month, five day
(za1 nguot2, ngieg3 a1 2 voi2; xaung3 a1 01.05 plog1 03.05.)
The trip lasts two months; it is from January 5th until March 5th.
za1 nguot2, ngieg3 a1 bliut5 tloi2, xaung4 tsoin1 xua5 txua2 plog1 bliut5 txua2.
TOPIC trip, duration.VERB SUBJ four day, time.ADV from one weekday until four weekday
The trip lasts four days from Monday until Thursday.


za1 ngab2, ten3 mo1?
TOPIC weather, what.VERB QUES
What is the weather like?

sui3. It is raining.

dued3. It is sunny.

sid3. It is cloudy.

lid3. It is snowing.


Any cheerful term may be used for both salutations and partings.

fuek3! Peace!

bien3! Hope!


person singular plural
1st ngiod2 dzuam2
1st & 2nd _ gleib2
2nd kliok2 kau2
3rd, biological mion2 niad2
3rd, non-biological pot2 dzub2


[KEY: aj = adjective, av = adverb, cj = conjunction, n = noun, num = numeral, pn = pronoun, pr = preposition, pt = particle]

pn I, me; my ngiod2; ngiod5 pn we, us (inclusive "with you"); our gleib2; gleib5 pn we, us (exclusive "without you"); our dzuam2; dzuam5 pn you (singular); your kliok2; kliok5 pn you (plural); your kau2; kau5 pn he, she, him, her; his, her (biological) mion2; mion5 pn one (indefinite persons or biologicals); one's ngom2; ngom5 pn they (biological); their niad2; niad5 pn it; its (non-biological) pot2; pot5 pn they (non-biological); their dzub2; dzub5

pt subject marker a1  pt direct object (accusative) marker o1  pt complement marker u1  pt letteral marker ka1 pt imperative (command) marker au1  pt polite request marker ei1  pt question marker mo1 pt newly introduced information marker ton1 pt previously introduced information marker kim1 pt name marker tu1 pt nominalizer sup1 pt topic marker za1 pt strengthening exclamatory marker mak1 pt softening exclamatory marker lei1 pr about (pertaining to; on the topic of) dluim1 pr above, over jing1 pr according to klek1 pr across (at / to the other side of) plei1 pr after (later than; in the future of) bog1 pr around, encircling, surrounding bei1 pr as jiot1 pr as for zauk1 pr at (in the same location as) xiu1 pr because of, due to ngie1 pr before, in front of, ahead of (spatially) tsieb1 pr before, prior to, earlier than uit1 pr behind, in back of, to the rear of bla1 pr between, among, amidst, inter- txia1 pr beyond, farther than, exceeding dzio1 pr by means of, via, per, with (using; through instrumentality of) ak1 pr during iong1 pr except for, besides, apart from, other than, excluding om1 pr for (to benefit; destined for; for the purpose of) uog1 pr for (in exchange for) ap1 pr from, out of, away from tsoin1 pr in (located inside of) zuak1 pr instead of, rather than ien1 pr like, similar to kuit1 pr near, close to tseb1 pr of (owned by; belonging to; associated with; = genitive) saub1 pr of (containing the measured quantity: "two liters of water") ki1 pr on (resting on; touching the top or other surface of) iop1 pr outside of, exterior to tliud1 pr/cj than, compared to xuem1 pr through uip1 pr to, towards, at (moving toward) ueg1 pr under, below, beneath hium1 pr until plog1 pr with (accompanied by) gloip1 pr without, with no ..., lacking flueng1 v be (intransitive predicative copula) vlu3 v exist dein3 v become (begin to be; acquire the quality...) aum3 v cause (induce something to be/happen) eid3 v make, render (impart quality X to Y; e.g. "I make you happy") gling3 v do, perform, engage in (specified activity) iad3 v have (possess / be furnished with) hiap3 aux v pres can (is/are able to ...) nug3 aux v pres should, ought to (is/are expected/advised to ...) flaim3 aj/pn this (demonstrative) nua5, nua2 aj/pn that (demonstrative) ik5, ik2 aj/pn that yonder (demonstrative) pliang5, pliang2 cj so, then, therefore djup1 cj aka (also known as) taup1 cj and, plus iam1 cj but, however eim1 cj if (on condition that...; supposing that...) tsai1 cj or dzuong1 cj that (e.g. "I know that you are right") ved1 pt that, who/which/where/when [head-first restrictive clause marker] (e.g. "I saw the doctor that/who had lunch with you.") djib1 pt who/which/where/when [head-first non-restrictive clause marker] (e.g. "I saw a girl, who wore a red dress.") gop1 pt that, who/which/where/when [head-last restrictive clause marker] vied1 pt who/which/where/when [head-last non-restrictive clause marker] miem1 av also, additionally, too kuo4 av apart, separately nieg4 av maybe, perhaps, possibly an4 av not, no uod4 av yes suik4 av only, solely, exclusively glue4 av together puo4 av how? (in what manner?) xoid4 av how much/many? zuim4 pn what? ten2 av when? (at what time?) zian4 av where? (at/to what place?) glod4 pn, aj which? moim2, moim5 pn who? diop2 av why? (for what reason?) flaib4 aj any (no particular one of) tleg5 aj all xuag5 aj every, each uin5 n dwarf txuek2 n elf nuing2 n person, human being txiog2 n baby, infant vlai2 n child vie2 n boy ho2 n girl ang2 n man (adult male person) og2 n woman (adult female person) maun2 n family ud2 n father txuak2 n mother ze2 n marriage (spousal relationship) nie2 n husband lua2 n wife dzat2 n son su2 n daughter mie2 n brother maing2 n sister tiod2 n chief, leader txue2 n king tsiun2 n queen tiop2 n president siang2 n prime minister pliu2 n dictator, tyrant aim2 n master, lord ngiu2 n slave guo2 n soldier bua2 n ambassador at2 n member (of group/organization) zei2 n friend oid2 n enemy muib2 n Mr., Ms., Miss, Mrs. gat2 n Mister, Mr. flai2 n Ms., Miss/Mrs. xuo2 n club, society (voluntary association re: a common interest) zib2 n committee (group appointed to do a task) fluo2 n community (individuals sharing space / culture) dzui2 n culture (the customs and beliefs of a people) uong2 n individual (one considered separately from one's species) dui2 n people (a people), folk, the members of an ethnic group / nation zo2 n public, populace, the people (as in People's Republic) sau2 n race (group of people with similar characteristics) jum2 n team, crew, squad hie2 n abdomen dze2 n anus ab2 n arm (shoulder to hand) kiom2 n back (dorsal area) dzue2 n beard gluib2 n blood aup2 n body iap2 n bone flot2 n brain djuog2 n breast, mammary ieng2 n buttock ad2 n cheek (side of face below eye) uam2 n chest (upper front of torso) bo2 n chin aung2 n ear uen2 n egg bio2 n eye hui2 n face it2 n feather jua2 n feces, dung, excrement gion2 n fetus (foetus), embryo ueb2 n finger gluab2 n fist ion2 n foot (on which something stands) ta2 n forehead dzoi2 n gene luo2 n hair (a strand of fibrous material growing from the body) mau2 n hair (the hairs atop one's head thought of as a collective entity) uot2 n hand zu2 n head zab2 n heart (coronary muscle) txiok2 n heel kuik2 n hip tsue2 n horn (bone-like growth from animal's head) uop2 n intestines, gut(s), viscera dlie2 n iris (of eye) iut2 n kidney nio2 n knee nuak2 n leg zap2 n lip glieng2 n liver uing2 n lung uad2 n meat, flesh feig2 n mouth uob2 n muscle bluop2 n nail (fingernail) dlua2 n navel hau2 n neck up2 n nerve tlong2 n nose kab2 n organ (of body) iot2 n palm (of hand) eib2 n penis vluo2 n shell dlia2 n shoulder so2 n skeleton plu2 n skin ong2 n spine, backbone tlo2 n stomach tsi2 n sweat, perspiration bai2 n tail dluen2 n tear(drop(s)) kloing2 n testicle dieg2 n throat iup2 n thumb ziu2 n toe tleib2 n tongue (body-part) jau2 n tooth fueg2 n urine djuing2 n vagina tsie2 n vein, blood vessel im2 n waist djuo2 n wing (of bird etc.) iud2 n wound luon2 n wrist ub2 n berry (small pulpy fruit) dio2 n bud (of flower/leaf) djem2 n