parts of the speech
languages and etymologies
ISVInternational Scientific Vocabulary
OEOld English
OHGOlg High German
OVOld Vorlin (1991-1993)
a.p.a priori
<derived from

common nounsEdit


asfx [adjectival; denotes ordinal when attached to a numeral]
ajsfx [denotes a concrete manifestation or a single iteration of X]
*aknfx[sudden/brief + intensive/notewothy aspect]
aksnfx [converts a transitive verb to a causative verb]
*axsfxE-o: -aĉ- < It[pejorative/humble]


babn gate (a door installed in a fence or roofless enclosure)
bacn bacterium
bacaaj bacterial{D,G,Sw}bathing (immersing X in liquid to cleanse/change it)
badovt bathe
baknumCantonesehundred [V95: hun]
*baknE: bake, G: backenbaking
*bako bake
balnE, G, D: ballball (spheroid plaything)
balonn balloon
bamn bomb (explosive weapon)
bannG: Bahn, Norsk: baneroute, course, track, way (path)
banann banana
barnG: Bart, It, Sp: barbabeard [V95: ceg]
basnD: baas, E: bosschief (boss), leader, foreman
batn west (the western area or direction)
*batnEbat (ball-hitting tool), stick (hockey), racket (tennis)
bazn base (in chemistry), alkalai
bazarnUkrainian, many othersbazaar, open outdoor market
baµnCball-hitting tool (e.g. baseball bat; hockey stick)
*bepcl [specialized usage flag, v.g.: be lanor means pitcher (in a baseball game)]
bebn the letter b/B
bekn bench (a long board-like seat for several persons)
belnIt: bellobeauty
bennSw: ben, D: beenbone carrying (supporting and transporting something)
berovt carry
besnEstation, stopping-point, node, base (in baseball)
besboln baseball (the play-system, not the spheroidal plaything)
betonn concrete (usually portland cement plus sand and gravel)
bevn.trPt: beber, E: beverageimbibing (any liquid)
bevovt drink
*bicopEbe (copula; does not mean "exist")
bidn.trOE: bidan, E: bidewaiting (for someone/something)
bidovt wait for, await
bilnSw, Norskautomobile, car
bilarnum billion (in American Eng.); milliard (British Eng.)
bimnMidE: beem board, plank, beam (piece of lumber)
birnE, G, Indobeer
bodn bottom (the lowest side or portion of something)
bogn bow (for archery/violin)
boln system of competitive athletic activity involving a ball
bomnG: Baum, D: boomtree
*bonnL: bonitasgoodness, niceness, desirability, pleasantness [nowaday: gut]
*bonaaj good
*boneav well
bornNorskdrilling, boring into something
*botnLojban: botpibotlle, flask
boteln bottle, flask
bovnE-o: bovo, E: bovinecattle, cow or bull
bucnFr: bouchemouth
bucaaj oral
bugn.trOE: buganbending something
buknSw, Norsk: bok; G: Buchbook
buln combustion, burning
bulivi burn [intransitive]
buliksovt burn (cause to burn)
bunnJ: bun, bubun; Chi: bupart, portion
burnSanskrit: purim, L: urbscity
buraaj urban
burbasn mayor
butikn store (for shopping in), shop, boutique


*cademFr: chaqueevery, each adding, addition
cagnG: Schlagblow (impact), stroke (of force), shock
cannChi: shan mountain
ceavcontraction of 'cine'now, presently
*cepcl [causee tag (used in conjunction with -ok- causatives), nowaday re]
cedn shadow
cefnFr: chefchiefness (most-important-ness), primacy
cefburn capital
cefeav primarily, mainly
*cegnNorsk: skjegg, Old Norse: skeggbeard [nowaday: bar]
ceknFrcheque (bank-draft)
celnEshell (natural hard outer covering)
cennChi: shen1-ti3body
cenaaj physical (as opposed to mental), bodily
cepn beginning, commencement, inception [intransitive]
cevnFr: chevalhorse
ciknLojban: ciknaawakeness
cikaaj awake
cikivn be awake
cikiksovt wake someone up
cikepivn wake up (become awake)
cimnJ: shimaisland
cinnChi: jin1present (the present time)
cirn circle
civnNorsk: skivedisk, disc
cucn the letter c/C
cudnD: schuddenshaking, shuddering [intransitive]
cuknOV Chi: qiu1autumn, fall (the season)
cukaaj autumnal
culnNorsk: skyld, D: schuld, Sp: culpabilitadguilt
cumn communication
cupnOVexcellence, superlative condition


