Xumiqedi ['xumiʒedi] is an a priori conlang of a small and unambiguous grammar.



Labial Alveolar Palato-alveolar Velar
Nasal m n
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ x ɣ
Affricate tʃ dʒ
Approximant l
Trill r


Front Back
High i y u
Mid e o
Low a


The stress is on the first syllable with higher pitch, there is no reduction. Syllable format is CV - consonant-vowel.

Writing System[]

Letter a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
Sound a b d e f g ɣ i k l m n o p ʒ r s t u v ʃ x y z



Text consists of sentences in an arbitrary order. Sentences consist of connected words. The connection always has a direction. Main word is followed by dependent words. Dependent words order is defined in the dictionary for each main word. The last phoneme of a word determines how many dependent words it has: 0 -a, 1 -i, 2 -u, 3 -o, 4 -y. Also that part does not change.

Pronouns end in -a. Pronouns provide a common context between sentences. The same pronouns in different sentences refer to the same things. The choice of a pronoun is up to speaker, they are equal. Exception: a word na, the pronoun not keeping any context and it's used when one needs not to mention or ignore something.

cyfu va ga - I and you.

cyfu ka ga cozi ka - I sleep.

cozi na - Someone sleeps.

cyfu ga da pizu ga ra - I love something/someone.

cyfu da sa pizu da ga dogi ga - I love cats.

cyfu la ka pizu la ga dogi ga pizu ga ma tuzi ma - I love the cat that loves a meat.

Dependency priority is from right to left. That may confuse programmers. It means that a main word "waits" while its dependencies get all of their dependencies if any, then only the main word gets a next one. Consider a text:

"gyzu pizu da ga cozi da".

In this language a tree builds up like this:

"(gyzu (pizu da ga) (cozi da))".

But there are programming languages where priority is from left to right, so the tree should be different:

"(gyzu pizu da) ga cozi da",

and the words outside parens are unneeded dependencies, that's error of interpretation. In this language there is no parens and no first-class functions.

Direct and indirect speech[]

One may group several sentences putting words se (cite begin) and te (cite end) around them. It makes one unit from grammatical point of view. One uses it for expressing the indirect speech, for example. This structure has zero dependencies.

cyfu da sa pizu da ga dogi ga - I love cats.

su va se cyfu da sa pizu da ga dogi ga te zelu ra va - He says I love cats.

su va se cyfu da sa pizu da ga dogi ga te zoku ra va - He says "I love cats".

Proper nouns[]

Names are expressed as a word with one dependency and that yields a sentence. Names of many words may be split into several sentences:

johani va raseli va - John Russel.


Tense is expressed with words already, later, now and ago, and they are above "verbs".

cyfu da sa pizu da ga - I love it.

cyfu da sa lewi pizu da ga - I love it right now.

cyfu da sa roni pizu da ga - I loved it.

cyfu da sa vibi pizu da ga - I will love it.

These words are also translated as former / ex-, current / present and future.

Also there are words while and after.

gyzu pizu da ga cozi da - He loves it while he sleeps.

futu pizu da ga cozi da - He loves it, and after that he sleeps.


Gender is expressed with words male and female. If omitted, one should guess from context. There is no gender by default.

ryti va - Human.

ryti va jiji va - Woman.

ryti va pixi va - Man.


Singular and plural is expressed with numbers. If number is omitted, one should guess from context, the number is "at least one" by default (n ∈ N, n ≠ 0). A number itself is nominal. To make a cardinal number add "zuni" in the end.

vaci zuni va dogi va - A cat (one).

rapi zuni va dogi va - Two cats.

jeli va dogi va - Cats (many).

dogi va - A cat or cats.

Ordinal numbers end in the word "nuzu". The first parameter is a thing ordered, and the second is a set of everything in that order.

rapi zuni va dogi va - Two cats.

rapi nuzu va ta dogi va - The second cat.


1 - vaci

2 - rapi

3 - mepi

4 - dopi

5 - suxi

6 - vimi

7 - qiji

8 - bywi

9 - dizi

0 - pihi

10 - vaci pihi

11 - vaci vaci

777 - qiji qiji qiji

1 000 - vaci pihi pihi pihi

1 000 000 000 000 (1e12) - vaci beji vaci rapi

-1,28e10 - xifi vaci kaqi rapi bywi beji vaci pihi

1/3 - vaci tini mepi


Negation is expressed with word "ciki" on top of the sentence.

jecu dogi va jopi va - All cats are gray.

ciki jecu dogi va jopi va - Not all cats are gray.

jecu dogi va ciki jopi va - All cats are not gray.


Comparative word is "bawu" - more. Superlative is expressed as "more than all".

doji - wolf

xoxi - white

doji va bawu xoxi va xoxi ga doji ga - This wolf is whiter than that. (The whiteness of the first wolf is more than the whiteness of the second.)

Only and the only[]

In phrases with "only" it's always meant that one is something while others aren't. Therefore the reference to others is necessary. It is expressed with the word "hoso" - "only for x1 but not for x2, x3 is true".


Among all things only gray cats are nice.

hoso va ra qaji va jopi va dogi va

only 1 2 (nice 1), gray 1, cat 1.


Among cats only gray are nice.

hoso va ra qaji va jopi va dogi va dogi ra

only 1 2 (nice 1), gray 1, cat 1, cat 2.

Word creation process[]

The dictionary is generated pseudorandomly, but some words are borrowed. In the borrowed words one puts h between two vowels in a row and i between two consonants in a row. The dictionary may grow forever and sometimes change. It's discouraged to borrow a word shorter than three syllables. There is no rules to make new words. Concatenation of roots is not productive, I believe. Commas, dots, etc are not regulated.