flower blok2 n fruit fui2 n leaf fliom2 n nut (hard-shelled fruit/seed with separable shell and kernel) xad2 n pod (seed pod) vleig2 n root (of a plant) ian2 n seed ueng2 n sprout (young shoot of plant) pluag2 aj alive plaing5 aj dead ngua5 n birth vo2 n mature, adult uat2 aj healthy zua5 n disease, illness, sickness dzod2 aj fat, obese, plump klauk5 n sex, gender jia2 aj female xuon5 aj male uab5 aj neuter (neither male nor female) iab5 n sense (ability to perceive a given kind of stimuli) nein2 n pain ip2 n pleasure zeim2 aj tired, weary iep5 aj refreshed, zesty, perky iob5 v sleep pling3 aj awake guik5 n fever duat2 v bite glia3 v breathe hieb3 v catch (stop the motion of and seize in the hands) xei3 v climb ngued3 v copulate, have sex (with) bliong3 v crawl ja3 v cry out, shout, yell uem3 v cry, weep txiek3 v dance tui3 v die fue3 v drink fliun3 v drown (die/kill via immersion) djie3 v eat mia3 v feed tlaub3 v feel (perceive with the tactile sense) fua3 v gesture iub3 v hold, grasp uan3 v hunt, pursue (with intent to capture and/or devour) dzuad3 v jump, leap uag3 v kick jiug3 v kill aub3 v kiss glig3 v laugh zeing3 v lie (recline horizontally) oik3 v live (be alive) oing3 v run diu3 v shave piu3 v sit (be in a sitting position) iem3 v smile iag3 v sneeze djin3 v spit bliok3 v squat xuop3 v stand ok3 v swallow zai3 v swim ngoi3 v taste (perceive the flavor of) txuo3 v throw, toss do3 v touch puang3 v vomit xiup3 v walk tug3 v wrestle eig3 n animal (non-vegetable creature) xien2 n ant (insect of family Formicidae) ham2 n bear (animal of Ursidae family) ot2 n bee (member of genus Apis) dzua2 n bird (egg-laying feathered animal with wings) kiu2 n butterfly ve2 n cat (Felis catus) ob2 n chicken huod2 n cockroach (insect of order Blattaria) bue2 n cow/bull, cattle (bovine animal of either sex) fla2 n deer (animal of family Cervidae) fuong2 n dog (Canis familiaris) dli2 n donkey, ass (Equus asinus) fe2 n dragon (winged serpent with crested head and large claws) eip2 n fish txain2 n fly (small winged insect) dling2 n fox (member of genus Vulpes) ied2 n frog (web-footed tailless leaping amphibian) blue2 n goat (animal of genus Capra) tliong2 n grasshopper nge2 n horse (Equus caballus) eit2 n insect in2 n lion (Felis leo) nag2 n lizard nged2 n lobster tuid2 n mammal od2 n mantis (insect of order Manteodea) xoik2 n monkey, small primate voig2 n mosquito dlo2 n mouse tluob2 n pig, swine (omnivorous mammal of family Suidae) eg2 n rabbit (animal of family Leporidae) hiu2 n reptile ut2 n sheep (Ovis aries) pia2 n snake, serpent (reptile of suborder Serpentes or Ophidia) djoi2 n spider, arachnid ple2 n squirrel (rodent of family Sciuridae) oim2 n tiger (Felis tigris) iat2 n turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) vluat2 n turtle (reptile of order Testudinata) plueg2 n virus aing2 n whale (large marine mammal of order Cetacea) piad2 n wolf (Canis lupus) joi2 n worm flo2 n apple (tree/fruit of genus Malus) xag2 n bamboo (plant/stem of genera Bambusa / Arundinaria / Dendrocalamus) aik2 n banana (plant/fruit of genus Musa) bum2 n bean (lima/snap/etc.: plant/seed of genus Phaseolus or similar) goit2 n cabbage (plant/leaves of sp. Brassica oleracea capitata) glaung2 n carrot (plant/root of sp. Daucus carota sativus) pei2 n coffee (plant/seeds of sp. Coffea arabica) toig2 n cork (tree/elastic tissue of sp. Quercus suber) koit2 n corn, maize (plant/seeds of sp. Zea mays) txeip2 n cotton (plant/fibers of genus Gossypium) tlaung2 n cucumber (Cucumis sativus) txe2 n date (tree/fruit of sp. Phoenix dactylifera) huik2 n fig (tree/fruit of genus Ficus) dzuo2 n flax (Linum usitatissimum) dua2 n garlic (herb of sp. Allium sativum) djam2 n ginger (plant/rhizome of genus Zingiber) kluk2 n ginseng (plant/root of genus Panax) kuim2 n gourd (plant/hard-rinded fruit of genera Lagenaria & Cucurbita) vue2 n grape (plant/fruit of genus Vitis) dlaing2 n grass (monocotyledonous plant of family Gramineae) nu2 n hemp, marijuana (plant/material of sp. Cannabis sativa) eng2 n kelp (seaweed of orders Laminariales and Fucales) flid2 n lentil (plant/seeds of sp. Lens culinaris) gau n lettuce (plant/leaves of genus Lactuca) flog2 n mandarin, tangerine (tree/fruit of sp. Citrus reticulata) hia2 n mint (plant of family Labiatae) viu2 n mushroom (a complex aerial fleshy fruiting body of a fungus) doi2 n mustard (plant of sp. Brassica hirta / B. nigra / B. juncea) tsik2 n oak (tree of genus Quercus) nieng2 n oat (plant/seed of genus Avena) tsau2 n olive (tree/fruit of sp. Olea europaea) gliot2 n onion (plant/bulb of sp. Allium sepa) txoi2 n orange (tree/fruit of Citrus sinensis / related spp.) xiud2 n pea (plant/seed of sp. Pisum sativum) fuom2 n peanut (plant/seed/pod of sp. Arachis hypogaea) tuem2 n pepper (hot/sweet/bell pepper -- plant/pod of genus Capsicum) xuak2 n pepper (black -- plant/seed of sp. Piper nigrum) maim2 n pine (coniferous tree of genus Pinus) tsuo2 n plum (certain trees/fruits of genus Prunus) ngu2 n potato (plant/tuber of sp. Solanum tuberosum) iek2 n rice (plant/seed of sp. Oryza sativa) em2 n rose (plant/flower of genus Rosa) kuap2 n safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) fun2 n sesame (plant/seed of genus Sesamum) dlue2 n soya, soybean (plant/seed of sp. Glycine max) um2 n spinach (plant/leaves of sp. Spinacia oleracea) blai2 n squash, melon (plant/fruit of genus Cucurbita grown for edible fruit) uang2 n sunflower (plant/bloom of sp. Helianthus annuus) fuang2 n tea (plant/leaves of sp. Camellia sinensis) blim2 n tobacco (plant/leaves of sp. Nicotiana tabacum) ieg2 n tomato (plant/berry of genus Lycopersicon) klian2 n wheat (plant/seed of sp. Triticum aestivum) to2 n bush, shrub huo2 n garden dza n grain(s), cereal crop(s) and their seed(s) de2 v harvest, reap en3 n life (philosophical, daily living) ziug n life (biological) meb n plant (a vegetable life-form) koid2 n tree bleig2 n bay (small body of water offset from lake or sea) nui2 n beach, shore po2 n cave tluing2 n cliff txuam2 n cloud sid2 n desert kliap2 n earth (terra firma contrasted with sea and heaven) hiud2 n earthquake blu2 n eclipse et2 n field (unbroken expanse of land) id2 n flood, deluge ed2 n fog la2 n forest tluip2 n hail iang2 n hill (smaller than a mountain) maug2 n island liek2 n lake dloik2 n land pek2 n lightning iet2 n moon (natural satellite of a planet) pueb2 n mountain uk2 n nature (that which occurs spontaneously; the non-artificial world) vau2 n planet ziom2 n rain sui2 n rainbow jong2 n river faig2 n sea, ocean duam2 n sky bluo2 n snow lid2 n star haib2 n storm da2 n sun dued2 n swamp, marsh gie2 n thunder mian2 n tide tliom2 n tornado puog2 n universe, cosmos tsui2 n valley vlio2 n volcano vlua2 n weather ngab2 n wind aud2 n world aib2 n arrow (sharp-tipped shaft shot from a bow) fai2 n axe tled2 n balloon ziut2 n bar, rod ep2 n barrel, cask puek2 n basket ziuk2 n bed glei2 n bell buod2 n blade glua2 n blanket (large piece of soft material used as a cover) iom2 n board veid2 n bomb fluib2 n bottle dzoit2 n bow (for arrows) dluig2 n bowl (deep round dish) jai2 n box (rigid rectangular receptacle) fluin2 n brake hoi2 n brick (hard clay block) tlud2 n broom djon2 n brush vlau2 n bucket, pail gue2 n bullet gai2 n button (on a shirt etc.) tsieng2 n cage niob2 n can (presealed metal container) {British: tin} flui2 n candle ait2 n cannon uek2 n chain (connected series of rings or links) kob2 n chair (furniture