da da [relative clause terminator]
dadnD: daad, G: Tatact / action, deed, feat
dagntagdaytime (dawn to dusk)
dagaaj diurnal
daknD: dak, G: Dach, Sw: takroof
dalnD: dal, G: Talvalley
dann group (several items having a unifying relationship)
*dancjChi: dan4but, however
das das [nominalized phrase terminator]
datn information, data
de prcontraction of desufrom (= desu)
debn debt
debov owe
dedn the letter d/D
deknumGk: dekaten, 10 assignment / assigning (tasks/blame)
demnGk: demospeople (a folk), public, populace
denn lightning
densonn thunder
dernTurkish: deri, E: epidermisskin
desn.trL: de, exleaving, departure from ...
deso leave (go away from), depart
desuprp from
desitn source (place from which something departs)
devn.trPt: devershould-ness (advisability of action)
devovt should, ought to
*dipn it difference (differing from, being different than)
diknD, Ice, Gthickness (dimension rather than density)
dilnTurkishtongue (does not mean "language")
*dinnG: Dingthing [nowaday: diµ]
ditnIt: ditodigit (finger/thumb/toe, does not mean "numeral")
diµnGthing (any tangible/physical object/substance)
dorn.trD: doorpermeating, going throughout X
dorov permeate (a space), last (occupy the entire time-span of ...)
doruprp throughout (permeating the entirety of ...)
dubn.trL: dubium, E: dubiousdoubting
ducnFr: douche, G: Duscheshower
dukn.trL: ducere, E: conduct, inductguidance, leading
dulpr done to (points out "patient" of verb; opposite of 'par') thinking about X, or having the thought specified as 'ke X'
dunnDthinness, slenderness
*dunnCantonese: dungeast / the East [nowaday: duµ]
dupajn copy (a copy of something) duplicate, make copies of X
durnE: endure, durationcontinuation [intransitive]
dusnumL: duo, Sp: dos, Fr: deux, E: deucetwo, 2
duskereav twice
dutnRus: dut'blowing (sending forth a current of gas) [V95 xiduto: suck]
duµn east (the eastern area/direction)


esfxOV < E-o[suffix converts noun to adverb]
*elsfx tool, implement (any kind of tool/device)
epnfx [commencative/inchoative aspect]
eses [possessive particle]
*etsfx[diminutive/attenuative aspect]
*evnfx [perfective aspect]
*ezsfx [honorific/exaltative]


facnL: facies, E: face, facialface (front of head including eyes, nose, and mouth)
*fagnISV: -phage, e.g. bacteriophageeating, ingestion eating, ingestion
faknGcompartment, pigeonhole, locker, cell (of prison), etc
faln downward motion (resulting from gravity)
falivi fall, descend
familnG: Familie, Sp: familiafamily
*fannNorsk: fange, G: fangencapture
*fanov catch (capture)
farn.trG: fahrenriding (sitting on/in X while it transports one)
farov ride (to sit in/on X and move from place to place)
fatikn physical sensation of weariness, tiredness, fatigue
fazn stage or step (in a multi-step cyclical process), phase
faµn.trGcapturing, catching
feav¿contraction of? futewill (in the future)
febernNorsk:feber, E: febrifugefever
feknE: fecalfeces, dung, manure, poop, crap, ordure
feln field (unbroken expanse / area where effect is present)
femn/pfx female
fembovn cow
femsibn sister
fennL: ventus, Chi: fengwind
fernL: ferrum, E: ferrousiron
fesnL: festivusfestivity, party (celebration)
fetnG: Fettfat, lard, blubber
ficnE fish trusting copulation, having sexual intercourse with X
filn.trE:-philialiking (deriving pleasure from), enjoyment of...
finnSp, Fr: finending, finish, conclusion[intransitive]
fioij "disregard my previous sentence; I meant to say/write:"
firnumDan: fire, G: vierfour, 4
fisnGlosa: fisicrack, fissure
fobn.trGk: phob-, E: phobiafear, being afraid of X
folnG: vollfullness, being totally filled
fomn shape, form (contours and proportions)
forprV98before (prior to), earlier than
*fornL: formoform, shape
fosnL: fossiodigging
fotn foot (on end of leg)
*fotnG: Fotophotograph
*foteln camera
fratitle Ms., Miss, Mrs.
fufn the letter f/F exiting, going out of (after being in)
fuguprpOE: fugel, Dan: fugl, E: fowlout of
fuln bird (vertebrate egg-laying animal with wings)
*funnNovial: fundebottom
futn future (that which happens after X moment), post-
futaajfuture, pending, subsequent
futeav will will (in the future), shall (will do/happen/be) [fute gives fe]
futuprp after (in the future of ...)


