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Wasmaxna
'
Type
VSO
Alignment
Head direction
head-final generally
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
Yes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General information[edit | edit source]

Wasmaxna is a bit of a homage to three languages I have learned by mixing them in a creative way, Japanese, Hebrew, and Chickasaw. The core grammar is Chickasaw (VSO), with the verbs having prefixes for the alignment roles and conjugated to tense, aspect, and mood. Verbs are on a root system like Hebrew, which get filled in with different vowels and sometimes adding a suffix to conjugate. Things like relative clauses and case-tags work like Japanese. All modifiers, including relative clauses, go before the noun ("The big train, which I saw" => "The seen-by-me big train"). I have got a basic structure, but it's still a work-in-progress.

Phonology[edit | edit source]

Consonants[edit | edit source]

S, N, H, C (ch), X (sh), P, R (lh), W, M, F, L, Y, B, T, K

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal
Plosive
Fricative
Affricate
Approximant
Trill
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app.
Lateral flap

Vowels[edit | edit source]

A (Ah), O (Oh), E (Eh), I (Ii), U (Oo)

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open

Alphabet[edit | edit source]

Phonotactics[edit | edit source]

Grammar[edit | edit source]

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Nouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No




Verbs are formed by 4-letter-roots, conjugated by time & form into templates, like Hebrew. (That is, you fill in different vowels to conjugate the root.) The verbs also have prefixes to add Subject & Object operators, like Chickasaw. The rest of the sentence adds phrases to fill the operator slots as well as other roles not in the verb, with tags at the end of the phrase for their role (a subject market, an object marker, direct object, and participles that work sort of like markers for objects of the prepositions, a bit like Japanese's use of "ha", "ga", "wo", etc.) 

Basic example: John gave the book to Mary.

Wasmaxna form: He-it-gave John subj book obj Mary to. 



Verb Prefixes:

I male single subject: Ya                     Me male single object: Fa

I female single subject Na                  Me female single object Sa

I neuter single subject Ka                   Me neuter single object Ta

You male single subject: Yo               You male single object: Fo

You female single subject: No            You female single object: So

You neuter single subject: Ko             You neuter single object: To

He single subject: I [Yi]                      Him single object: Fi

She single subject: Ni                        Her single object: Si

It single subject: Ki                            It single object: Ti

We male plural subject: Yax               Us male plural object: Fax

We female plural subject: Nax            Us female plural object: Sax

We neuter plural subject: Kax            Us neuter plural object: Tax

Y’all male plural subject: Yox            Y’all male plural object: Fox

Y’all female plural subject: Nox         Y’all female plural object: Sox

Y’all neuter plural subject: Kox          Y’all neuter plural object: Tox

They male plural: Ix [Yix]                   Them male plural object: Fix

They female plural: Nix                      Them female plural object: Six

They neuter plural: Kix                       Them neuter plural object: Tix

Honorific plural subject: Bax

Honorific plural object: Bix



Verb Forms:

Example Root: X-L-M-P (to deceive)

Present simple: o:i                   Infinitive (to) form: a:a-fis                 Future simple:  i:a

Xolmip                                     Xalmap-fis                                      Xilmap

(indicative)

Past simple: u:e                       Present progressive:    o:i-bit               Past progressive: u:e-bit

Xulmep                                    Xolmip-bit                                           Xulmep-bit

Future progressive: i:a-bit

Xolmap-bit

Present perfect: o:i-pax           Past perfect: u:e-pax                           Future Perfect: i:a-pax

Xolmip-pax                             xulmep-pax                                         xilmap-pax     

Subjunctive (if): a:a-lu            Negative: <stem>-lai                           Imperative: a:a-halos

Xalmap-lu                               <stem>-lal                                        xalmap-halos

Interrogative[?]:                       reflexive:                    

<stem>-kal                            <stem>-yalos

Subjunctive (may) a:a-nofo

Xalmap-nofo

Subjunctive (must) a:a-pawo

Xalmap-pawo

Gerend (reify the action): o.u.o.

Xolumop (i.e., deceiving)

If a word ends in a vowel, a selected final (silent) consonant should follow it:

H for ah

W for oh

Y for ii

oo and eh cannot be final vowels

Ideas -            

“Let’s __” form? 