for one person to sit on) pui2 n cigarette pluo2 n clock iung2 n club, cudgel txau2 n coin fab2 n comb dzuik2 n computer (electronic instruction-obeying information-handler) uid2 n container ek2 n cord, cable (thicker than wire) duog2 n cover (thing put onto or extended over something else) klaum2 n cup (small bowl with handle) ngue2 n curtain sue2 n dial (circle marked with numbers/symbols) fio2 n dish (any shallow concave container) niog2 n doll, effigy klied2 n dome (anything shaped like an upside-down bowl) nguo2 n drain (device that removes unwanted liquid) vi2 n drill ngiap2 n drum (hollow musical instrument beaten with sticks or hands) klio2 n envelope (folded paper covering a letter) txie2 n fan (device to create air current) flueg2 n fence (outdoor barrier supported by posts) niab2 n file (tool for abrading) sei2 n flag, banner fiod2 n fork (instrument with >=2 prongs for picking up something) gli2 n frame (structure supporting or surrounding something) hoik2 n furniture xiet2 n gear (toothed wheel) pab2 n guitar (stringed instrument played with the fingers) bliem2 n gun (ballistic weapon) xio2 n hammer oit2 n handle (part of tool by which it is held) fiung2 n hinge tlui2 n hook fip2 n horn (makes noise when blown) dzuok2 n hourglass djua2 n jar, jug (big wide-mouthed bottle) oib2 n key (metal device for operating lock) kia2 n knife djui2 n knob lu2 n ladder uom2 n lamp auk2 n lens koi2 n lever ieb2 n lock (device for securing doors) bok2 n machine (device with moving parts) ngoib2 n match (little fire-stick) txub2 n microscope tua2 n mirror tlai2 n motor, engine fuag2 n nail (pointy fastener) juk2 n needle zaug2 n net van2 n oven txoik2 n package, packet, parcel glip2 n paddle, oar (stick with broad end) veb2 n pan (broad shallow cooking dish) ngo2 n patch (a piece used to cover/repair a flaw) aug2 n pedal eik2 n pen (writing tool that uses ink) zue2 n pencil, crayon (writing tool that uses semi-solid substance) dab2 n piano plua2 n pillow, cushion vui2 n pipe (a hard tube for transporting liquid) kui2 n plate (shallow dish, usually round) jeim2 n plow (plough) daung2 n pocket kut2 n pole, stick (long bar) klui2 n post (vertical pole anchored in ground) xut2 n pot (deep round vessel) gla2 n pulley vat2 n pump vloi2 n rack (framework of bars for storage) pied2 n radio apparatus, wireless set ing2 n rail (usually horizontal bar for restraining/supporting things) djaub2 n rake ngau2 n razor tlod2 n rope flie2 n rug, mat nuab2 n sack, bag hok2 n sail maip2 n saw (tool) vlo2 n scale (device to measure weight) kam2 n scissors vlei2 n screen, mesh ngai2 n screw (threaded fastener) kluot2 n sign (board with public notice written on it) vlung2 n shelf xuim2 n shield (a protective implement) feik2 n shovel uak2 n spear, lance mei2 n sponge (real/synthetic corpse of animal of phylum Porifera) plik2 n spool, reel (cylinder onto which something is wound) txuit2 n spoon vliu2 n spring (metal helix) blom2 n staple (fastener) ium2 n strap bie2 n string (thicker than thread and thinner than rope) dziup2 n stylus ming2 n sword xau2 n syringe pla2 n table (piece of furniture with flat top) dluam2 n telephone eing2 n telescope aut2 n television set iod2 n toilet, water closet op2 n tool, utensil, implement jie2 n tongs am2 n towel plam2 n toy, plaything lap2 n trap pait2 n tray (shallow rectangular dish) tep2 n umbrella pluim2 n valve (flow-controller) xieb2 n weapon vluok2 n wheel dloi2 n wire (long thread-like piece of metal) zuop2 n wrench {British: spanner} tsut2 n apron on2 n belt juo2 n coat (heavy outer garment with sleeves) pliok2 n collar vuag2 n eyeglasses boing2 n garment (item of clothing) iun2 n glove nuo2 n harness hue2 n hat, cap uet2 n helmet nad2 n jacket (a short and/or lightweight coat) tuk2 n necktie kliek2 n pants, trousers ngik2 n shirt xin2 n shorts, trunks (trousers extending no lower than knees) suang2 n shoe uok2 n skirt, kilt, dress (any torso-garment open at the bottom) iog2 n sock, hose, stocking huep2 n uniform (special garments worn by members of a group) nue2 n veil tie2 n building, edifice (structure with walls and roof) fluong2 n attic, garret jeit2 n ceiling mit2 n cellar, basement siu2 n chimney suim2 n door gued2 n elevator {British: lift} blaug2 n fireplace, hearth tlau2 n floor (bottom of room) xen2 n hall nguim2 n roof ti2 n room, chamber fia2 n stair(s) zuog2 n throne djuak2 n wall duang2 n window si2 n church (building or institution of public worship) feim2 n factory uep2 n hospital bain2 n hotel, inn dlueg2 n house (a free-standing man-made dwelling-building) kli2 n library keig2 n mill (place where raw materials are processed) pluom2 n prison, jail tlei2 n school tun2 n store, shop, boutique lie2 n tavern, bar, pub va2 n theater ung2 n university puim2 n bridge ig2 n farm txuod2 n park (public outdoor area) zau2 n market (place where goods are bought/sold/traded) siun2 n tower txaip2 n agency, bureau aig2 n army vueng2 n authority (the right/power to command) dzap2 n campaign (for political office) zuing2 n constitution (charter of an organization) bab2 v control jeb3 n court (of law) bluit2 n crime pliong2 v elect (select by voting) dzug2 aj free (at liberty) dloing5 n government flio2 aj independent dzai5 aj international fluip5 n jury loing2 n law (a rule enforced by a government) miob2 aj military heg5 n nation, state (political entity) piok2 v obey geg3 aj official (issued with authority) gu5 v organize (bring X's together to perform a task) blei3 n parliament, congress (legislative body of elected officers) poing2 n party (political), sect (religious) viong2 v permit, allow, let djei3 n police (organization to enforce laws) tsei2 n politics vliab2 v prohibit, forbid, contra-permit meit3 n province (of Canada etc.), prefecture, state (of USA etc.) tliuk2 v resign zoi3 n rule, regulation tsaib2 n submission, surrender tlio2 n tax vluot2 n trial (in court) fub2 v unite klu3 v vote iuk3 n war kliab2 v accept (willingly receive) fie3 n account (record of money received/paid/owed) flia2 n bank (monetary institution) huen2 n bill, invoice (statement of money owed) txaum2 v borrow bid3 n business, commerce djiot2 v buy, purchase plap3 aj cheap, inexpensive xet5 n check (written order directing a bank to pay from an account) floib2 n company (a business organization), firm tliop2 n contract (agreement-document) juim2 n credit (permission to borrow money) kua2 n debt, obligation to pay miu2 v exchange, trade, swap ngei3 aj expensive, costly iug5 aj frugal, thrifty txaup5 aj generous, charitable dje5 vt get, acquire, gain, obtain gied3 v give djab3 n insurance (protective contractual arrangement) xaib2 v invest xiug3 n job, employment dloim2 v keep, retain, go on having (e.g. "you should keep this book") bliod3 v lack (be without) fu3 v lend xui3 vt lose (cease having; contra-acquire) dzie3 n merchandise, goods, wares dliu2 n money tau2 v offer (present for acceptance or rejection) vloib3 v own (possess according to law or custom) uap3 v pay vlaut3 aj poor, impoverished pi5 n price, cost txap2 aj private (contra-public) txo5 n prize, award liut2 n profit, gain tiom2 v provide, supply, furnish tle3 aj public (available to most or all persons) kluo5 v punish tlia3 v receive vliap3 v reject, refuse (contra-accept) lon3 n responsibility, liability, accountability dluad2 v reward deim3 aj rich, wealthy klud5 v sell plue3 v steal (take in a criminal way) bliam3 n