Note. { } means 0 or more repetitions, ( ) groups together, comma concatenates strings, | means an alternative.

text = sentence, {space, sentence};

sentence = word0

| (word1, space, sentence)

| (word2, space, sentence, space, sentence)

| (word3, space, sentence, space, sentence, space, sentence)

| (word4, space, sentence, space, sentence, space, sentence, space, sentence)

| ("se", space, text, space, "te");

vowel = "a" | "e" | "i" | "o" | "u" | "y";

consonant = "b" | "c" | "d" | "f" | "g" | "h" | "j" | "k" | "l" | "m" | "n" | "p" | "q" | "r" | "s" | "t" | "v" | "w" | "x" | "z";

wordbase = consonant, {vowel, consonant};

word0 = wordbase, "a";

word1 = wordbase, "i";

word2 = wordbase, "u";

word3 = wordbase, "o";

word4 = wordbase, "y";

space = blank, {blank};

blank = " " | "," | "." | "?" | "!" | ";" | ":" | "[" | "]" | "{" | "}" | "\" | "|" | "/" | "~" | "*" | "(" | ")" | "-" | "



xumiqedi in English
bacu x1 is a problem / question about x2
badu x1 is a bone of x2
baki here
bapi interstellar
baqi an ash
bawu x1 is more than x2
begi lawyer
beji E sign for numbers
bejo x1=x2*10^x3
beni a stick
beru x1 respects x2
betimeni Batman
biju x1 is brother / sister of x2
biru x1 is a classmate of x2
birysi Bruce
busu x1 is a system of x2
bypi round-shaped
byto x1 is between x2 and x3
bywi 8; eight
cahi a fog
camu x1 is diameter of a circle x2
casi a sun
catu x1 knows about x2
cefu x1 searches / looks for x2
ceju x1 is equal in value to x2 (math)
ceku x1 notices / discovers / finds out x2
cenu x1 is a part of x2
cewu x1 is a cathetus of a triangle x2
cicero Cicero
ciki not
ciru x1 explores / learns x2
copu x1 an agency specialising in x2
cozi sleeps
cuki kid / girl / boy
cusu x1 greets x2 / hello
cybi prime number
cyfu x1 is me and x2 is you; the moment of speech
cylu x1 is a breast / mamma of x2
cyti underpaid
cywu x1 is a tail of x2
cyxu x2 is for x1
damipiti Dumpty
dawu x1 and x2 (logic)
deci a river
dekariti Descartes
demu x1 kills x2
deniheli Daniel
depu x1 splits x2 up
devitohi DeVito
dewi postman
dezi bored
dibi a stone
difu x1 is a repairman specialising at x2
dilu x1 is an author of x2
disu x1 needs / requires x2
dixy x1 sells to somebody x2 something x3 for money x4
dizi 9; nine
dogi cat
doji wolf
doki what's x1? / describe x1 / question
dolu x1 bites x2
dopi 4; four
dowo x1 wipes x3 out of surface x2
doxu x1 cares for x2
dudi x1 feels hot
duhi old
duju x2 is a successor of x1; x2 immediately follows after x1
duru х1 is a tongue of x2
dybu x1 builds x2
dydu x1 sings a song x2
dygi warm
dyhu x1 hopes that x2
dypi bad
dysu x1 is a hypotenuse of a triangle x2
dywu x1 ties x2
faci swims
fahi x1 is on sabbatical / on holidays
faju x1 and x2 met and know each other
faqu x1 is a feather of x2
fawi real; really
fazu x1 is a leg of x2
fehu x1 passes an exam x2
fely x1 translates text x2 from language x3 to language x4
femi fast; quick; rapid
feqo x1 wins x2 at competition x3
fexi goblin
fibu x1 hates x2
fidu x1 sees x2
fijeralidi Fitzgerald
fiqu x2 happens over x1
fiwi school
fugu x1 voluntarily unite in x2
funu x1 is a principle of x2
futu x2 is after x1 / x2 follows x1
fuwi snake
fydi rains; a rain
fyhu x1 avoids x2
fyzu x1 is neighbour of x2
gafu x1 is a base of x2
gaki black
gamu x1 drives / pilots / runs x2
gari freezes; becomes hard from cold
gaxi sharp
gazu x1 is a suitor of x2
geru x1 is present at x2
gihu x1 takes smell of / sniffs x2; x2 smells for x1
gisi straight
giwi once upon a time / someday
golu x1 sews x2
goqi roach
gotemi Gotham (city)
gowu x1 reaches / is heard by x2
gubu x1 is a skin / pelt of x2
gufu x1 calls / contacts / start a conversation with x2
gyvi card of spades
gyzu x1 while x2
halani Alan
hamipiti Humpty
hani nigh / almost / near
hapi flows / a flow
harigeli Argyle
harisitoteli Aristotle
hebihemi IBM (company)
helizabeti Elizabeth
hequ x1 is guts / intestines of x2
heriberiti Herbert
hesu x1 is elected representative; president of a country x2
hevi begins
higi x1 sits
hiniliwi English
hisu x1 is a heart of x2
hivani Ivan
hivanovici Ivanovich
hofu x1 in the honour of x2
hoso only for x1 but not for x2 it's true that x3
hosu only if x1 then x2
hozi country / land
hubi a grass
hucu х1=х2^2
hufu x1 washes x2
hugu x1 and x2 marry; husband and wife
huli wizard / mage
humo x2 trains for sports x3 from the coach x1
huqi burns
husi overworked
hyfi snows; a snow
hyhesi USA (country)
hyzi car / automoblie
jadi wild; ferocious
jaso x1 reigns over subjects x2 in the country x3
jazu x1 understands that x2
jecu if x1 then x2
jekobi Jack / Jacob
jeli a lot
jemu x1 is a foot of x2
jepu x1 is called by name x2
jeremi Jeremy
jici a sky
jiji female / feminine
jimi a moon
jiru x1 is an age of x2
jofu x1 is far from x2
johani John
joniveni Chinese
jopi gray
joriji George
josi toy
jotu x1 plays with a toy x2 / x1 plays a game x2
jubi flower
judi very / greatly
juku x1 is a course / route / path of x2
juti at most / max
juwi static
jydi pear
jyko x1 is jealous of x2 for x3
jysi stands on feet
jyxi central
kabi a salt
kahini Cain
kami do so than x1
kapu x1 means x2
kaqi decimal point for numbers / x1 is a decimal point
karilahi Carla
karili Carl
karu x1 is a chief / director of x2
kavi big
kaxo x1 is a student of professor x2 at university x3
kecu x1 enables / activates x2
kehisi Kay
kehu x1 splashes x2
kemu x1 is a tree of x2
kenedi Kennedy
kenu x1 is a back / rear of x2
keru x1 is member of x2
kihi fence
kilivi Cleevy
kiti card of hearts
kobi at least
kopi floating / buoyant
korihi Cory
kovi a fat
kufu x1 is a belly of x2
kuxu x1 is a liver of x2
kycu x2 happens with medium x2
kyru x1 cuts x2
lagu x1 admires x2
lamu x1 pushes x2
lapi year
lasi bowl / dish
lazu x1 joins x2
ledu x1 pulls x2
lehohi lion