Xilmap-yaxha

Xalmap-yaxha

 

Subjects, Direct Objects, Indirect Objects, etc, get tagged with marker post-words (like the “et” in Hebrew for objects, or the “ga” in Japanese for subjects), as well as certain tags to set-off phrases; again, post-phrase tags (like “ni” in Japanese for to, “to” for quotes, etc).  The sentence can also end with marker-words tagging the type of sentence (like “ka” in Japanese for questions). 

Case (suffix) markers for nouns:

Subject/nominative: -ma

Copula complement tag: -sa

Direct object/accusitive: -ca

Indirect object/dative (objects of prepositions): -ko [kot]

Passive/Ablative: -wa (done by X)

Ideational/vocative: -bo [bot] (behold the …)

Plural: End with: P [or “ep”]

Definite: Add “e” to make it definite (“the”): mae, cae, koe, te’e, wae, boe

                                                            Plural:  mape, cape, kope, tepe, wape, bope

Possessive [operates like ‘s]: -te

Personal possessive suffix (m/f):

            My: teya / tena

            Your: teyo / teno

            His / her / its:  teyi / teni / teki
            Their: teyix, tenix, tekix

            Our: teyax, tenax

            Whose: krote

To: Fi

For: Nu

That phrase: xu

In: Pohu

On:

Many sentences don’t need extra words because the sense is captured in the verb itself (e.g., he-her-saw).  You don’t need extra words for “he” and “she” tagged with subject & object marker-words because they are captured in the verb.  So just saying the verb completes the sentence.  (However you can put the tagged words “he” and “she” in if you like, possibly for emphasis.) 

 But if you want to say “John saw Jane”, then you would say “he-her-saw John subj. Jane obj.”  Because the roles are tagged, like Japanese you can switch them around and put the object first and subject second, e.g., for emphasis, as in “he-her-saw Jane obj John subj” to answer the question “he-it-saw what obj John subj question.” 

He sees her:  Yafisoplil.

John sees Jane: “Yafisoplil Can ma Cen ca.”

John gave Jane the book.  “Yafihuxcey Can ma Cen ca hicane koe.”

John gave the book to Jane.  “Yafihuxcey Can ma Cen fi hicane koe.”

Other pronouns (correlatives)

            Query             This                 That                Some               No                   Every

 

Adj      (which)            (this)                (that)               (some)             (no)                  (every)

            kul                   hiul                  xul [Paxepe]    tayo [sowa]     Fecle                nono[xowe]

                                                            (that there)       any: xayi

                                                            aul

 

Person (who)                         (this one)         (that one)         (someone)        (no one)           (everyone)

            Kro[fe]                        hrofe                xrofe                tayorofe           Feclerofe         nonorofe

                                                            (that there)

                                                            aulrofe

 

Thing  (what)              (this)                (that)               (something)     (nothing)         (everything)

            kul                   hiul                  xul                   tayokul                        feclekul           nonokul

                                                            (that there)

                                                            aul

 

Place   (where)            (here)               (there)              (someplace)     (nowhere)        (everywhere)

            kixi                  Hixi                 xuxi [Cene]    tayokixi         feclekixi        nonokixi       

                                                            (over there)

                                                            aulxi   

 

Time   (when)             (now)               (then)               (sometime)      (never)             (always)

            kok                  hiok                 xuok                tayokok           feclekok          nonokok

 

Way    (how)               (thus)                                       (somehow)

            Xecuha            hixecuha                                  tayoxecuha

 

Reason(why)              (because this)  (because that)

            Kulfi                hinufi               xulnufi

Counting

1 to 10

Ten-five

Two-ten-five

Three-hundred two-ten five

Adjectives

Modifiers go before the noun. It is absolute head-final like Japanese & Turkish.

This goes for modifying relative clauses also, as described below.

-er (more): X [Adj-ce] more [than] Y.            X ADJ-ce[haya] Y-ra.

-est (most): X most.    X ADJ-maxufi

As … As: (hixe)          X ADJ nemuselo hixe Y-li.