store, cache, reserve, reservoir gong2 v take (in the sense of E-o "preni", G "nehmen", Sp "tomar") ziup3 n ticket, coupon txien2 n value (the quality of being useful and/or desirable), worth fiu2 n angel, fairy (supernatural flying humanoid) fei2 v bless (wish good upon) gliut3 v curse, damn (wish evil upon) dlat3 n ghost (manifestation of dead person's soul) oig2 n god, diety piot2 n heaven, celestial realm, Valhala etc. tliun2 n hell, Hades bliu2 aj holy, sacred uim5 n magic, sorcery dzeit2 v pray (communicate with god(s)) puok3 n priest, clergyman dzei2 n religion kliop2 n revelation, mystical vision djag2 n ritual, rite, ceremony txa2 n soul, spirit (believed to outlive the body) xu2 v admire ngain3 aj alert djuang5 aj angry txei5 v approve (of) lied3 n art (creative craft; productive use of talent) xam2 n attention (active perception) heng2 n behavior, conduct tuam2 v believe (accept as true) xia3 v blame vluip3 aj boring, tedious txu5 v calculate, reckon biang3 n care, concern (about someone / something) dlui2 n caution, prudence, carefulness bi2 v celebrate, rejoice bop3 v choose, pick (out), select one of many possibilities guag3 n comfort (freedom from pain and/or worry) glio2 v compare zub3 v consider nuob3 aj conscious, aware biu5 n courage, bravery bluok2 aj dear, precious, cherished blaib5 v decide hai3 n disappointment vliep2 v distinguish, differentiate, tell one from another kueb3 n destiny kluong2 v doubt dle3 n dream txi2 n embarrassment glueg2 n enthusiasm, zeal txeid2 n eternity zeg2 v expect, anticipate (believe that X will come/happen) hauk3 v experience (consciously live through an event) nai3 v favor, prefer lio3 v fear (be afraid of) ziub3 v feel (experience an emotion/sentiment) dlig3 aj foolish dluo5 v forget (contra-remember) ge3 v forgive, pardon gei3 aj foreign dzik5 aj funny, comical jiub5 aj grateful, thankful ued5 aj greedy txaing5 v guard, monitor, watch over zeit3 v guess, conjecture pio3 v guide, lead dlap3 aj guilty, blame-worthy tue5 n habit, custom, routine practice oin2 aj happy bong5 v hate tuo3 v hope bien3 aj humble, modest bieg5 n idea, concept (thought-bundle) hub2 v imagine hod3 aj important vio5 aj innocent, contra-guilty jaib5 aj insane, crazy, mad vlog5 aj intelligent vliog5 v intend, mean to, do deliberately, have as a purpose lieg3 n interest (desire to pay attention to something), fascination xeing2 v invent (plan something which has never been made before) kiob3 n jealousy, envy mu2 v judge (compare something to criteria), form an opinion about tlua3 v know guk3 n knowledge aun2 v learn bli3 v like, enjoy (derive pleasure from) niu3 n logic (formalized process of reasoning) klin2 aj lonely (feeling undesirable solitude) plui5 v love glie3 aj loyal ploid5 n mercy tliap2 n mind siab2 n mystery ug2 n neglect, negligence, apathy siong2 aj nice, kind, affable bit5 v notice, observe dloid3 n opinion duek2 n patience uib2 n peace (freedom from fighting or turmoil) fuek2 v perceive, detect xoi3 v pity, feel compassion toward, feel sorry for tio3 n plan, design oip2 n play (performed by actors on stage), drama un2 v pretend, act, feign sia3 n pride (proudness; self-respect) ag2 n reason, explanation, justification, rationale nei2 n reasoning, rational thought bu2 v recognize xud3 v regret sua3 v remember djau3 v respect, venerate, esteem txai3 n revenge, vengeance, retribution, getting even mui2 aj sad, unhappy, melancholy lau5 n satisfaction djap2 v seek, search (for), look for nuok3 v seem, appear to be, give the impression of loin3 aj serious, earnest, grave gin5 n shame mueg2 v study vliang3 aj stupid tli5 n subject, topic of discussion bait2 v suppose, presume gluo3 v surprise, startle tliung3 n talent, skill, knack uon2 v teach djaing3 v tempt soi3 n theory tloim2 v think huim3 v trust bia3 v understand, comprehend dzot3 v want, wish, desire vlie3 n whim, caprice dziu2 aj wise nguom5 n worry, anxiety puep2 n address (postal co-ordinates) klaim2 v admit, confess di3 n advertisement tuag2 n advice vlia2 n alphabet djiug2 v announce, proclaim jio3 n answer, reply to a question or argument miop2 n article, essay (piece of text about one topic) dlub2 v ask, inquire blaud3 n book tseg2 v call, summon tla3 n chapter (main division of book) piat2 n chart, diagram lai2 n claim, assertion (statement of unknown accuracy) fok2 n code (cryptographic system) hiot2 n command, order, directive pue2 n communication (exchange of information) dliob2 n consonant (non-vowel) tsia2 v criticize dzieg3 v deny (say that X is not true) zoip3 v describe fliud3 n dictionary duo2 v discuss, talk about peim3 n document boi2 v emphasize, accentuate, stress zia3 n fact (undisputed datum) toik2 n fiction iok2 n file (dossier; loose bundle of data) jue2 n grammar (rules and structure of a language) tlie2 n history (organized account of past events), chronicle seng2 v indicate hien3 n information baud2 n insult siak2 v invite bau3 n issue, edition (of periodical etc.) zie2 n label mue2 n language (the verbal communication technique of a people) plak2 n letter (a message written and mailed) suo2 v lie (utter a known falsehood) kie3 n list zong2 n magazine (periodical publication) due2 v mail (transmit postally) xing3 n map (drawing of planet's surface) gaut2 n meaning (semantic content of a word) pluid2 n message (batch of transmitted information) fi2 n movie, motion picture pen2 n name dlek2 n news, tidings deid2 n newspaper zaup2 n noise (confused/randomized sound/stimuli) klap2 n note, annotation jaig2 aj opposite blot5 n page (one side of a sheet of paper in a book) fuad2 n photograph fiok2 n poem ngi2 v praise, compliment, laud dlio3 v print (to copy marks by pressing inked objects on paper) vlue3 n promise (a claim about one's future actions), pledge ngoin2 n protest, objection bui2 n question, query tluo2 v quote, cite dak3 v read feing3 n record (a cache of information) tsu2 v request, ask for tsom3 v say, tell, express in words gep3 aj secret ngam5 n sentence (of words) aip2 v sing klie3 v speak, talk dlaim3 n story, report tsiug2 v suggest, propose (offer an idea) naut3 n syllable flei2 n symbol, sign, token dziet2 v thank (express gratitude toward) faik3 av unquotingly jak4 n vocabulary (sum of words available to a person/people) blak2 n voice kue2 n vowel fuen2 v warn kle3 n word uig2 v write piob3 n game (a rule-governed system of competitive amusement) tia2 n game, match (one particular encounter between competitors) dlei2 n athletics (games involving physical skill), sports kloin2 n score (the tally of points in a competition) hu2 n umpire, referee, official bluod2 n ball (spheroidal plaything) flep2 n bat, stick, racket/racquet (any ball-hitting tool) pluang2 n ski dlu2 n baseball vei2 n basketball uik2 n football (association f~), soccer floi2 n football (American/tackle f~) kleit2 n gymnastics klau2 n hockey beit2 n pool, billiards vaut2 n tennis bet2 n chess djio2 v play, recreate, frolic puib3 aj same, identical neik5 aj similar maik5 aj different seit5 aj/pn other, another miuk5, miuk2 v change (become/make different), vary gliu3 v imitate, mimic ain3 aj original, non-imitative tlam5 n prototype, exemplar, archetype, model (for all Xs) gait2 n copy (a duplicate) tiu2 num zero ga5 num one xua5 num two plaig5 num three gliag5 num four bliut5 num five dzig5 num six nuin5 num seven gi5 num eight klub5 num nine moi5 num ten txod5 num hundred plau5 num thousand pliak5 