leku x1 shoots x2
lerohi Leroy
lewi now / present / current / modern
lezi dog
lihi green
liju x1 checkmates x2
limi wide
lisu x1 reads x2
lobacevi Lobachev
lodi an earth
loju x1 is a root of x2
loru x1 is a head of x2
lowu x1 contains x2 / x2 happens inside of / in x1
lubu x1 is a range / distance of x2
lugu x1 is an egg of an animal x2
luhu x1 breathes the gas / air x2
lycu x1 hits / punches x2
lyqo x1 gives x2 to x3
magi walks / goes by foot
mahi elf
maji mouse
maqi frog
mari fish
masu x1 hunts x2
medi a smoke
meni long
mepi 3 / three
micu x1 is a child / son / daughter born or raised by parent / mother / father x2
mizu x1 is a fingernail of x2
moki rich / affluent
moridori Mordor (fiction land)
muki positive number
musilimi muslim
mybu x1 and x2 fight / battle each other
myji lives / alive
myxi wet
na the pronoun not keeping any context; something not mentioned
nasi a fire
naxu x1 is me and x2 the people i represent
nexi smooth; sleek
niqu x1 sucks x2
nisu x1 eats x2
nivu x1 follows / stalkes on x2
nori rope
nuji red
nuqi terrorist
nuzu ordinal number of x1 among x3
nygu x1 is a voice of x2
nypi happens / event / occurs
nyvi louse
panu x1 lies that x2
patiriki Pat / Patrick
pejo x1 mails x2 to x3
peni blows / breathes out
peti integer number
pewi full
pici animal
pidi an ice
pihi 0 / zero
piki pi number
pisi exactly
piti a ship
pixi male / masculine
pizu x1 loves x2
podu x1 is successful in x2
poji day of year
poki math / mathematics
polu x1 is enough to x2
pomu x1 is an eye of x2
poqi real estate agent
povi rat
poxo x1 falls from x2 down to x3
pugu x1 is a seed of x2
pumu x1 or x2 (logic)
punu x1 is reason and x2 is consequence
pusi card of diamonds
puti malfunctions; works incorrectly
puwi dirty
puxi beer
pyli course / discipline
pyqi diligent
pyru x1 wastes x2
pysu x1 is a wing of x2
pyti end
pyxi bird
qaji nice / cute
qali ends
qaxi beast
qedi language
qeni someting
qidi thick
qiji 7 / seven
qiku x1 is a figure with x2 angles
qimu x1 is a group of x2
qohu x1 is a nose of x2
qoki dies
qotu x1 is an ear of x2
qoxi a little / slight / mere
qufi laughs
qugu x1 is friend of x2
quhu x1 is a chest / upper front of body of x2
quku x1 is hair of x2
quxu x1 is time of x2
quzu x1 can / is able to do x2
qyci this
qypi a mountain
qyti past / former
qywi turns (around)
qyxi little / tiny
rafi spies / spy
rahi tube
rapi 2 / two
raseli Russell
raxu x1 and x2 differ / different / other
rebekahi Rebecca
rebi a night
recu x1 catches / chases x2
reli dry
ricimonideri Richmonder
rigu x1 calls for x2
rimi a sand
riru thru x1 goes/happens x2
roberiti Robert
robini Robin
roni has happened / already
rovi peaceful / not agressive
rowi vomits
ruci x1 cools down
rugu x1 counts x2
rumu x1 is a mouth of x2
runi empty
rusiki Russian
rutu in a situation of x1, x2 happens
ryki secretary
ryli thin
rymo x1=x2+x3
ryti human
rywu x1 foresees / forecasts x2; x1 is a prophet / oracle of x2
ryxi narrow
sahu x1 takes x2
sapu x1 is a place of x2
saru x1 owns x2 / x2 belongs to x1
se quote begin
seci comes / arrives
segi circus
seji device / machine
seki discharge
sidu x1 is organization for x2
sifu x1 hears x2
siku х1 scratches x2
sivenisiki swedish
sivu x1 chooses x2
sofi forest
soji spits
sosu x2 disappoints x1; x2 makes x1 feel sad
su x1 is x2
suju x1 is a result of a measurement of x2
suxi 5 / five
syki a lake
sylu x1 disturbs / annoys x2
syvi careful / accurate
tasu x1 is glad about x2
te quote end
tedi x1 unbearably / too much
teri fridge
teti wall
tibi to bark
tigirisi tiger
tihi last one
tini division sign for number
tino x1=x2/x3
tizi a dust
todi yellow
toqi right side
tuho x1 puts x2 on the place x3
tuji x1 becomes / appears
tulihi Tully
tuvu x1 rubs x2
tuxu x1 squeezes / compresses x2
tuzi meat
tyfi radio communication
tynu x1 goes to x2
typi x1 flies
tyti a text
tyvi sea
vabu x1 is x2s hand / arm
vaci 1 / one
vafi lottery
valu x1 is a horn of x2
vani tall
vebu on top of x1 there is x2
vevo х1=х2 U х3 / union
vibi will happen / future / upcoming
vici short
vifu x1 stabs / pikes x2 with a pointed weapon
vigu x1 is a neck of x2
vilihami Bill / William
vilisi Willis
vimi 6 / six
viqu x1 envies x2
viti lazy / slacks / slacker
vivu x1 consists of x2
viwi freshman
vizi runs; walks fast
vosi house
vozi dangerous
vucu x1 drinks x2
vufu x1 is near x2 / x1 is together with x2
vugi some / a few / sometimes
vuhu x1 throws x2
vulikani Vulcan
vuwu x1 is a knee of x2
vydu x1 is hard / complicated for x2
vyki a daytime
wadi administrator
wahi misconfigured / faulty (hardware or software)
wedu x1 attacks x2
wekili Sheckley
wemi villain
weti new
widi a clowd
wini left side
wogi unfair / cheats
wolu x1 thinks that x2
wufi correct; right; yes
wuku x1 works for employer x2
wuqi a wind
wuri a star
wyci philosopher
wyhu x1 digs a pit x2
wyti cold
wywu x1 is identical to x2
xagi x1 sighs
xalu religious war x1 against x2
xazi fruit
xedi exists
xeqi swells
xeri great
xezi clever / smart
xifi minus sign for numbers
xifu х1=-х2
xihi ocean
xiwu х1 is blood of x2
xowi heavy
xoxi elf
xumi good
xumiqedi xumiqedish
xuqi card of clubs
xuti basketball
xuvi usual
xybu x1 is a circumference of a circle x2
xyju x1 is bark of a tree x2
xymu x1 earns money doing x2
xypi rots / rotten
xyti x1 is depressed
zaci hero
zafu x1 holds x2 in hands
zari a water
zavi pretty / quite / enough
zelu x1 says x2
zemi x1 suffers emotionally
zeru x1 is a number / quantity of x2
ziqi right triangle
zodi a road
zoku x1 says literally x2
zowu x1 scares x2 / x2 fears x1
zuco x1 examines x2 with exam / experiment x3
zufu x1 is a leaf of x2
zuku x1 is a tooth of x2
zuni cardinal number sign
zupi worm
zuru x1 and x2 is blood-related
zydu x1 climbs on x2
zyhi x1 is critical / edge
zynu x1 is a length of x2



