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Name: Wayaliss

Type: Flexional

Alignment: Ergative–absolutive

Head Direction: Final

Number of genders: 2

Declensions: No

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Nouns Yes No Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article Yes No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


In comparison with its ancestor language, Wayaliss features some innovations such as definite articles and loss of grammatical cases in nouns and adjectives.


All words are stressed on the last syllable.


p [p] t [t] k [k]
b [b] d [d] g [g]
f [f] v [v]
s [s] z [z]
m [m] n [n] r [ʀ] l [l]
y [j] w [w]
x [x] h [h]

The semivowels y and w can be combined with the soft aspiration h, forming the groups hy and hw. The standar pronunciation has these as simple combinations of h plus semivowel, but many speakers pronounce them as voiceless approximants [j̊] (hy) and [ʍ] (hw).

While x [x] is somewhat rare, both h [h] and r [ʀ] are very common in the language.


Vowels are:

a [ɑ]
e [e]
i [i]
o [o]
u [u]

Stressed vowels are marked with an acute accent. The vowels e and o are generally closed.



The definite article is no for masculine and me for feminine. It comes immediately before the nouns.


There are two gender of nouns: masculine and feminine. Plural of nouns is highly irregular.

Except for the Absolutive, grammatical cases are expressed by means of prepositions:

  1. Ergative: e
  2. Accusative: ko
  3. Genitive: pe
  4. Dative: in
  5. Locative: hwa
  6. Instrumental: su

Masculine Nouns[]

Common plural endings:

  1. -wes
  2. -es
  3. -ws
  4. -ew
  5. -ges
  6. -ks
  7. -f
  8. -ns


  • nan "man", "person" - Plural: nanges

With article, case markers and plural ending:

  1. Indefinite
    1. Singular
      1. Accusative: ko nan
      2. Genitive: pe nan
      3. Dative: in nan
      4. Locative: hwa nan
      5. Instrumental: su nan
    2. Plural
      1. Accusative: ko nanges
      2. Genitive: pe nanges
      3. Dative: in nanges
      4. Locative: hwa nanges
      5. Instrumental: su nanges
  2. Definite
    1. Singular
      1. Accusative: ko no nan
      2. Genitive: pe no nan
      3. Dative: in no nan
      4. Locative: hwa no nan
      5. Instrumental: su no nan
    2. Plural
      1. Accusative: ko no nanges
      2. Genitive: pe no nanges
      3. Dative: in no nanges
      4. Locative: hwa no nanges
      5. Instrumental: su no nanges

Feminine Nouns[]

Common plural endings:

  1. -eges
  2. -eg
  3. -ges
  4. -eks
  5. -yes
  6. -ef


  • hwenereh "family" - Pl.: hwenereyes

With article, case markers and plural ending:

  1. Indefinite
    1. Singular
      1. Accusative: ko hwenereh
      2. Genitive: pe hwenereh
      3. Dative: in hwenereh
      4. Locative: hwa hwenereh
      5. Instrumental: su hwenereh
    2. Plural
      1. Accusative: ko hwenereyes
      2. Genitive: pe hwenereyes
      3. Dative: in hwenereyes
      4. Locative: hwa hwenereyes
      5. Instrumental: su hwenereyes
  2. Definite
    1. Singular
      1. Accusative: ko me hwenereh
      2. Genitive: pe me hwenereh
      3. Dative: in me hwenereh
      4. Locative: hwa me hwenereh
      5. Instrumental: su me hwenereh
    2. Plural
      1. Accusative: ko me hwenereyes
      2. Genitive: pe me hwenereyes
      3. Dative: in me hwenereyes
      4. Locative: hwa me hwenereyes
      5. Instrumental: su me hwenereyes


Adjectives are not declined at all.

Attributive adjectives come before the noun.

Comparative Form[]


The suffix -el- is added to the stem of the adjective, resulting in a new adjective. Ex.:

  • kamt "large", kamtel "larger"
  • mup "new", mupel "newer"
  • pun "good", punel "better"


The prefix sen- is added to the stem of the adjective. Ex.:

  • kamt "large", senkamt "the largest"
  • mup "new", senmup "the newest"
  • pun "good", senpun "the best"



The use of case particles with 1st and 2nd person pronouns is dialectical, but it is not considered completely wrong in the standard language.

Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive Ergative
1st p. sing. o (ko) o (in) nu (pe) ni (e) nim
2nd p. sing. pu (ko) pu (in) du (pe) di (e) dim
3rd p. sing. m. yu ko yu in yu pe yu e yu
3rd p. sing. f. ey ko ey in ey pe ey e ey
1st p. pl. ves (ko) ves (in) ses (pe) miks (e) mins
2nd p. pl. pes (ko) pes (in) pes (pe) piks (e) pins
3rd p. pl. m. yes ko yes in yes pe yes e yes
3rd p. pl. f. yew ko yew in yew pe yew e yew


Possessive pronouns are declined like any other adjective.

Person Singular Plural
1st nem muv
2nd diy puv
3rd m., f. viw uy


  • iv "this" (very near)
  • sit "this" (not so near)
  • gir "that" (far)

There are two manners of using the demonstratives:

  1. before the noun: iv nan "this man", gir nanges "those men"
  2. after the noun, which is preceeded by the definite article: no nan iv "this man", no nanges gir "those men".