num million (10^6) nau5 num billion (10^9) buim5 num trillion (10^12) vang5 num half (1/2) hum5 pt point, comma vek1 n quantity (amount / number / magnitude) pai2 n number, numeral (a word or symbol indicating quantity) ngiet2 v count, enumerate bleg3 v measure dzep3 n ratio, rate, proportion lain2 v add, append, join so as to cause an increase muk3 v remove, subtract, take away, delete xeg3 v increase (become or make greater in quantity) txaig3 v decrease (become or make lesser in quantity) vuo3 v multiply liap3 v divide vliub3 n total, sum, aggregate muag2 n rest (of ...), remainder, leftovers, remnant kloi2 aj whole, entire, complete nia5 aj all (the whole number or entire sum of) dzied5 aj many (a large number of) gain5 aj few (a small number of) mua5 aj several giu5 aj some (indefinite) puk5 aj much (a large quantity of) goi5 aj more (a larger quantity of) zi5 aj most (the largest quantity of) vle5 aj little (a small quantity of) ziot5 aj less (a smaller quantity of) klion5 aj least (the smallest quantity of) dja5 n part vla2 n piece (a part broken/cut/separated from something larger) vuen2 n section, segment (a part somehow different/separated from others) meig2 n allocation, allotment, portion (someone's share of X) tluam2 n group nian2 n batch (quantity of things done/produced at one time) mio2 n bundle, bunch (group of things tied or grouped together) xuk2 n majority floid2 n minority gliup2 n density plib2 aj dense (of much density), concentrated, thick, intense klaup5 aj rarefied, tenuous, diffuse, dilute, sparse, wispy klo5 aj full, filled fuo5 aj empty vlied5 n degree (the extent/intensity/scope of an action/condition/relation) leb2 av at least, not less than (>=) dzam4 av at most, only, just, merely, not more than (<=) maid4 av much, very (to a large degree; with great intensity) blueng4 av more (to a larger degree) jeig4 av most (to the largest degree) ein4 av little (to a small degree; with almost no intensity) kuad4 av less (to a smaller degree) son4 av least (to the smallest degree) ngio4 av enough, sufficiently flap4 av almost, nearly poi4 av too much, excessively ku4 av too little, insufficiently jiag4 n size (degree of largeness or smallness) niuk2 aj huge, enormous, gigantic fli5 aj big, large (of much size) glu5 aj small (of little size) txoip5 aj tiny, minuscule gui5 v expand, grow voip3 v shrink, contract kub3 n distance (amount of space from X to Y) fiek2 aj/av far (at / to a great distance) pang5, pang4 aj/av near (at / to a little distance) be5, be4 aj present (existing in the indicated place; contra-absent) bap5 aj absent gluak5 n place, location kai2 n length (distance from one end to the other) pa2 aj long (of much length) bib5 aj short (of little length) gaik5 n width (degree of wideness or narrowness) kio2 aj wide, broad (of space between objects) nen5 aj narrow, of little width (of space between objects) dzaig5 n thickness (of a solid object, etc.) eb2 aj thick, fat (large from one surface to the opposite surface) huan5 aj thin, slender (small from one surface to the opposite surface) glied5 n height (distance from ground / baseline to top) tsoi2 aj high, tall (of much height) ngaig5 aj low, short (not tall; of little height) mup5 n depth (distance from ground / baseline down to bottom) xue2 aj deep, profound (of much depth) med5 aj shallow (of little depth) xub5 aj horizontal lue5 aj vertical naim5 aj diagonal, slanted fle5 aj sloped, inclined/declined (not horizontal) zuom5 n angle (the relation of two lines radiating from a point) mop2 n position (location relative to others) aid2 n region, area (a quantity of space within boundaries) kluak2 n space, room, void kaid2 n connection, joint, junction djiub2 n environment, surroundings, context txiap2 n front plup2 n rear, back part of hua2 n side, flank, lateral area hiod2 n middle, center tsuit2 n top, peak, summit xo2 n bottom veit2 n edge xuen2 aj inner, internal, interior suam5 aj outer, exterior, external fliu5 n limit, boundary klon2 v find (discover the location of) tliat3 v misplace (lose; become unable to find) din3 n direction (orientation of motion) miok2 av up pliuk4 av down tleit4 n north hi2 n south gip2 n east biat2 n west ngui2 aj right(-hand) geim5 aj left(-hand) plep5 av away (from this or that place) djaud4 av back (to previous place / condition) vaup4 aj inverted, upside-down jei5 av backward (in reverse order) je4 aj direct, immediate (with no intermediaries or obstacles) xid5 aj serpentine, meandering, convoluted kluib5 n city vlip2 n village puong2 n rural area, countryside klai2 n source, origin tlin2 n route, path, course feid2 n destination tsiu2 v aim (to point/direct X toward Y) bluik3 v attract jiud3 v avoid, evade, keep away from plio3 n barrier, obstacle vuap2 n base, node, station (point from which things go or are done) ngum2 v bring (cause something to come along with one toward a place) djai3 v capture, seize noit3 v carry (move while supporting) bloig3 v come, arrive (at indicated place) biab3 v drift, wander bliad3 v drive, impel, propel tsaut3 v emit (to send out any form of matter/energy in any manner) ngieb3 v enter, go into zui3 v escape, flee from kuak3 v fly (move through the air) zio3 av forward, ahead dzuak4 v gather, collect (bring or come together) flaung3 v go (move from starting point to elsewhere) nguig3 n journey, trip, voyage nguot2 v leave, depart, go away from blau3 n load, burden flua2 v meet, encounter, come across fuem3 v miss, fail to hit/reach/see etc. niek3 v move (engage in motion / cause to engage in motion) plek3 v put, place, translocate xuep3 v reach, extend as far as tlaud3 v release (quit keeping/restraining) flau3 v remain, stay giok3 v repel se3 v restrain, inhibit, hold back glau3 v retrieve, fetch (go to X and bring it back) jiu3 v return (go or send back to previous place/condition) juon3 v ride (sit/perch in/on a vehicle/horse/etc. and travel) le3 v roll (move like a ball/cylinder by turning over and over) txuan3 v send, dispatch, transmit djaun3 v slide, slip, glide juan3 v stretch, extend plo3 v turn, divert (send in a different direction) not3 v turn, rotate, revolve lep3 v visit xa3 n airplane, aircraft puom2 n bicycle glad2 n boat tei2 n bus tse2 n canal, channel, ditch zaung2 n car, automobile (wheeled motor vehicle) plain2 n cart, carriage, wagon (wheeled vehicle; not self-propelled) guad2 n motorcycle soing2 n port gliat2 n railroad dlai2 n road djo2 n rocket iak2 n ship gleip2 n street tlauk2 n train (of railroad) txein2 n truck {British: lorry} (motor vehicle for cargo-carrying) tien2 n vehicle liod2 n age (degree of oldness / youngness) plug2 aj young (of little age; having existed/lived for a brief time) sa5 aj old (of much age; having existed/lived for a long time) saim5 aj new, novel, recent (having been known for a brief time) heit5 aj old (of long standing; having been known for a long time) faub5 aj permanent, perpetual huong5 aj constant, invariant, stable he5 aj temporary, transient lueng5 n interval (quantity of time between events X and Y) buin2 aj irregular, sporadic, intermittent txiut5 aj regular, periodic (at uniform intervals) djip5 n rhythm xuot2 n time (e.g. "do it 3 times"), occasion, instance, iteration tsum2 av again, once more, re- muem4 v alternate, take turns (do X then Y then X then Y) teip3 n cycle (one complete performance of a periodic process) miug2 n frequency (degree of oftenness or seldomness) giud2 