Among all things only gray cats are nice.

hoso va qa qaji va jopi va dogi va

only 1 2 (nice 1), gray 1, cat 1.


Among cats only gray are nice.

hoso va qa qaji va jopi va dogi va dogi qa

only 1 2 (nice 1), gray 1, cat 1, cat 2.


Only one son of John sleeps.

hoso va qa vaci zuni va cozi va micu va ta pixi va johani ta micu qa ta pixi qa

only 1 2 (one (quantity 1)), sleep 1, child 1 3, male 1, John 3, child 2 3, male 2.


The only son of John sleeps.

hoso va qa dawu micu va ta pixi va johani ta cozi va

only 1 2 (and (child 1 3) (male 1)), John 3, sleep 1.


Only the only son of John sleeps.

hoso va qa dawu micu va ta pixi va johani ta hoso va qa cozi va

only 1 2 (and (child 1 3) (male 1)), John 3, only 1 2 (sleep 1).


This is a white wolf.

qyci va xoxi va doji va

this 1, white 1, wolf 1.


This wolf is whiter than that wolf.

qyci va doji va bawu xoxi va xoxi ga doji ga

this 1, wolf 1, more (white 1) (white 2), wolf 2.


The wolf is white.

qyci va doji va xoxi va

this 1, wolf 1, white 1.


A white wolf bites a man.

xoxi va doji va dolu va ga ryti ga

white 1, wolf 1, bite 1 2, human 2.


The wolf that bites a man is white.

doji va dolu va ga ryti ga xoxi va

wolf 1, bite 1 2, human 2, white 1.


A white wolf is a beast.

xoxi va doji va qaxi va

white 1, wolf 1, beast 1.


White wolf's name is Ivan Ivanovich.

xoxi va doji va jepu va qa hivani qa hivanovici qa

white 1, wolf 1, name 1 2, ivan 2, ivanovich 2.


Ivan Ivanovich the wolf is a beast.

doji va hivani va hivanovici va qaxi va

wolf 1, ivan 1, ivanovich 1, beast 1.


The wolf which is white, its name is Ivan Ivanovich.

doji va xoxi va jepu va qa hivani qa hivanovici qa

wolf 1, white 1, name 1 2, ivan 2, ivanovich 2.


The wolf called Ivan Ivanovich is white.

doji va jepu va qa hivani qa hivanovici qa xoxi va

wolf 1, name 1 2, ivan 2, ivanovich 2, white 1.


The beast which is a wolf is mine.

qaxi va doji va saru ga va cyfu ga sa

beast 1, wolf 1, own 2 1, i-you 2 3.


This is a friend of my son.

qyci va qugu va ga cyfu qa ta micu ga qa pixi ga

this 1, friend 1 2, i-you 3 4, child 2 3, male 2.


Ivan's wolf is a friend of my son.

doji va hivani ka saru ka va qugu va qa cyfu sa za micu qa sa pixi qa

wolf 1, ivan 2, own 2 1, friend 1 3, i-you 4 5, child 3 4, male 3.


My white wolf bites a man.

cyfu va fa saru va qa xoxi qa doji qa dolu qa sa ryti sa

i-you 1 4, own 1 2, white 2, wolf 2, bite 2 3, human 3.


My white wolf biting a man is a beast.

cyfu va fa saru va qa xoxi qa doji qa dolu qa sa ryti sa qaxi qa

i-you 1 4, own 1 2, white 2, wolf 2, bite 2 3, human 3, beast 2.


My wolf bites me.

cyfu va fa saru va qa doji qa dolu qa va

i-you 1 3, own 1 2, wolf 2, bite 2 1.


My wolf bites him.

cyfu va fa saru va qa doji qa dolu qa sa

i-you 1 4, own 1 2, wolf 2, bite 2 3.


My wolf bites itself.

cyfu va fa saru va qa doji qa dolu qa qa

i-you 1 3, own 1 2, wolf 2, bite 2 2.


A white wolf of Ivan's son hardly bites a friend of my son with teeth by the hand.

xoxi va doji va saru qa va micu qa sa pixi qa hivani sa su ja dolu va la judi ja kycu da ja zuku da va vabu la ra qugu ra ta micu ta ma pixi ta cyfu ma za

white 1, wolf 1, own 2 1, child 2 3, male 2, ivan 3, = 4 (bite 1 6), very 4, via 5 4, tooth 5 1, hand 6 7, friend 7 8, child 8 9, male 8, i-you 9 10.