*gabnG: Gabelungforking, bifurcation
*gabeln fork equalling, being equivalent in value or significance to X
*galpcl [direct object tag; used when required by unusual syntax]
galovt equal (be equivalent to)
gamav to the same degree
gannBengalisong, singing
ganiv sing
gasnG, E, It: gasgas (shapeless fluid tending to expand indefinitely)
gavann harbor, port, haven
ge prChi: gei3[beneficiary / dative / indir.obj. tag]
gegn the letter g/G
gelnG: gelb, D: geel, It: gialloyellow color
gemnEgame (a rule-governed amusement)
*gennE: generate, genesiscreating / creation, making giving (causing X to have Y)
gignumISV: gigabillion (10^9)
gilnKorean: gilstreet, road
*ginnE: green, G: grünyellow color
gisn.trDguess, conjecture
gocnFr: gaucheleft-hand side or direction
gonnE: -gon in polygon, hexagon etc angle, corner
gornE, G: Gold + Sp, It: oro, Fr: orgold (the metal)
govn government
gumnCroat, Czech: guma, G: Gummirubber
gurnOV Chi: gu3grain(s), cereal crops
gutn goodness (a vague term of pleasantness or desirability)


*hacnPersian: hasht, J: hachieight, 8 [nowaday: hog]
*hagnGk: hagios, E: hagi-, hagiologysacredness, sanctity
hagaaj holy
*haknD: haak, G: Hakenhook
hajn existence creating, creation (causing X to exist)
halnE: in-/ex-hale, L: halarebreath, respiration
hann/pfx a male individual of any species [V95 vir]
hansibn brother
harnAfrikaans, Dutch, German: haarhair
hasn.trG: Hasshatred
hasovt hate, loathe
hatn.trOVpossession (legal ownership)
*hatnTurkishline, mark having, being furnished with
hecn the letter e/E
hedern ivy
hefnG: Hefeyeast
heln.trE: help, G: helfenassistance, helping
hemnum half
*hemnE: hemo-, Gk: haimo-blood
hertitle Mister, Mr., sir
hetnGk: heterosother one, another
hezn pause, hesitation (temporary suspension of action)
*hipcl less (lesser degree/smaller amount)
hibn.trL: inhibereinhibition, holding back
hibov restrain, constrain, inhibit
hibern winter (coldest season)
*hinpcl*hi<=, merely, no more than, ... and previous perception, detecting via physical sensation
hitnEheat (hotness)
hoij oh! (denotes any sudden feeling)
*hopcl more (greater degree/larger amount)
hobn cessation, stopping [intransitive]
hocn the letter o/O
hofn.trG: Hoffnunghope
hognum eight
hokn highness (as opposed to lowness), ¿height?
holnGk: holoswholeness, completeness
holen entirely
homnE-o: homoperson, human being [archaic; changed to 'jin']
hornSp: hora, E: horologyhour (1/24 of a day)
hovn firm removable protective artificial cover
*hoznHosepants, trousers, slacks
hukn squatting (body position)
hulnDan: hul, Norsk: hullhole
*hunnumE: hundred, G: hundert, Norsk: hundrehundred, 100 [nowaday: bak]
husnSw, Dan: hushouse (a man-made dwelling-structure)
hutannIndoforest, woods
huzn the letter h/H
hxcn the letter x/X