av frequently, often giud4 av seldom, rarely guen4 n duration (amount of time consumed) ngieg2 aj long (of much duration) fleig5 aj short, brief (of little duration) gliom5 aj gradual blio5 aj sudden, abrupt tuen5 v begin, commence, start vluop3 v continue, keep on doing/being xie3 v pause, hesitate, suspend action temporarily siod3 v end, conclude, finish tain3 v cease, stop doing, quit pau3 v delay, retard, tarry, postpone huem3 v rush, hurry, hasten ngiab3 n period, era, epoch sek2 n moment, an instant ne2 av always (at all times) ngia4 av ever (at any time) tai4 av never pieb n time (the dimension/continuum of past-present-future) xaung2 n past (the p~), earlier time fuing2 n present (the present time; the now) xung2 n future (the f~) blieng2 av already (prior to the time mentioned) niun4 av still, yet (even until the time mentioned) dzim4 av yesterday flu4 av today viek4 av tomorrow ploi4 av long ago (in the far past) vai4 av recently (in the near past) pluek4 av now (at this time) vlop4 av soon (in the near future) vueg4 av eventually (in the far future) djiep4 aj/av early, premature flue5, flue4 av/aj timely, prompt, on time ngob4, ngob5 aj/av late, tardy zup n speed, velocity (degree of fastness or slowness) blap2 av quickly, rapidly, swiftly (with much speed) gluong4 av slowly (with little speed) djuap4 n series (a number of similar things following one another) dleig2 n sequence, order (temporal arrangement of events in a series) mun2 aj last, final (after all others) ble5 aj prior, preceding, previous, contra-next pliut5 aj next (coming immediately after; "tomorrow" = the next day) djop5 n season viom2 n spring (the season) diup2 n summer vlek2 n autumn, fall boip2 n winter na2 n century nuen2 n year men2 n month voi2 n week feb2 n weekday txua2 n day (24-hour period) mong2 n date (coordinates of a day given in some timekeeping system) li2 n day (daytime -- as opposed to night), diurnal period tloi2 n night juong2 n morning (dawn to noon) txui2 n noon kug2 n afternoon (noon to dusk) vu2 n evening (dusk to midnight) mi2 n midnight tsap2 n graveyard shift, middle of the night (midnight to dawn) bing2 n hour (60 minutes) jien2 n minute (60 seconds) paing2 n second (1/60th of a minute) koing2 n holiday txuep2 n sabbath (day of week with religious significance) vlui2 v wait (for), await ji3 n air sang2 n alcohol huot2 n ash djuob2 n brass (copper-zinc alloy) biem2 n carbon dziob2 n chalk vua2 n chemical (substance made by or used in chemistry) pin2 n clay luk2 n cloth, fabric (material made of threads) vuop2 n coal fa2 n copper djiu2 n dirt, earth (tangible), soil fleb2 n dust tliob2 n element (substance of irreducible simplicity) go2 n fat (oily/greasy material from animal adipose tissue or plant seeds) dlauk2 n fuel gliob2 n glass xe2 n gold (the precious metal) dziep2 n ice tsun2 n ink kiop2 n iron ngeing2 n jade (the tough green gemstone) fuit2 n jewel, gem tsion2 n lead (the metal) lion2 n leather (prepared hide) laib2 n medicine (substance that makes one healthy) taud2 n metal noi2 n mineral, ore klik2 n mud txum2 n neon diong2 n nitrogen biug2 n oil (a combustible fatty liquid that will not mix with water) tlaib2 n oil (crude oil), petroleum txeg2 n oxygen kliu2 n paint txuong2 n paper glid2 n plastic (synthetic/processed moldable material) ngiob2 n poison, toxin dim2 n potassium dzeip2 n quartz kla2 n rock, stone vleid2 n rubber lim2 n salt plia2 n sand luod2 n silk djong2 n silver (the metal) hiet2 n soap heik2 n sodium lui2 n steam poip2 n steel dob2 n sulfur dlam2 n tar (dark viscous liquid obtained by destructive distillation) djud2 n tin (the metal) klue2 n water pieg2 n wax dji2 n wood (the substance) flen2 n wool biad2 n beer heip2 aj bitter mum5 n bread tsio2 n butter vliet2 n cheese muo2 n chocolate ma2 n flavor, taste glaub2 n flour (grain-powder) diat2 n food ban2 n honey tiud2 n milk blui2 n pasta, noodles pie2 n pizza min2 n salad nguok2 n sandwich ngiub2 n sausage klep2 n soup txep2 aj sour dlait5 n spice, seasoning klua2 n sugar som2 aj sweet juing5 n vinegar txaid2 n wine zuob2 n arch viab2 n band, tape, flat strip dok2 n block (solid flat-surfaced mass of material) dlud2 n branch (small part going out from main part) pluk2 n bump, protrusion ba2 n card (stiff rectangle of material) zuo2 n circle jain2 n coil kom2 n cone muom2 n crack, fissure giob2 n cross (perpendicular intersection of linear items) klop2 n crystal xaud2 n cube mom2 n curve hed2 n cylinder muod2 n dent, nick, indentation seing2 n disk, disc laun2 n drop (of liquid) job2 n film (very thin layer) plueng2 aj flared (opening up or spreading out from axis) zued5 n foam, froth hoig2 n form, shape liab2 n furrow, rut, groove sie2 n garbage, trash, rubbish djien2 n gas nuom2 n helix (any corkscrew-shaped object) dueg2 n hole bluek2 n jelly (gelatinous semi-solid material), gel vub2 n juice (fluid extracted from something) nguon2 n layer plie2 n line (series of contiguous points) hiog2 n liquid tluad2 n loop, circuit, closed curve giong2 n lump, clod, blob, piece of no particular shape ded2 n mark (visible traces left behind) duong2 n matter, material, substance pli2 n object (concrete tangible thing) baing2 n opening, orifice fliem2 n oval, ellipse via2 aj parallel tsa5 n paste (any thick soft dough-like material) sai2 n pattern (apparent systematic interrelationship) tliu2 n pile, heap, stack of things or of a substance flaun2 n plane (flat surface) xiam2 n plug, seal, stopper blie2 n powder buek2 n pyramid geib2 n ray paung2 n rectangle pliom2 n ring, torus gio2 n rust, corrosion baub2 n scratch beig2 n sheath gleb2 n sheet (thin rectangle of paper/cloth/etc.) fo2 n shower, sprinkle glueb2 n smoke blia2 n solid (not a gas or liquid) dzaip2 n sphere luen2 n spike, barb, cleat, thorn xaun2 n spiral, whorl miad2 n square txion2 n stripe txib2 n surface maig2 n swelling, inflation jaik2 aj tapered (becoming narrower toward an end) loi5 n thread, filament hiem2 n triangle kling2 n wave guep2 n wedge xi2 n wrinkle, crease vluag2 aj flat, planar txiu5 aj level, even (on the same level) lek5 aj smooth sum5 aj rough, coarse, contra-smooth tseing5 aj straight (not bent) djion5 aj bent dai5 aj pure, unadulterated, uncontaminated blan5 aj clean tsuip5 aj dirty, contra-clean suot5 aj open (not shut) bluen5 aj closed, shut vluin5 aj wet viug5 aj dry xuad5 aj sharp, keen, pointy, acute dzoin5 aj dull, blunt (of little sharpness) xuat5 aj soft, malleable, yielding to pressure noid5 aj hard, firm, resistant to pressure tuab5 aj flexible (easily able to bend) tut5 aj stiff, rigid buig5 aj elastic (able to regain shape/size after deformation) bueng5 aj durable, resilient, robust, strong (in this sense) dzia5 aj fragile, delicate txag5 n weight (degree of heaviness or lightness) bliang2 aj heavy (of much weight) plai5 aj light (of little weight) djum5 aj solid (contra-hollow) naib5 aj hollow beg5 aj snug (just large enough to contain X), tight (in this sense) tok5 aj loose (contra-snug), baggy ngaut5 aj taut, tight, tense, strained fom5 aj loose (contra-taut), slack biop5 aj viscous, thick (of high viscosity) pob5 aj runny, thin (of little viscosity) txieng5 v absorb bloi3 v adhere (hold tightly to / stick to something) lok3 v beat (repeatedly hit), batter heib3 v blow (move/cause to move as a current of gas) dziat3 v boil gein3 v bounce, rebound nuib3 v break (into pieces) dluang3 v build (join materials to create), construct