The wolf Ivan's son, which hardly bites a friend of my son with teeth by the hand, is white and its name is Ivan Ivanovich.

doji va saru sa va micu sa ta pixi sa hivani ta su ja dolu va la judi ja kycu ja da zuku da va vabu la ra qugu ra ma micu ma ha pixi ma cyfu ha za xoxi va hivani wa hivanovici wa jepu va wa

wolf 1, own 2 1, child 2 3, male 2, ivan 3, = 4 (bite 1 6), very 4, via 5 4, tooth 5 1, hand 6 7, friend 7 8, child 8 9, male 8, i-you 9 19, white 1, ivan 10, ivanovich 10, name 1 10.


The wolf biting a friend of my son belongs to Ivan's son.

doji va dolu va sa qugu sa ta micu ta ra pixi ta cyfu ra za saru ba va micu ba da hivani da

wolf 1, bite 1 2, friend 2 3, child 3 4, male 3, i-you 4 7, own 5 1, child 5 6, male 5, ivan 6.


A wolf sleeps.

doji va cozi va

wolf 1, sleep 1.


A sleeping wolf is mine.

cozi va doji va saru va ma cyfu ma za

sleep 1, wolf 1, own 2 1, i-you 2 3.


A sleeping wolf doesn't bite me.

cozi va doji va ciki dolu va ma cyfu ma za

sleep 1, wolf 1, not (bite 1 2), i-you 2 3.


My wolf biting me doesn't sleep.

dolu va ma cyfu ma za saru ma va doji va ciki cozi va

bite 1 2, i-you 2 3, own 2 1, wolf, not (sleep 1).


I put a piece of meat in the Ivan's bowl with my hand, gave it to the wolf and fell asleep.

cyfu ma za kycu ra tuho ma qa la vabu ra ma lasi la tuzi qa vaci zuni qa doji da futu lyqo ma la da cozi ma

i-you 1 9, via 2 (put 1 3 4), hand 2 1, bowl 4, meat 3, one (quantity 3), wolf 5, after (give 1 4 5) (sleep 1).


All cats are gray.

jecu dogi va jopi va

if (cat 1) (gray 1).


Not all cats are gray.

ciki jecu dogi va jopi va

not (if (cat 1) (gray 1)).


All cats aren't gray.

jecu dogi va ciki jopi va

if (cat 1) (not (gray 1)).


All gray cats are nice.

jecu dawu jopi va dogi va qaji va

if (and (gray 1) (cat 1)) (nice 1).


Some black cats are nice.

vugi jecu dawu gaki va dogi va qaji va

sometimes (if (and (black 1) (cat 1)) (nice 1)).


Some nice cats are black.

vugi jecu dawu qaji va dogi va gaki va

sometimes (if (and (nice 1) (cat 1)) (black 1)).


Some nice black creatures are cats.

vugi jecu dawu gaki va qaji va dogi va

sometimes (if (and (black 1) (nice 1)) (cat 1)).


Among nice cats there are gray and black.

dogi va qaji va vevo va sa ca jopi sa gaki ca

cat 1, nice 1, union 1 2 3, gray 2, black 3.


Nice cats are gray and black.

qaji va dogi va jopi va gaki va

nice 1, cat 1, gray 1, black 1.


He said not all cats are gray.

zelu ka se ciki jecu dogi va jopi va te

say 1 " not (if (cat 2) (gray 2)) ".


Being a cat means to be gray and nice.

kapu dogi qa dawu jopi qa qaji qa

mean (cat 1) (and (gray 1) (nice 1)).


She's my sister.

biju va qa jiji va cyfu qa za

brother/sister 1 2, female 1, i-you 2 3.


It's hard to have a sister.

punu biju va qa zemi qa jiji va

cause (brother/sister 1 2) (hard 2), female 1.


Being a sister is hard.

punu biju va qa zemi va jiji va

cause (brother/sister 1 2) (hard 1), female 1.


I'm jealous of my sister for my cat.

cyfu va za jyko va qa ra biju qa va jiji qa saru va ra dogi ra

i-you 1 9, jealous 1 2 3, brother/sister 2 1, female 2, own 1 3, cat 3.


Jealousy causes pain.

punu jyko va qa ra zemi sa

cause (jealous 1 2 3) (hard 4).


I see my sister.

cyfu ma za fidu ma sa biju ma sa jiji ma

i-you 1 9, see 1 2, brother/sister 1 2, female 1.


I'm glad to see my sister.

cyfu ma za tasu ma fidu ma sa biju ma sa jiji ma

i-you 1 9, glad 1 (see 1 2), brother/sister 1 2, female 1.


A cat climbs a fence.

dogi va zydu va qa kihi qa

cat 1, climb 1 2, fence 2.


A cat climbs over the fence.

dogi va fiqu ka tynu va qa kihi ka

cat 1, over 2 (go 1 3), fence 2.


Everyone except the king does not admire the king.

jecu jaso ka va ra ciki lagu va ka

if (reign 1 2 3) (not (admire 2 1)).


The tallest and smallest men in the world both joined the circus.

ryti va jecu ryti la bawu vani va vani la ryti sa jecu ryti la bawu vani la vani sa roni lazu va ga roni lazu sa ga segi ga

human 1, if (human 2) (more (tall 1) (tall 2)), human 3, if (human 2) (more (tall 2) (tall 3)), already (join 1 4), already (join 3 4), circus 4.


Exactly two goblins hate every wizard.

jecu vizadi sa dawu pisi rapi zuni va dawu fexi va fibu va sa

if (wizard 2) (and (exactly (two (quantity 1))) (and (goblin 1) (hate 1 2))).


The Queen of England is related to the King of Sweden.

jaso va pa ma jiji va hiniliwi ma zuru va za jaso za ta la pixi za sivenisiki la

reign 1 2 3, female 1, english 3, blood-related 1 4, reign 4 5 6, male 4, swedish 6.


Not every country belongs to the United Nations.

ciki jecu hozi va keru va qa sidu qa ra fugi ra ka hozi ka

not (if (country 1) (member 1 2)), organization 2 3, unite 3 4, country 4.