isfx [intransitive verb indicator]
istsfxV92professional/habitual do-er, -ist
itsfx that which is -ed [passive participle - substantive]
itasfx -ed [passive participle - adjectival]
itesfx -edly [passive participle - adverbial]
iz sfx [attenuative aspect; indicates low density / low intensity]
izasfx [allomorph of 'iz']


jejn the letter j/J
jinnJperson, human being (any member of "mankind")


kabarnIndonews, reports of recent events
kabeln cable (many wires bundled together)
kacn.trFr: cacherconcealment
kacovt hide, conceal
kadnum four
kaknPhrygian: kakoun, Gk: kakosevil-doing, immorality, sin
kalnSw: kall, Ice: kaldurcold
kamarnIndoroom (portion of a building)
kaminnCroat, Rusfireplace, hearth
kanpfx [indicates polar opposite of tagged item]
kanaln canal, channel
kapnIt: capo, G: Kopf, E: capitalhead
kaphovn helmet
katnE: cat, G: Katzecat (Felis catus)
kavnCroat, Czech: kavacoffee causing, inducing or forcing X to happen
kazitn result (thing which is brought about; that which is caused)
kazovt cause, make happen, bring about
kazupr resulting in, so that, having the result that...
keke [nominalized phrase initiator]
kecnum some (any unspecified greater-than-zero quantity) believing, belief
kedovt believe ('ke X' is true/false)
kekij [taboo curse word], heck!, darn it!, shucks!
kemikn chemical (an artificially isolated substance)
kenn knowing (being able to recall and use certain information)
kenovt know competition
kepovt compete against, vie with
kern iteration, instance, time(s)
kibunnJfeeling, mood
kinnE: kineticmotion (*not* travel from place to place)
kirn.trE: acquireacquisition, getting, obtaining
kokn.trD: kokencooking / cookery (preparing food using heat)
koln cabbage arrival, coming to (travel toward a given location)
komitn destination (that which one arrives at)
komupr to (arriving at)
kornL: cor, E: coronaryheart (blood-pumping muscle)
ksosfx [converts an intransitive verb to a causative verb]
kupn he/she, him/her [third person sentient]
kubn cube
kucnFr: coucher, E-o: kushireclining
kudn.trOE: cuth, OHG: kundbeing familiar / acquainted with X
kuhaln alcohol
kujnV95 Nostratic: kujnadog
kukn the letter k/K
kulernFr: cuiller, Pt: colherspoon ability (to perform a task), capacity (for doing X)
kunovt can (is able to)
kurn medicine (the art of maintaining + restoring good health)
kuspopn his/her


labnSp: labio, It: labbro, E: labiallip
labaaj labial
lacn the letter a/A
ladnRusharmony, accord
lagn layer
lahovopcl¿from loha?hello! (initiates a conversation or letter)
lakn lake
lalij [means "I scoff at the foolishness which I am witnessing"]
lamn paralysis
lasn.trG: zulassenpermission, authorization
lasovt let, permit, allow
latnE: lateral, L: latusside, flank
lavn.trSp, Pt: lavarwashing, lavation
lele [foreign term flag]
lecnG: Laechelnsmile reading
leknG: Elektrizitatelectricity
lekrifn e-mail message
leln the letter l/L
lernG: leeremptiness, vacancy
lesav less (in a smaller quantity or degree)
letnNorsk: lettcondition of being easy, not difficult
letaaj easy
levnE: elevate, E-o: leviupward motion
levivn rise love, affection (familial/romantic)
libovt love
licn the letter i/I
lifn leaf (of a plant)
lign lying (body position), reclining
likn.trAtakapa: lik-mashing / crushing, smashing (flattening)
limnum five
linnLincos: linlanguage (a culture's communications protocol)
lipnE: leapleap/leaping
liternISVliter (unit of volume), litre
liµn bell
lobn.trG: Lob, lobenpraise, compliments
lohavopclHawaiian: alohagoodbye
lojnRus: lozh', Croat: ležlie, falsehood, deceit location, the act of being in a certain place
lokovt be located in the same place as
lokupr at (in the same place as)
lomnCroat: lom, Rus: lomat'breakage, fracture
lonnE: long, G: langlength (linear; not temporal)
lopnD: loopenrunning, rapid locomotion
lornE: lorescience/scientific study, -ology, -istics
losnNorsk: låslock (device which secures doors etc.)
lucn the letter u/U
ludnL: ludusplaying, recreation, amusement
lufnG, D: Luftair
luknD: luk, Norsk: lykke, G: Glückhappiness
lumnL: lumenlight (visible energy), illumination
lunnL, Sp, It: luna; E: lunarmoon
lunatn lunar month, lunation