diud3 v burn tluem3 v burst blaup3 v consume, deplete, expend, exhaust, use up gluot3 v contain ziem3 v crush (press on so as to break or re-shape) xeit3 v cut dlut3 v dig gliun3 v dissolve buom3 v evaporate viat3 v explode biap3 v float baum3 v flow (travel in a current) keing3 v fold flet3 v freeze huok3 v grind gluig3 v hang, suspend, dangle blaid3 v hit, strike dzaut3 v melt dieng3 v mix, blend flian3 v pollute, contaminate vliud3 v pour (cause to flow) sak3 v preserve, maintain (keep X in good condition) dluan3 v press (do pressure to; push upon with weight or force) ngiok3 v pry {British: prize} (raise/open/move with a lever) hag3 v pull (draw something toward oneself) djain3 v push (press on something in order to move it) tsoig3 v rot, decay faid3 v rub, abrade fluik3 v sew dliup3 v shake txauk3 v shoot (cause to rapidly go forth) hei3 v sink dzoing3 v spill (accidentally emit liquid) han3 v spread (begin to cover or cause X to cover more area) tag3 v stab, jab dliog3 v stir, agitate soid3 v suck klia3 v sweep tluop3 v tear, rip vig3 v tie, bind siep3 v trim, prune (cut off ragged edges) muab3 v wash nuap3 v weave tlum3 v wrap diang3 aj acid(ic) suob5 aj alkaline tleim5 n atom zuin2 n balance, equilibrium tsiud2 n basis, foundation (part which supports the rest) gua2 n electricity xoim2 n energy dzung2 n fire plaung2 n force kauk2 n gravity du2 n magnet ngaung2 n molecule glion2 n power pua2 n smell, odor, aroma glaig2 n strength (ability to exert physical power) dlog2 n stroke, jolt, blow of force tsuan2 n vacuum ngad2 n vapor, mist mai2 n polarity (electric, magnetic, etc.) peig2 aj positive dum5 aj negative paim5 aj gentle, mild meib5 aj violent, harsh kaun5 v see fuim3 n light (visible electro-magnetic radiation) dluk2 n color heb2 n shadow, shade flon2 v shine (radiate light) jon3 n picture, image bliom2 aj bright (with much light present) pip5 aj dark, dim (with little light present) dleid5 aj black foip5 aj gray {British: grey} xat5 aj white nung5 aj red flium5 aj orange (having a hue between red and yellow) kliep5 aj yellow tliok5 aj green tlap5 aj blue tuong5 aj purple vlaid5 aj brown djuid5 aj beautiful tsuet5 aj ugly niak5 n ornament, decoration tliab2 n blemish, blot plein2 v hide, conceal lia3 v reveal, disclose ngoip3 v examine, inspect deig3 v show, exhibit, display dei3 n sound (audible waves in the air) neig2 aj silent djiem5 aj quiet, soft, faint (of little sonic intensity) kluid5 aj loud (of much sonic intensity) fian5 v hear baig3 n music txuid2 n tone, pitch (frequency of sound waves) ngaug2 v whistle djue3 n temperature (relative amount of heat present) viun2 n heat, warmth dzuan2 aj cold, chilly, frigid teib5 aj cool vlium5 aj warm seid5 aj hot dium5 v bake (cook or harden by means of dry heat) tlom3 v cook (prepare by applying heat) vlaup3 v happen, occur koib3 n accident (unintentional and unexpected event) dliuk2 n miracle hoing2 n disaster, catastrophe haip2 n act, deed blauk2 n activity, bustle, ado dzu2 n result, consequence nueg2 v agree him3 v fight, combat kieg3 v protect, defend biud3 v attack soip3 aj good puip5 aj bad fluod5 n category, classification mek2 n kind, sort, type, variety (of...) zaun2 aj certain, sure flam5 aj probable (likely to happen/be) txiom5 v cooperate, collaborate blo3 v compete, strive, vie jem3 v help, assist, aid xiun3 v interfere, hinder djuab3 v succeed mip3 v fail liep3 aj simple bluip5 aj complex dlag5 n condition, state, status pliug2 v create, make (bring into existence) tlaing3 v destroy (contra-create; cause to cease existing) jiep3 n safety, security kong2 n danger (situation in which harm is probable) dzo2 aj easy giem5 aj difficult, hard buang5 aj true tluap5 aj false, untrue taun5 aj famous dzan5 aj mortal vlueng5 aj obscure, unheard of pleng5 v injure, damage, harm gaug3 v repair, fix huing3 n flaw, defect, imperfection vuak2 aj native (naturally belonging to a given realm) tsaug5 aj chief, main, primary, principal kuip5 aj auxiliary pluig5 aj normal, ordinary, usual glui5 aj strange, weird, unusual, peculiar jet5 n trouble, difficulty daut2 aj real, actual bleing5 n trick, chicanery pluap2 aj right, correct glab5 aj wrong, incorrect dju5 v reside, dwell, live kliag3 n camp, bivouac, temporary shelter toi2 n nest, den, lair (an animal's self-made house) luag2 v represent (act as a substitute for) dlad3 n substitute, surrogate (temporary replacement) blua2 n replacement (permanent substitute/substitution) muak2 aj common, general (shared by all members of a group) tluik5 aj specific, special, particular hin5 n ability, capacity (to do something) lo2 aj artificial (deliberately made by humans) tiab5 aj automatic hiab5 n chance, randomicity, luck kluon2 n civilization glo2 aj clear, plain (easy to see/understand) mam5 n compromise tait2 v consist of, be composed of zeb3 v depend on, rely on tsem3 v deserve, merit, be worthy of vleik3 n detail haub2 aj equal jui5 aj evil daim5 aj exact, precise tuad5 n example, sample zig2 n exercise, practice (effort made to improve skills/health) dau2 n experiment tlium2 aj fertile fliang5 n harmony (pleasing combination of stimuli) vein2 aj just, fair, equitable fleik5 n match (a thing suitably associated with another) vliak2 n method, manner, way (of doing), technique teig2 aj mutual, reciprocal huop5 aj naked, nude, exposed (without the usual cover) vli5 aj necessary, needed, required mut5 v need, require dziam3 aj possible (able to happen or be done) tlued5 v prevent (keep from happening) zuen3 n process, procedure tlig2 n program txaut2 n progress, advancement tsua2 n project, undertaking, venture duem2 n proof, evidence plian2 n quality, trait, attribute, characteristic kluat2 aj ready, prepared for a task / event klaug5 n relationship, association nied2 n right (a right to do/be ...) buan2 n role (an individual's function) vleip2 v save, rescue fiong3 n species vluen2 aj suitable, proper, fit(ting), appropriate dzuap5 n system xok2 n task, chore, job, assignment luong2 n technology dluet2 n tendency, propensity, inclination txob2 v try, attempt, endeavor jap3 v use, utilize tsuep3 n vogue, trend, fad, fashion tig2 v waste, misuse ngak3 aj wild, feral, untamed ting5 n work, effort, labor, toil nid2 n riot gliap2 n science txuik2 v serve (provide service to) djiuk3 n set (complete group of similar items) txuim2 n strike (work stoppage as protest) hem2 v support xong3 v test, check buak3 v torture, torment nga3 av perfective aspect  moing4 av imperfective aspect txiud4 av habitual aspect gaing4 av progressive aspect ngium4 av perfect (retrospective) aspect  glai4 av prospective aspect kuog4 av inceptive aspect kleim4 av inchoative aspect  gliep4 av cessative aspect djuek4 av pausative aspect txaung4 av resumptive aspect txung4 av punctual aspect flueb4 av durative aspect vlam4 av delimitative aspect plium4 av protractive aspect bliug4 av superperfective aspect fuik4 av iterative aspect nab4 av random aspect die4 av frequentative aspect giud4 av semelfactive aspect te4 av simulfactive aspect keng4 av experiential aspect paud4 av intentional aspect foi4 av accidental aspect fep4 av distributive aspect ging4 av alternation aspect vuam4 av generic aspect loid4 av completive aspect puop4 av intensive aspect nod4 av moderative aspect gle4 av attenuative aspect paib4 av crescendo aspect ke4 av decrescendo aspect piom4 av future utility aspect tuing4 av state-change aspect dap4 av passive voice zod4 av causative voice duob4 av reflexive voice vliok4 av reciprocative voice pik4 av past tense fliop4 av present tense neid4 av future tense dlaung4 av short time distance nguat4 av medium time distance dloip4 av long time distance zag4 av short time interval tsab4 av medium time interval hion4 av long time interval djait4 av here (in/to this place) me4 av there (at/to that place) gia4 av there yonder vaing4 av short spatial distance paig4 av medium spatial distance glud4 av long spatial distance vuing4 av short spatial interval tlok4 av medium spatial interval vlueb4 av long spatial interval zon4