The president of every country knows the president of every other country.

jecu dawu hesu va qa hesu fa wa faju va fa

if (and (president 1 2) (president 3 4)) (know 1 3).


The result of dividing the circumference of a circle by its diameter is equal to pi.

ceju ba ca tino ba da fa xybu da ga camu fa ga piki ca

equal 1 2, divide 1 3 4, circumference 3 5, diameter 4 5, pi 2.


No house has only one roach in it.

pihi zuni va vosi va lowu va qa goqi qa pisi vaci zuni qa

zero (quantity 1), house 1, contain 1 2, roach 2, exactly (one (quantity 2)).


The Queen of Hearts' only daughter is loved by exactly three suitors.

jaso va ta sa jiji va kiti ta hoso qa ba dawu micu qa va jiji qa pizu fa qa pisi mepi zuni fa gazu fa qa

reign 1 2 3, female 1, hearts 2, only 4 6 (and (child 4 1) (female 4)), love 5 4, exactly (three (quantity 5)), suitor 5 4.


At least two known terrorists are hated by everyone except themselves.

kobi rapi zuni va catu qa va nuqi va fibu va qa

at-least (two (quantity 1)), know 2 1, terrorist 1, hate 2 1.


The lord of the elves will cross the sea only if the lord of Mordor is defeated.

jaso va ta sa mahi sa hosu vibi feqo za pa fa fiqu qa vibi tynu va ka jaso pa ba ca moridori ca tyvi qa

reign 1 2 3, elf 3, only-if (future (win 4 5 6)) (over 7 (will (go 1 8))), reign 5 9 10, mordor 10, see 7.


Anyone who respects someone who respects the current president of the United States is not respected by at least one person.

jecu beru va qa ciki beru sa qa beru qa ka lewi hesu ka ra hyhesi ra kobi vaci zuni sa

if (respect 1 2) (not (respect 5 2)), respect 2 3, now (president 3 4), USA 4, at-least (one (quantity 5)).


The wall from which Humpty Dumpty fell is not the Great Wall of China.

teti va roni poxo ka va ta hamipiti ka damipiti ka ciki su va wa teti wa xeri wa joniveni wa

wall 1, already (fall 2 1 3), humpty 2, dumpty 2, not (be 1 4), wall 4, great 4, chinese 4.


The woman Argyle hoped to marry was the woman the man she hoped to marry hoped to marry.

jiji va harigeli qa dyhu qa hugu qa va dyhu ma hugu ma va pixi ma dyhu va hugu va ma

female 1, argyle 2, hope 2 (marry 2 1), hope 3 (marry 3 1), male 3, hope 1 (marry 1 3).


Something's happening here, and what it is ain't exactly clear.

nypi va dypi jazu qa va

happen 1, bad (understand 2 1).


This is the boy who played with the toy that scared the frog that splashed the dog that chased the cat that ate the rat that killed the mouse that lived in the house that Jack built.

qyci ba cuki ba pixi ba jotu ba ca josi ca zowu ca da maqi da kehu da fa lezi fa recu fa ga dogi ga nisu ga ha povi ha demu ha ja maji ja lowu ka myji ja vosi ka jekobi la dybu la ka

this 1, kid 1, male 1, play 1 2, toy 2, scare 2 3, frog 3, splash 3 4, dog 4, chase 4 5, cat 5, eat 5 6, rat 6, kill 6 7, mouse 7, contain 8 (live 7), house 8, Jack 9, build 9 8.


That was Jihad Against Islam's Call for Jihad.

qyti xalu va rigu qa xalu qa ra musilimi qa

past (religious-war 1 (call 2 (religious-war 2 3))), muslim 2.


Every human envies the human admired by every Vulcan.

jecu ryti va viqu va qa ryti qa jecu vulikani ta lagu ta qa

if (human 1) (envy 1 2), human 2, if (Vulcan 3) (admire 3 2).


Someday the USA will elect a woman president, and it won't be pretty.

ciki xumi vibi giwi hesu va qa jiji va hyhesi qa

not (good (future (someday (president 2 3))), female 2, USA 3.


Nothing is the greatest positive integer.

ciki xedi va jecu dawu peti va muki va bawu va qa

not (exist 1), if (and (integer-number 1) (positive-number 1)) (more 1 2).



liju va qa

checkmate 1 2.


Now that's a pretty little girls' school.

qyci va zavi qyxi va cuki qa jiji qa cyxu va qa fiwi va

this 1, enough (little 1), kid 2, female 2, for 2 1, school 1.


They were attacking people, not peaceful people.

roni wedu da qa ciki rovi qa

past (attack 1 2), not (peaceful 2).


"Bad hair day".

dypi va quku va qa hofu va ka poji ka

bad 1, hair 1 2, in-honour 1 3, day-of-year 3.


If at least two people are great, then no one is the one great person.

xeri va jecu kobi rapi zuni va ciki xedi qa, jecu xeri xa bowu xeri qa xeri xa

great 1, if (at-least (two (quantity 1))) (not (exist 2)), if (great 3) (more (great 2) (great 3)).


The dog next door is dangerous.

lezi va fizu ka qa saru ka va vozi va

dog 1, neighbour 2 3, own 2 1, dangerous 1.


The fridge is not empty, unless the repairman took the last beer.

teri va jecu roni ciki sahu ka ra ciki runi va difu ka qa tihi ra puxi ra

fridge 1, if (already (not (take 2 3))) (not (empty 1)), repairman 2 4, last 3, beer 3.


Al is married to Betty's only daughter.

halani va helizabeti qa roni hugu va sa hoso sa ka dawu micu sa qa jiji sa

Al 1, Betty 2, already (marry 1 3), only 2 3 (and (child 3 2) (female 3)).


The red house is the house that Jack built.

nuji va vosi va jekobi sa roni dybu sa va

red 1, house 1, Jack 2, already (build 2 1).


Russell is not the only author of Principia Mathematica.

raseli va ciki hoso va ka dilu va qa funu ta ka poki ka jepu qa ta

Russell 1, not (only 1 5 (author 1 2)), principle 3 4, math 4, name 2 3.