X [adj] compares as to Y,

(Nemuselo)

Opposite (un-)  Xax-

Lack (-less) (hocuno)    Hocu-

surfeit (-ful)

possibility (-able)

liking (-phile)

disliking (-phobe)

inhabitant (-er, -ian, -an, -ese)

weakening meaning (-ish)

strengthening meaning (uber-)

adverb (-ly)

Convert adjective to noun (-ness)

Head-final (place all modifiers before, head-noun is last)

The ten very happy bar-exam passed robots

10[xina] – very – Mayeha(happy) Bar-exam Kix-LuSHeS robot-bope.

Relative prepositional phrase (whom, which, that…):

Try similar to Japanese. Again, like the head-final adjectives, relative phrases will be placed in front of the head-noun or phrase to describe it, as if adjectives (as the happy robots example shows).

When the relative clause uses a new verb, the slot of the noun getting modified is replaced with an interrogative word to designate its grammatical role for that verb. So for example, for the sentence "The train, which I saw, was running.", we want to say something like "the seen-by-me train was running".

The head verb is "was running" with TRAIN is in the subject slot. But the train is also in the object-slot of the modifying relative clause ("I saw it"). To communicate it being in this object slot, we do a similar trick as English. We substitute the prefix slot of the train with "WHAT". So instead of saying "I-it-SAW" like a normal verb, we say "I-what-SAW".

For Wasmaxna, we start with the head verb, with the prefix slots for the roles [It-it-RUN-past-progressive]. The next word will be the verb for the relative clause, with WHAT in the slot for the modified noun, here the TRAIN. [I-what-SAW]. Then finally we have the modified noun, [TRAIN]. Then after that we put the tag for a subject (since TRAIN is a subject of the head noun RUN). If we had another adjective, like BIG, we'd put that just before the TRAIN after the relative clause. So "The big train, which I saw" would be "[I-what-SAW] [BIG] [TRAIN] [Subject-definite tag]". "Yakul-suplel hiceka liya mae".  "To see" is SPLL. We add u-e vowels to make it past. It gets two prefixes, a male-subject-first-person "Ya" for I, and "kul" in the object slot for "what" (the noun we are modifying). The TRAIN is "liya", and it takes the subject tag "ma", which applies to the head verb (RUN, not in this phrase), NOT the object tag "ca" for "to see". The TRAIN is both a subject & object of two verbs. The way we know the TRAIN is the object of the 2nd verb, to see, is because of the "What" (kul) put in its object slot, and then the train (liya) fills that spot. Hiceka means "big", to show that adjectives go after modifying relative clauses.

If we wanted to make a full sentence out of it, "The big train which I saw was running", we'd add the head verb "It was running" verb at the front. "To go" is the root YCHW. We add u-e vowels for past tense (yuchew), then "bit" to make it progressive. It takes the "ki" prefix for the subject (neuter, the TRAIN).

Ki-yuchew-bit yakul-suplel hiceka liya mae.

Other Examples:

The man John hit yesterday prefers beer to wine.

[He-it-PREFERS] [he-who-HIT] [JOHN] [Subject marker] [yesterday] [MAN] [Subject marker] [BEER] [object-definite marker] [WINE] [OVER] [(object-of-"over" marker)].

Yi-ti-conwip yi-kro-nepyum Can ma pohepewo yubyu mae molewe cae uina nenos.

The girl you think I love is absent.

[she-it-IS] [you-THINK] [THAT] [I-who-LOVE] [GIRL] [Subject marker] [ABSENT] [Copula marker].

The neighbor whose son I teased wants to see you.

[he-it-WANTS] [I-him-TEASED] [WHOSE] [SON] [object marker] [NEIGHBOR] [Subject-definite marker] [him-you-SEE-infinitive].

The cat I said Alison brought home is stuck now in the tree.

[it-it-IS] [I-it-SAID] [THAT] [she-who-BROUGHT] [ALISON] [Subject marker] [Home] [To] [CAT] [Subject marker] [NOW] [TREE] [Object-definite] [STUCK] [copula].

The man that plowed my field is coming over here.

[He-COMING] [who-it-PLOWED] [FIELD] [object-my] [MAN] [subject] [HERE] [TO].

"The big train, which I saw, was going fast."

[It-WAS GOING] [I-what-SAW] [BIG] [TRAIN] [subject-definite] [fast]

Ki-kuybexbit kikul-suplel hiceka liya mae babate.