mnum [contraction of "men" used in informal situations]
masfpcl [interrogative sentence marker]
madnSp, It: madre, Czech: matka, Sw: modermother
magn magnetism
majnFr: imageimage, picture, illustration
makn power, strength
maln badness (a vague term of unpleasantness or undesirability)
mamn breast (mound of flesh culminating in a teat), mammary
manpn [null pronoun; to indicate a quasi-passive]
mapnE: map; Sp, Port, Polish, Czech: mapamap, chart, diagram
marn ocean, sea, marine area
matn eye
medn accompaniment, togetherness
medeav together
medovt accompany (be with)
medupr with (accompanying)
megapfx 1000000 times the indicated unit of measurement
mejprRus: mezhdubetween, among, inter-
mekn machine (assemblage of parts designed to transmit motion or energy)
melannGk: melaniink
memn memory (recollection/ remembrance/ remembering)
mennum more than one; two or more
menkupn they, them
menkuspopn their
mentipn you [plural]
mentispopn your [plural]
menyapn we, us
menyaspopn our
meravmore(a greater quantity or higher degree)
mesnGk: mesos, E: meso-middle, center
metn.trL: metirimeasurement
metalnG: Metallmetal
meternISVmeter (unit of length), metre
micn.trG: mischenmixture, blend
micovt mix
mihonnJ sample, specimen, random or representative example
mikannJmandarin orange, tangerine (Citrus reticulata)
mikropfxISV1) too small to see, 2) divided by one million
milonnum million (1,000,000) imitation, mimicry, emulation
mimovt imitate
minutn minute (1/60 of hour; 1/60 of degree)
mirn ant (insect of family Formicidae)
mispfx/n error, incorrectness, mis-, mal-
mitn.trL: mittere, E: transmittransmission, causing to go
mitovt send
mobnIt: mobilia(a piece of) furniture
sedmobn chair
modnOV Lmethod, way, manner of doing
mohannJmodel to be emulated, exaemplary example
molnIt: mollesoftness (malleability / yieldfulness)
molekulnIndo molecule
momn the letter m/M
monatnG month (civil/arbitrary as opposed to lunar)
mornL: mors, Fr: mort, E: mortalitydeath (dead state)
mucnJ: mushi, Czech: hmyzinsect
munnSp: mundoworld
murnD: muur, Dan, Fr: mur; E: muralwall
mutnG: Mut, D: moedcourage, bravery
muziknGmusic (artificial pleasant sounds; an art-form)


namn name
*namnJ: nami, E: tsunamiwave
*namfarov surf
narn the letter n/N
naspcl [converts common noun to proper noun]
natnInterglossa: nato, E: natalbirth
navnIt: naveship
ndnfx [active participle]
nemodal don't! [negative imperative] being lower than X
nedupr below, beneath, under
nejnFr: neigesnow denial, negation being located inside of X
nenupr inside, within (located inside of) being close to X, proximity
nerupr near
netn net, screen, mesh, web
nevnum nine admiration
nezovt admire
nikn practitioner, professional do-er
niln blueness, blue color
nobnPapiamentu: nobonewness
nobaaj new
nocn night
nojnRus, Croatknife
noknNorsk: nøkkelkey (for use with lock) [no English equivalent]
nolovt [no English equivalent]
nomnum zero, no (not any), none
nonav/pfx not; non-, un-
nornFr, It, Sw: nord, E: northnorth (northern area/direction)
notn.trG: Not(wendingkeit)need(ing)
notovt need, require
nubnSp, It: nube, L: nubescloud
nudn nakedness, nudity
nugnOVenough-ness, sufficiency
nugaaj sufficient
nukn nucleus
numern numeral, digit (written symbol representing quantity)
nurnE, ISV: neuro-nerve(-cell)
nuraaj neural
nusnG: Nussnut (seed with hard removable shell)
nuµn agriculture