The person who shot JFK worked for the CIA.

roni leku da qa johani qa fijeralidi qa kenedi qa wuku da sa jyxi sa rafi ka copu sa ka

already (shoot 1 2), John 2, Fitzjerald 2, Kennedy 2, work 1 3, central 3, spy 4, agency 3 4.


Jeremy is Cory's oldest son.

jeremi va korihi qa jecu dawu micu va qa dawu pixi va dawu micu ka qa pixi ka bawu fa ga jiru fa va jiru ga ka

Jeremy 1, Cory 2, if (and (child 1 2) (and (male 1) (and (child 3 2) (male 3)))) (more 1 3), age 4 1, age 5 3.


All hail the king.

jecu jaso qa va da cusu va qa

if (reign 2 1 3) (greet 1 2).


The exam that every student failed is harder than the exam that every student passed.

bawu vydu qa ma vydu ta ma zuco la ma qa zuco la ma ta jecu kaxo la ma qa dawu ciki podu ma qa podu ma ta

more (hard 3 2) (hard 4 2), examince 1 2 3, examince 1 2 4, if (study 2 1 3) (and (not (successful 2 3)) (successful 2 4)).


If you can't be with the one you love, love the one you're with.

jecu ciki quzu ka vufu ka ra kami pizu ka qa cyfu ca ka pizu ka ra vufu ka qa

if (not (able 1 (be-close 2 3))) (do (love 2 4)), i-you 9 2, love 2 3, be-close 2 4.


The coach of the basketball team is looking for the tallest student.

humo va ta ra xuti ra cefu va ka kaxo ka ja qa, jecu kaxo sa ja qa bawu vani ka vani sa

coach 1 2 3, basketball 3, search 1 4, study 4 7 5, if (study 6 7 5) (more (tall 4) (tall 6)).


The king of Sweden's only son is married to one of Herbert's daughters.

jaso va fa ma sivenisiki ma hoso ja ta dawu micu ta va pixi ta roni hugu ta ka vaci zuni ka heriberiti ga micu ka ga jiji ka

reign 1 2 3, swedish 3, only 4 7 (and (child 4 1) (male 4)), already (marry 4 5), one (quantity 5), Herbert 6, child 5 6, female 5.


Carla is the one freshman who aced every course in which she enrolled.

karilahi va viwi va pyli ka jecu sivu va ka podu va ka

Carla 1, freshman 1, course 2, if (choose 1 2) (successful 1 2).


The CEO of IBM is the spouse of someone present.

karu va qa hebihemi qa hugu va sa geru sa za baki za

CEO 1 2, IBM 2, marry 1 3, present 3 4, here 4.


The former president of the United States is the only American who knows the president of every country.

qyti hesu ta ka vaci zuni ta hyhesi ta hyhesi ja jecu hesu ra qa hoso ta ja faju ta ra

past (president 1 2), one (quantity 1), US-american 1, US-american 5, if (president 3 4) (only 1 5 (met 1 3)).


This is the dog that chased the cat that stalked the mouse that lived in the house that Jack built.

qyci va lezi va recu va qa dogi qa nivu qa ra maji ra lowu la myji ra vosi la jekobi ja dybu ja la

this 1, dog 1, chase 1 2, cat 2, stalk 2 3, mouse 3, contain 4 (live 3), house 4, Jack 5, build 5 4.


The square of the length of the hypotenuse of any right triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the lengths of its base and vertical sides.

hucu ba ca zynu ca da dysu da fa ziqi fa ceju ba ga rymo ga ha ja hucu ha ka zynu ka la cewu la fa hucu ja ma zynu ma qa cewu qa fa

square 1 2, length 2 3, hypotenuse 3 4, right-triangle 4, equal 1 5, sum 5 6 7, square 6 8, length 8 9, cathetus 9 4, square 7 10, length 10 11, cathetus 11 4.


Bill hates George only if Pat hates Bill.

vilihami va joriji ja patiriki pa hosu fibu pa va fibu va ja

Bill 1, George 2, Pat 3, only-if (hate 3 1) (hare 1 2).


Being careful and diligent is necessary, but not sufficient for passing this course.

su ta dawu syvi va pyqi va disu ta ra ciki polu ta ra su ra fehu va qa

= 1 (and (careful 2) (diligent 2)), necessary 1 3, not (enough 1 3), = 3 (fehu 2 4).


Some professors don't understand this problem.

vugi jecu kaxo va la qa ciki jazu va ta bacu ta ka

sometimes (if (study 1 5 2) (not (understand 1 3)), problem 3 4.


Danny DeVito and ferocious lions and tigers are best avoided.

deniheli va devitohi va jadi ra vevo ra qa ma lehohi qa tigirisi ma vevo sa va ra bawu xumi fyhu ta sa ba

Danny 1, DeVito 1, wild 2, union 2 3 4, lion 3, tiger 4, union 5 1 2, more (good (avoid 6 5)) 7.


Lawyers and real estate agents are rich or obnoxious.

begi va poqi qa vevo ta va qa pumu moki ta sylu ta ra

lawyer 1, real-estate-agent 2, union 3 1 2, or (rich 3) (annoy 3 4).


If all professors bore all of their students, then all professors are wasting their time.

jecu jecu kaxo da va qa punu va dezi da jecu kaxo da va qa pyru va ka quxu ka va

if [if (study 2 1 3) (cause 1 (bore 2))] [if (study 2 1 3) (waste 1 4)], time 4 1.


Some lion Bruce Willis is chasing is a formidable animal, but is not ferocious.

vaci zuni va lehohi va birysi ta vilisi ta lewi recu ta va zowu va ka ciki jadi va

one (quantity 1), lion 1, Bruce 2, Willis 2, now (catch 2 1), scare 1 3, not (wild 1).


The only students who pass are the ones who work.

hoso la ma fehu la qa kaxo la ra ja kaxo ma ra ja pyqi la

only 1 2 (pass-exam 1 3), study 1 4 5, study 2 4 5, diligent 1.