Reserved words for future use[]

klaud veim dzeb zuat fleit buem vliat kluig hiub fliet txoit vain hop gleing txan piug ziok zuod deb tlu blaub song tluek txoid flieb kiab dzuag djiam kueng xaik txiot daik gian dzau tsuong ngot djia xiok tsud ngun kliup duag hiep sot biong voit neing ken tsiom floit dzieb nib pu kliut zeid pag sueg guem flud tsiop kloim dzuang mieg jab flip jeg floing dleip tsain tlad feib joip buit buot guang pug gloing tiet buen glaib lop kluip plaid kuing vluing hip vop bot fieb dleb fap vuab vaung blip jueg djuan vlod dliok kleng xai tiob luok tsiog dzuin kaum xieng sian tlait xek neib daub jieb piet tsaig haig gleit foim sing luit tlieb jiem txaug viup tso tlab dziub tsiad dzog fluig flaing djit kieng gieg sieng djaid zueg dlot jiod nuon xot tluig seig muim soib hueb faing tik glain paup lak kliak moig diob tliut vlueg djuip djig laung djet txied guid niem lum niat guing txiep tsan dluak nguop txon bloing giung vlieg vluak djoing txio nuk zaik gliet xiod dziap kloip tuok seim vib zid toim goik djuig vaud vuib foig sap dliag dla no diam niang xueb huag hian klei guok zeng vloik vluk txaub pion ngod sun tsuok kluam djied mieb tlit dzuot txeng fluim vab fliup nub dzuek plaib gleng mued suan flag foit plauk had vlang guap huang klued sat dog jam xaum pim nuat diep blod pe faim peib guit gleik fliep jaum xuob glub kuat hek pluab liu muig vlub nem dziek muin djiok saug xiag haug dzi dzet toib biuk nup pong ngoim goip jaun tsiuk djen niut dzok xiut djun dliud jiap vliek hon djug txad tlieg ni xuod dliap glut gon zuep ngoid puat nat dliad klaik vlap djub gluok ket kaib nig djuod kaug sog viak died xuog gloi tsig fling djek hueg fug ngait dlaib tlop sio pian djid piong blam giup fauk vlian dzong hoib biam nap hio tleing miag guin buab noig pluet dong dziab tsuat niap sait bued tlien vlem djuom vlon vlup sion djiod hud djaut ploin deng plid flaig zoib dzuog juam dluab dlied vog pain joing tluom piab lik bleik piuk tom juob kiang tlue dluok hom pum suom jein djiud viub gaud dzib nguag luog vliung nguit tluet viag hiat piut vlin djuop vuek pluing djep kloid tsaup gum plin txuig ngiung huat blued vaun fut dzueng lod bliup naud kuan zain pod vuad guab pluok gieng luip tiok dam keib liong veing fliak siud foib siap tsaub meip plem dloin fet gluid taib pop kion ning luak gluem flung gloid klieb nging sud gug muid tloip nium dzon txoing daug lig tsaun faib vloin tuet kiut dliang dlab jiob dluag giet flim siog klueb vieb suad tsiem suok dzaung liang klit dliet miod pluan tseig giun tsoip djuok vlom pluod hup dzaing xit tlik zit puem fiem nuod vloing tsek xiuk kuon tlob vlak juep txen tlep blem geid tsein vot klan tap miak dzuob ngub lob xeib jium tuot jaip txoin siad let jueb jaup vuim luig tliug ju lad tsuem fluek tieng txueng bak veik puan bluem tlian zoik gaip bluib bleng ngian pap xem jaud flig glein siob kliam buo vuet tauk vaum dlon vlieb haid djuin sieg buob plait piang plong vlaun dlob boig fuob fop dzion ziab tued flaip luem keim vuod vleing nop huab naug muam tsod tiot zaim sueb gud vieng gliuk feip fuk boid tsaim zuot hiob deing nob glen dlid nguod vlaim ngag long muap gluen kuk tlaig ploing txok hoin bloin viok ko fien xiap pluik dliem fuig kluap hied pluip pliup nik tieb tim gluap kleip puin fag ngiag lub bloik tuin blium pun tuik tluag blueg bung dain bliung vung dlug dait tsiung kei zep blaing xiep tsiong kad deib naung bliag nguk lued kuem got tiak tluat leik jag sim xim klang djog jom djeng toit flued glued dloib duim plaub biung jug bliet kuot hiup dlem zeig dlau lom ngeb xak hiang sik vliom djiat leg led fueb bliot hiut xaip muang bang blen meim xiang vip piung tsoik bied vap txing vluap mauk kuin gluing djim tsaud puap djuik bian piap xian fliat miep jig dzeib dliot den ngaun klod veib seg lait ted siup dig djiom set peid tsoing kliob blaim von zoig xob vluam tsed ha pliot pliub vion viep beb xuib poik duk vok blion tuek sub vluek nguong dziung buop joig daum zim tuob hiung klaig xuab guet hik huon gluang dzuop djoit vluem txuem dlip loik mueb suk tlaug tsid nuang jeng tsieg flun dzun vliod guip dluong naun txuab ziop gluod viut djaung dlaup get luet duab juib bluet dluom dliat buap nuek laik gaum dang djuim naum tsiap puak glauk kluek hung dlion xeig ngeng bluab djot vlag biep bein kek vlued dzuom suek ngeig glong tuep vlok duop biub pein hoid blag fliod fem zud huit maud biak plung juot tliek dlop jiog pium doing dzen kluom txang luot vloig xein kluan tsuek mat flod tet juik txueb gliong glak pleik koip txieb txiup haik fit vik djeik dliun piub buip tuon tsot tib dlim duad kliang nguing kien djak toip ngiom huak plip voim boik haing saut giod djaim tiog txiug xiem fim luin peip pad mob liog fiep xaub txem ped gluom nuet blied toing djueng pluong dzian lup tsin txik kluit top blain gluob glap floik dzuat txueg klok ngud ngap gloik dlik vloip djiog blug liem gueng bluep viem vlong fluing glok fak liak txid gluit deik bliub leip jun gliad fuan said diem fluom niung ged dlong fieng tiap guig viud tsiam glom zuon tlaik jeing sug kik saig nuan dlod xep tluim dzaud dzaug ngiut jop giat jiek flom bluong jang tloib dib bluom put klong doib tsiob vluid tloid ploim vin kiam dzad sauk doip pluib faug klim txat ngek xiop djoim xiub dleing maup klom bleid blueb txuang fuon fuam diek san biom bluat pleib zip keip foik ling tuim fliong zang txaik dliep blep tlaid beib kiok luop vlum gag tluok kot nguan kap djiun txued nuid pleig ping flok fuet nut diap ngin glit vloid jan kluep plieg hieg tuit hug tlion zoid jip xuid vlut djiup zuam tsaing heim txuok tliep bob kluog gak soig glun fiak xuik huog jieg blaig puam mab tam taut djiong dziad huek plag seik fuib ngaik nuot kud djiang nueb zuap tsang guong tliam blat tlied muep gluin dlin pluem flan fiub tluon dzain ngut juom dziak ngiud bluak gluip gleig dlet nuong sut klium glaum fliub jo zoim guog nguem txog nit blaik gam zuid flieng vlaik jaim niam fliuk teb blop blaip daud tlaut tluang miog tlueng djein tsuom djuag gieb txiet djieng bloip tseit gup gliek djoik jieng loip plieb tsien tuib kiud duon diog vluit vlait tob kak gloib nong tset blet fum xuing kluod plaug kuib sueng paun siot vluig peg tlaip txot vaub xiab gan man glat tueg dluob naub vug dzein fiup gap vlen miong going dot xueng plod tiek dia sep zuig tlug hiuk saun dud kloik tsok dluog saing plued dzueb noin ngaup tlung gliok niud vlan lin dluik vluep paik djuit kliom blun biun ben dzem naik glian bluk nuop djing nuik kuag siat muog dziot fluid fot vuan puid dzuim dliab fau tlain duok giuk gauk vlig vup meik muat glet ziun vlaum dlup fiang diot suag vleb fluk xueg djaup bluam pluat fuog lit xaing luan laum god laug vluet hang tsoib muong buog hiop dliom geik flup jaug bliob glaut fliab klung fiop vlud faud flauk duot zeib blian nget heid txin jib tsueb zug ib vling