osfx [transitive verb indicator]
obsfx [cessative aspect]
ozsfx [intensive aspect; indicates high density / intensity]
ozasfx [allomorph of 'iz']


pagn.trSp: pagopayment
pajn.trCroat: pažnjaattention
pajovt pay attention to
paknD: pak, E: packpackage, packet, parcel
palnKorean: p'alarm (shoulder to wrist)
pannOV Sp,Frbread
papaln butterfly
papernG: Papier; Czech, Croat: papirpaper
parpr done by (points out the agent of the verb's action)
pasn the past
patnSp, It: padrefather
pataaj paternal
patatn potato
paznSppeace, tranquility
paµn Voryera unit of weight equal to 80 kilograms
peav did [past tense indicator]
pednE: pedi- pedo- e.g. pediatricchild
pegnSp: pegarattachment
pegovt attach, affix
peknL: pectus, Sp: pecho, E: pectoralchest (of body) pushing (pressing on and causing a thing to move)
pemn pressure
perpfx [creates fractions]
persannum a third
perdeknum one tenth
petnGreek: petrarock, stone
peznIt, Pt: peso, E-o: pezoweight
pezijaj light-weight
pezojaj heavy
pinovt compare
pinupr than, compared to
pipern black pepper (of genus Piper; not Capsicum)
pirn fire (combustion manifested in light and heat)
pisnE: piss, D: pisurine
pivnOVan individual (as opposed to society or some group)
piznum pi (3.14159...)
pocaaj political
podnISV: -pod, E: podiatryfoot (on which something stands)
podhovn shoe
pognD: pogen, Croat: pokušajattempt, trying to do X
pogovt try
pokalnSw, Gtrophy, cup (as in "World Cup")
pomnKoreanspring (the season)
popnDdoll, effigy
posaaj postal
pubernD, L: puberan adolescent, teenager
pudnCzech: pudr, Rus: pudrapowder
pugnL: pugnusfist
punn point (geometry etc.), spot, dot
pupn the letter p/P
purnEpurity (of substance)
putnSp: putrefacciondecay, rot, putrefaction
puµn decimal point


racn arrangement
radnG: Radwheel
ragovt be angry at
rajnHindi: raj, Bengali: rajamonarch
raknNorskstraightness (of line), directness
ramnG: Rahmen, Rus: rama, Czech: ramframe
rannCroat: ran, Rus: ranoearliness
rasnSw, Drace, breed, ethnic group
ratnL: ratioreason(ing), rational thought
ravnCroat: ravan, Rus: rovnayflatness, levelness
raµn the letter µ
repr [causee tag]
recn right, right-hand side or direction, starboard
rednCroat: red, Rus: ryadrow, series, line (of objects), queue
reknE: corRECt, G: korREKtcorrectness (accuracy/propriety)
reln relation(ship) (a quality that connects >=2 things)
remnNorsk, Croatstrap (restraining band of material)
rennAfrikaans: reenrain
reppfx/n repeating/a repetition, re-
repeav again
rern the letter r/R
revnFr: rêvedream "resultancy" [this Vorlin noun has no English equivalent]
rezovt result from, stem from (be caused by)
rezupr because, because of, resulting from, due to, owing to
ribn.trG: Reibung, D: wrijvenrubbing
ridn laughter, laughing
rifn letter (sent in mail to someone)
riln reality, actuality
rilaaj real
ripn.trOEreaping, harvest
ripovt reap, harvest
risnRus, Sw, Dan: risrice writing (drawing glyphs that represent data X)
ritovt write
rivernE: river, Fr: riviereriver
rodn red color
rodaaj red
romann novel (long work of written fiction)
rotnLturning (rotating/ revolving/ pivoting)
rotivn turn
ruknD: rug, G: Rueckenback (rear part), dorsal area
runnE: runecharacter (written), letter (of alphabet), glyph
runsetn alphabet (or syllabary) of a language