These forms are equivalent and regular in the language, but the second (with the definite article) is used more in colloquial speech than in writing. Also, the form sit tends to be replaced by iv in colloquial speech.


  • hyu "what"
  • nu "who"
  • gu "which"
  • ne "how"
  • tir "where"
  • tu "when"


  • hyu "that"
  • nu "who"


  • nuknu "some", "any"
  • numnu "no", "none"
  • uttu "all", "every"
  • hyet "each", "every"


Cardinal Numbers[]

  • 0 sal
  • 1 han
  • 2 te
  • 3 deles
  • 4 gedel
  • 5 vagu
  • 6 zihev
  • 7 vadi
  • 8 hedu
  • 9 mupi
  • 10 tav
  • 11 hattas
  • 12 tuttas
  • 13 deltas
  • 14 goltas
  • 15 gatas
  • 16 zidtas
  • 17 vadtas
  • 18 hedtas
  • 19 muptas
  • 20 padi
  • 21 padi han
  • 30 dade
  • 40 gohade
  • 50 vugade
  • 60 zivde
  • 70 vadade
  • 80 udade
  • 90 mupade
  • 100 vanu

Ordinal Numbers[]

Ordinal numbers are regular adjectives.

  • 1st ban
  • 2nd vikad
  • 3rd davih
  • 4th gohad
  • 5th vagad
  • 6th zihev
  • 7th vaden
  • 8th udep
  • 9th mupam
  • 10th taven



  • his "for"
  • goy "and"
  • ha "nor"
  • vat "but"
  • ho "or"
  • hyad "yet"
  • evna "so"


  • hapu … gi … "both … and … "
  • ho … ho … "either … or … "
  • hen … hen … "neither … nor … "
  • wu … vat … "not … but … "
  • vu … dapa … "not only … but also … "


  • tibwa "after"
  • dot "although"
  • vi "if"
  • vad "unless"
  • yuk "so that"
  • bada "therefore"
  • sa "in spite of", "despite"
  • his "because"


Verb forms are reforced by the use of auxiliaries vil in the stative conjugation and kel in the active conjugation. Stative conjugation is used with intransitive verbs, having the subject in the absolutive case (that is, no case particle at all). The active conjugation is used with transitive verbs, with subject in the ergative case and direct object in the so called accusative case.

For the passive voice, the stative form is used, with the subject without any mark (nominative case) and the agent in the ergative case.

Sample Conjugation: petil "see"[]

Stative Conjugation[]
Present Perfective Aorist Imperfective Pluperfect Future Imperative
1st p. sg. va pet-i-ya viwa pet-i-wa vista pet-i-sta vipa pet-i-pa vila pet-i-la viha pet-i-ha -
2nd p. sg. ves pet-i-yes viwes pet-i-wes vistes pet-i-stes vipes pet-i-pes viles pet-i-les vihes pet-i-hes pet-i-es
3rd p. sg. va pet-i-yka viwa pet-i-wka vista pet-i-stka vipa pet-i-pka vila pet-i-lka viha pet-i-hka pet-i-ka
1st p. pl. vens pet-i-yns viwnes pet-i-wnes vistnes pet-i-stnes vipnes pet-i-pnes vilnes pet-i-lnes vihnes pet-i-hnes pet-i-nes
2nd p. pl. vets pet-i-yts viwts pet-i-wts vistdes pet-i-stdes vipts pet-i-pts vilts pet-i-lts vihts pet-i-hts pet-i-ts
3rd p. pl. va pet-i-yna viwa pet-i-wna vista pet-i-stna vipa pet-i-pna vila pet-i-lna viha pet-i-hna pet-i-na
Participle pet-i-ad pet-i-t pet-i-st pet-i-tiw pet-i-lan pet-i-dol -
Active Conjugation[]
Present Perfective Aorist Imperfective Pluperfect Future Imperative
1st p. sg. keya pet-i-ya kewa pet-i-wa kesta pet-i-sta kepa pet-i-pa kela pet-i-la kliha pet-i-liha -
2nd p. sg. keyel pet-i-yel kewel pet-i-wel kestel pet-i-stel kepel pet-i-pel kelel pet-i-lel klihel pet-i-lihel pet-i-el
3rd p. sg. keyo pet-i-yo kewo pet-i-wo kesto pet-i-sto kepo pet-i-po kelo pet-i-lo kliho pet-i-liho pet-i-o
1st p. pl. keyuv pet-i-yuv kewuv pet-i-wuv kestuv pet-i-stuv kepuv pet-i-puv keluv pet-i-luv klihuv pet-i-lihuv pet-i-uv
2nd p. pl. keyay pet-i-yay keway pet-i-way kestay pet-i-stay kepay pet-i-pay kelay pet-i-lay klihay pet-i-lihay pet-i-ay
3rd p. pl. keya pet-i-ya kewa pet-i-wa kesta pet-i-sta kepa pet-i-pa kela pet-i-la kliha pet-i-liha pet-i-a
Participle pet-i-yew pet-i-tey pet-i-stey pet-i-tey pet-i-lay pet-i-doy -