……………………………………

Adjectives / Adverbs

Adjectives and adverbs directly follow their target words. 

[No need to follow gender or number]

Question Words

What – kul

That - xul

This -

When – kok

Then -  xuok

Now -

Where – kixi

There - xixi

Here -

Why – To-what – kulfi

Because [To-that] - xulfi

Prepositional Phrases (which, who/m)

“That” phrases

Quoting phrases

“When” phrases

“If” Phrases

Vocabulary[edit | edit source]


No. English
1IYa (male), Fa (object)

Na (female), Sa (object)

Ka (neutral), Ta (object)
2you (singular)Yo (male), Fo (object)

No (female), So (object)

Ko (neutral), To (object)
3heYi (male), Fi (object)

Ni (female), Si (object)

Ki (neutral), Ti (object)
4weYax (male), Fax (object)

Nax (female), Sax (object)

Kax (neutral), Tax (object)
5you (plural)Yox (male), Fox (object)

Nox (female), Sox (object)

Kox (neutral), Tox (object)
6theyYix (male), Fix (object)

Nix (female), Six (object)

Kix (neutral), Tix (object)
7thishiul
8thatxul
9herehixi
10therexuxi
11whokro
12whatkul
13wherekixi
14whenkok
15howkulfi
16notfecle -lai (for verbs)
17allnono
18manyepo
19somesowa
20fewsepuxu
21othersobu
22onesfu
23twowepe
24threecehec
25fourxinewi
26fiveholaso
27bighiceka
28longlaho
29widenibi
30thicktosen xesipati (clumpy)
31heavyriki
32smallepu
33shortloxu
34narrowbwefeho
35thinato
36womansixo
37man (adult male)yubyu
38man (human being)rofe
39childwafxexo
40wifecameta
41husband
42motherlace
43fatherpimo
44animalwifuni
45fishsusawa
46birdhosesef
47cat
48dogbice
49louseinsect: naci
50snake
51worm
52treesabowu
53forestlosapaxi
54sticksosa
55fruitvegetable: rosaru
56seedxicap
57leafxabo
58roothahos
59bark
60flowermexoyoyi
61grassnasetehu
62ropeefram
63skinropiye
64meatsoloxeye
65bloodribaha
66boneniwice
67fathawessa
68eggleyiwo
69horn
70tailxesax
71featheryapmabiso
72hair
73headhixunu
74earpwetab
75eyeminabosaf
76nosesen
77mouthrisufo
78toothsense
79tongue
80fingernail
81foot
82leg
83knee
84hand
85wing
86belly
87guts
88neck
89back
90breast
91heart
92liver
93drink
94eat
95bite
96suck
97spit
98vomit
99blow
100breathe
101laugh
102see
103hear
104know
105think
106smell
107fear
108sleep
109live
110die
111kill
112fight
113hunt
114hit
115cut
116split
117stab
118scratch
119dig
120swim
121fly
122walk
123come
124lie
125sit
126stand
127turn
128fall
129give
130hold
131squeeze
132rub
133wash
134wipe
135pull
136push
137throw
138tie
139sew
140count
141say
142sing
143play
144float
145flow
146freeze
147swell
148sun
149moon
150star
151water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
160earth
161cloud
162fog
163sky
164wind
165snow
166ice
167smoke
168fire
169ash
170burn
171road
172mountain
173red
174green
175yellow
176white
177black
178night
179day
180year
181warm
182cold
183full
184new
185old
186good
187bad
188rotten
189dirty
190straight
191round
192sharp
193dull
194smooth
195wet
196dry
197correct
198near
199far
200right
201left
202at
203in
204with
205and
206if
207because
208name


I have a 70 page dictionary so far. I'm trying to get it online a bit at a time. (Google Docs/Drive is fiddly.)

Here is the link: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1d9kp5TcbN2yq4AjMP_j_2hF4Oz_UN9DU5QyjcJfdkVo/edit

Example text[edit | edit source]

I'm in the process of translating Ralph Waldo Emerson's "Self Reliance" in the language to develop it. I will try to upload it here periodically:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1kHjZWkfKPD4lGn1_op0j7h9preCsCn3uDlGNk7I-leY/edit

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