sabunnCroat: sapun, Turkish: sabunsoap
saknEsack, bag
salnL, Sp, Pt: salsalt
samdem the same one
samovt be the same individual as...
sannum three
sarn art (skillful production of esthetically pleasing things)
sarannPalirefuge, sanctuary
secjItif, in the event that..., on condition that...
sednE: sedentarysitting (being seated)
sedivn sit
sejnsecircumstance, situation, case (set of conditions)
sekn.trL: secare, Interglossa: sectocutting
senn.trL: sine, Pt: semlack (state of not having X)
senovt lack
senupr without, lacking, not having
sern series of things, sequence
setn/sfxE: setset (complete set/supply/array of similar items)
sibn sibling (one having the same mother and/or father)
sigpn self, auto-, [reflexive pronoun]
sikn color resemblence, similarity to X
simupr like
sinnOVmuscle, sinew
sinozaaj muscular
sirnCroat: sir, Czech: syr, Rus: sarcheese
sisn system
socn society
socaaj social (pertaining to society)
sofnGkwisdom ["sof" meant "sleep" in V1999]
sofaaj wise
sokn sock (soft foot-garment), stocking
soln state of being "the sole" or "the only" X; singularity
soleav only (exclusively)
somn sleep
somivn sleep
sonnL: sonus, E: sonicsound
sopnIndonesian: sop, Sp, Pt: sopasoup
susn the letter s/S
suµn Voryera unit of length equal to 175 centimeters


tabuln table (of data, not a table with legs)
tacnG: Taschepocket
tagnG: Tag, Sw: dagday (24-hour period)
taknNorsk: takke = thankgratitude, thankfulness
talnD: taal, Norsk: talespeech, talking
tamnSp: tambor, Hindi: tamtamdrum, percussion instrument
tandem this, these
tarn delay/ing, postponing, retarding
tasnTurkish: tas, G: Tassecup
taznum thousand
tescjOVthen (at that time / in that case) pertaining to X, being about X, being on the topic of X
tefupr about (pertaining to; does not mean "approximate")
teknGk: technologiatechnology
telnGk: teledistance (as opposed to nearness), farness
*temnL: tempus, Pt: tempotime, occasion [nowaday: zit]
*temeav times, -fold [nowaday: ker]
*temurn time (the abstract phenomenon; *temur lopi ~= "time flies")
*temfagor chronofage
tennChi: tiansky, heaven(s), firmament
tepn rug, carpet, tapestry, any large piece of area-covering fabric
ternL: terraearth (as opposed to sea or sky/heaven), land
ti pnyou (singular)
tidnNorskperiod of time, interval, duration
tifnG: Tiefedepth
tifizaj shallow
tifozaj deep penetration
timnE: teamteam, crew (group of beings sharing work)
tindem that, those
tipnRuskind, type, sort (of ...)
tirn lower animal, beast (any animal other than humans)
tirann tyrant, dictator
tispopn your (singular)
titulnCzechtitle (name-like reference to book/song/etc.)
toknCroat, Czech, Ruscurrent, flow, stream(ing)
tomn.trSp, Pt: tomartaking (rapid/complete/violent acquisition)
tomatnD: tomaattomato
tonn tone (the pitch and timbre of a sound)
topnE, D: top, Norsk: topptop, summit, peak
tornum six
tubnIt: tubopipe, tube
tucn.trsaid in fencing: "touche!"contact, touching
tucovt touch
tucuvt on (touching)
tugn.trCroat: tugasorrow, grief
tugovt grieve about, feel sad about
tuknG: Tucha cloth (handy bit of fabric), rag, towel, napkin
tuln.trOV L: ultraexceeding
tulovt exceed, go beyond
tuluvt beyond
tundem yonder, that one over there
turnCroatrump, buttocks, arse/ass
tusnL: tussis, E: tussivecough(ing)
tutn the letter t/T


usfx [forms a preposition]
ucsfx [moderative aspect; having typical amount/number/quantity]