Irregular Verbs[]

  • gunil "to eat":
    • Act. Perf.: kewa gun-u-wa, kewel gun-u-wel, kewo gun-u-wo; kewuv gun-u-v, keway gun-u-way, kewa gun-u-wa.
  • vepil "to know":
    • Stat. Pres.: va vip-ya, ves vip-yes, va vip-ka; vens vip-i-ns, vets vip-i-ts, va vip-na.
    • Stat. Perf.: viwa vep-wa, vistes vep-stes, viwa vep-ka; viwnes vep-nes, viwts vep-i-ts, viwa vep-na.
    • Act. Pres.: keya vip-ya, keyel vip-yel, keyo vip-yo; keyuv vip-yuv, keyay vip-yay, keya vip-ya
    • Act. Aor.: kesta vi-sta, kestel vi-stel, kesto vi-sto; kestuv vi-stuv, kestay vi-stay, kesta vi-sta
  • pipil "to drink":
    • Act. Pres.: keya pip-ya, keyel pip-yel, keyo pip-yo; keyuv pip-yuv, keyay pip-yay, keya pip-ya
    • Act. Aor.: kesta pu-sta, kestel pu-stel, kesto pu-sto; kestuv pu-stuv, kestay pu-stay, kesta pu-sta
  • atel "to go":
    • Stat. Pres.: va etya, ves et-yes, va e-yka; vens at-e-yns, vets at-e-yts, va et-na
    • Stat. Aor.: vista me-sta, vistes me-stes, vista me-stka, vistnes me-stnes, vistdes me-stdes, vista me-stna
    • Act. Pres.: keya at-a, keyel at-el, keyo at-o; keyuv e-tuv, keyay e-tay, keya eta
    • Act. Perf.: kewa o-wa, kewel o-wel, kewo o-wo; kewuv ato-wuv, keway at-o-way, kewa at-o-wa
    • Act. Aor.: kesta me-sta, kestel me-stel, kesto me-sto; kestuv me-stuv, kestay me-stay, kesta me-sta
  • pimel "to come":
    • Stat. Pres.: va pem-a, ves pem-es, va p-e-yka; vens pim-e-yns, vets pim-e-yts, va pe-yna
    • Act. Pres.: keya pem-a, keyel pem-el, keyo pem-o; keyuv pem-uv, keyay pem-ay, keya pem-a
    • Act. Aor.: kesta pem-sta, kestel pem-stel, kesto pem-sto; kestuv pem-stuv, kestay pem-stay, kesta pem-sta
  • buvil "can", "be able to":
    • Stat. Pres.: va bi-ya, ves bi-yes, va bi-yka; vens bi-yns, vets bi-yts, va bi-yna
    • Stat. Perf.: viwa bu-wa, viwes bu-wes, viwa bu-wka; viwnes bu-wnes, viwts bu-wts, viwa bu-wna
    • Stat. Aor.: vista bu-sta, vistes bu-stes, vista bu-stka; vistnes bu-stnes, vistdes bu-stdes, vista bu-stna
    • Part. Pres.: buvad; Part. Perf.: but; Part. Aor.: bust.
    • Act. Pres.: keya bu-ya, keyel bu-yel, keyo bu-yo; keyuv bu-yuv, keyay bu-yay, keya bu-ya
    • Act. Perf.: kewa bu-wa, kewel bu-wel, kewo bu-wo; kewuv bu-wuv, keway bu-way, kewa bu-wa
    • Act. Aor.: kesta bu-sta, kestel bu-stel, kesto bu-sto; kestuv bu-stuv, kestay bu-stay, kesta bu-sta
    • Part. Perf./Imperf.: bu-tey; Part. Aor.: bu-stey


Text Pronunciation Translation

No utt nanges va meviyna repel, se tekmetet goy telihegges. E yes keya dimiya lesewe goy gasase, goy va tipiyna esel han in uhol kwi ispeled pe hanatet.

[no ut nɑŋ'ges vɑ mevij'nɑ ʀe'pel, se tekme'tet goj teliheg'ges]. [e jes ke'jɑ dimi'jɑ lese'we goj gasa'se, goj vɑ tipij'nɑ e'sel hɑn in u'hol kwi ispe'led pe hɑnɑ'tet]. "All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood."
Iv rake se hwa han pis viwa tisteget. Pe viw mepir pe geretet, pe viw pilevetet goy pe viw buveperetet pe oderessewe, ey viwa iskurit ne tisteg. [iv ʀɑ'ke se hwɑ hɑn pis vi'wɑ tiste'get]. [pe viw me'piʀ pe geʀe'tet, pe viw pileve'tet goj pe viw buvepeʀe'tet pe odeʀesse'we, ej viwɑ isku'ʀit ne tis'teg]. "This language was once featured. Thanks to its level of quality, plausibility and usage capabilities, it has been voted as featured."


  • Swadesh List: Here we give the Swadesh List for Wayaliss.
  • Dornel-Wayaliss Swadesh List: a comparison between Dornel and Wayaliss.