vagnL: vagari, E: vagabondwandering (aimless travel)
vagivn drift, roam, wander
vajnRus: vazhnostimportance
vasnL: vas, Lojban: vasrucontainer, vessel
vatnTurkish: vaatvow, oath, promise
vegn plant (vegetable organism)
vennDan: ven, Norsk: venn, Sw: vänfriend
vernL: veritas, Sp: verdadero, E: veritytruth, honesty
vevn the letter v/V
vezn star (a point of light in the sky)
vezaaj stellar
vidn.trL: videresight, vision, seeing
vidovt see
viknSw: vikbay (an offset body of water) wanting, desire
vilovt want
vinn wine
*virn/pfxE: virile, E-o: viromale
virbovn bull
vitnOHG: hwizwhiteness, white color
vivn living (engaging in biological processes)
vodn word
vognFr, Itvogue, fad, trendy behavior, fashion
voknL: voxvoice
vokalnG, Croatvowel
vonnG: wohnenresiding/residence, dwelling
vorn compromise between technical and aesthetic criteria


wanpr and ["wan" can only combine nouns]
warnChi: hua1, E: floWERflower, blossom
watnE, Frwatt (unit of power measurement)
waµscj and-then [joins 2 sentences, indicates 2nd happens after 1st]
we we [separates surname and given name]
welwel [relative clause initiator]
wu n the letter w/W
wuhuij yahoo!, yippee!, hooray!, hoorah!, yay!




ya pn I, me
yacnTurkish: yashage (duration of existence)
yagn.trG: jagenhunting
yaknG: Jackejacket (lightweight coat-like garment)
yaln.tra.p.failure to do X / falling short of target X
yann member (of organization/group/set), citizen (of country)
yarnG: Jahr, D: jaaryear
yaspopn my
yernBasque: herri = people, landnation, country (state)
yin the letter y/Y
yovopcl hey, oh ..., yo [vocative particle]
yugnL: iugulum, E: jugularthroat
yuknG: juckenitching sensation
yunnumE: unity, unit, unite, unifyone, 1
yuwemnum one and a half, 1.5


zadnD: zaadseed
zaknDaffair, matter, concern, thing (intangible/abstract)
zannTang-era Chinesemeditation
zatn.trG: ersetzen, Ersatzreplacing, substitution
zatupr instead of, rather than
zepr [specifier flag / apposition preventer]
zednE: cede, E-o: cedisurrender, submission
zegn segment (a major and self-evident subdivision), section
zeln.trE: sellsale, vending
zevnTurkish: zevkpleasure (good sensations)
zezn the letter z/Z
zibnum seven
ziknG: Siegvictory, winning
zilnE: zeal, Gk: ziloszeal, ardour, enthusiasm
zimnOV-ism, ideology, belief system
zinnG: Sinn, D: zinmeaning, sense (of a word etc)
zitn time (the continuum / abstract phenomenon)
zomern summer (hottest season)
zonnG: Sonne, D: zonsun
zonaaj solar
zorn.trG: Sorge, D: zorgcare, concern, solicitude
zorovt care about the well-being of X
zovn.trRus, Croatcall(ing), sound/signal to attract attention
zubonnJpants, trousers, slacks
zudnG: Süd, D: zuidensouth (southern area / direction)
zukn.trD: zoeken, G: suchensearch(ing for ...), seeking
zukernG: Zuckersugar
zurn acid
zuzn buzzing sound
µij well, hmm, um, er

proper nounsEdit

proper nouns
Afrikprop Africa
FiratpropTurkishEuphrates River
Juµprop Chinese culture/ethnicity (note: difficult to define)
Nihonprop Japan
Romprop Rome (the city or the ancient empire)
Rusprop Russian ethnicity/culture
Uropprop Europe
Venusprop Venus (planet/goddess)
Vorlinpropcompound by roots
vor and lin
Yovisprop Jupiter (planet/god)
Yuwesprop United States of America

morphemes below need to be replaced or approvedEdit

camdem every, each
matennHaitian Creolemorning (dawn to noon)
motorn motor
polisn police
ramennCzech: rameno, Croat: rameshoulder
zavodnRus, Croatfactory, works (as in "waterworks")
odsfx [augmentative]