Only slackers fail if and only if the only unfair professors are on sabbatical.

su ma hoso va za ciki podu va qa hosu ma ba su ba hoso fa sa fahi fa wogi fa vevo ra va za kaxo ra ca ja vevo ca fa sa

= 1 (only 2 3 (not (successful 2 4))), only-if 1 5, = 5 (only 6 7 on-sabbatical 7), unfair 7, union 8 2 3, study 8 9 10, union 9 6 7.


Someone is not respected by anyone.

vaci zuni va jecu ryti qa ciki beru qa va

one (quantity 1), if (human 2) (not (respect 2 1)).


Any professor who is bored by everything bores all of his or her students.

jecu jecu qeni ta punu ta dezi ka jecu kaxo qa ka ma punu ka dezi qa

if [if (something 4) (cause 4 (bore 1))] [if (study 2 1 3) (cause 1 (bore 2))].


Some underpaid professors are also secretaries, and some overworked administrators are professors, but no administrator is a secretary.

vugi jecu dawu cyti va kaxo qa va xa ryki va vugi jecu dawu wadi da husi da kaxo qa da xa ciki jecu wadi ra ryki ra

sometimes (if (and (underpaid 1) (study 2 1 3)) (secretary 1)), sometimes (if (and (administrator 4) (overworked 4)) (study 2 4 3)), not (if (administrator 5) (secretary 5).


If a student and his or her professor bore each other, then both are wasting their time.

kaxo da va qa jecu dawu punu da dezi va punu va dezi da pyru xa ka quxu ka xa vevo xa da va

study 2 1 3, if (and (cause 1 (bore 2)) (cause 2 (bore 1))) (waste 5 4), time 4 5, union 5 2 1.


Everyone who respects oneself is respected by everyone who respects someone.

jecu beru va va jecu beru fa ma beru fa va

if (respect 1 1) (if (respect 2 3) (respect 2 1)).


Daniel is the only child of Jacob.

deniheli da hoso da ga micu da ja jekobi ja

Daniel 1, only 1 3 (child 1 2), Jacob 2.


Rebecca has at least two daughters.

rebekahi va micu qa va jiji qa kobi rapi zuni qa

Rebecca 1, child 2 1, female 2, at-least (two (quantity 2)).


Cain was not his brother's keeper.

kahini ka biju ka qa pixi qa qyti ciki doxu ka qa

Cain 1, brother-or-sister 1 2, male 2, past (not (care 1 2)).


Carl is the tallest man alive.

karili va jecu dawu ryti ma lewi myji ma bawu vani va vani ma

Carl 1, if (and (human 2) (now (live 2))) (more (tall 1) (tall 2).


The only pear left on the tree is rotten.

hoso ka ra kemu qa ka tihi qa vaci zuni qa jydi ka xypi ka

only 1 2 (tree 3 1), last 3, one (quantity 3), pear 1, rot 1.


There are exactly two primes between 10 and 14.

pisi rapi zuni va cybi va byto va la ka vaci pihi la vaci dopi ka

exactly (two (quantity 1)), prime-number 1, between 1 2 3, one (zero 2), one (four 3).


At most one Richmonder will win the lottery.

juti vaci zuni va ricimonideri va vibi feqo va qa ra vafi ra

at-most (one (quantity 1)), Richmonder 1, future (win 1 2 3), lottery 3.


Every positive integer has exactly one successor.

jecu dawu muki va peti va duju va qa pisi vaci zuni qa

if (and (positive-number 1) (integer-number 1)) (successor 1 2), exactly (one (quantity 2)).


Batman and Robin are the only heros in Gotham.

betimeni ba robini ra vevo qa ra ba hoso qa la zaci qa lowu ga la gotemi ga

Batman 1, Robin 2, unioun 3 2 1, only 3 4 (hero 3), contain 5 4, Gotham 5.


Everything is identical to something.

jecu qeni va wywu va qa

if (all 1) (identical 1 2).


Exactly one student respects every professor.

pisi vaci zuni va jecu kaxo va ta sa beru va ta

exactly (one (quantity 1)), if (study 1 2 3) (respect 1 2).


No more than one professor is respected by every student.

juti vaci zuni va jecu kaxo ka va ha beru ka va

at-most (one (quantity 1)), if (study 2 1 3) (respect 1 2).


Aristotle and Descartes are the only philosophers who are smarter than all of their disciples.

harisitoteli ha dekariti da vevo va ha da wyci va jecu kaxo qa va ba hoso va ra bawu xezi va xezi qa

Aristotle 1, Descartes 2, unioun 3 1 2, philosopher 3, if (study 5 3 6) (only 3 4 (more (smart 3) (smart 5))).


2 is the only prime whose successor is prime.

rapi va hoso va pa duju va ka cybi pa cybi ka

two 1, only 1 2 (successor 1 3), prime-number 2, prime-number 3.


No one respects anyone who respects everyone but him or herself.

jecu ryti va ciki beru va ra hoso va ra beru ra va

if (human 1) (not (respect 1 2)), only 1 2 (respect 2 1).


Everyone who respects exactly one classmate is respected by exactly two classmates.

jecu beru va ra beru ka va pisi vaci zuni ra biru va ra pisi rapi zuni ka biru ka va

if (respect 1 2) (respect 3 1), exactly (one (quantity 2)), classmate 1 2, exactly (two (quantity 3)), classmate 3 1.


Cicero is Tully.

cicerohi va tulihi va

Cicero 1, Tully 1.


Every affluent person owns at least two cars.

jecu moki va saru va qa ryti va hyzi qa kobi rapi zuni qa

if (rich 1) (own 1 2), human 1, car 2, at-least (two (quantity 2)).


There are no more than two villains in Gotham.

juti rapi zuni va wemi va lowu ga va gotemi ga

at-most (two (quantity 1)), villain 1, contain 2 1, Gotham 2.


Kay respects everyone but herself.

kehisi va jecu ryti qa hoso qa va beru va qa

Kay 1, if (human 2)_(only 2 1 (respect 1 2)).


The end is nigh.

hani pyti va

almost (end 1).


There are at least 3 different cats so that they sleep in the moment.

kobi mepi zuni va dogi va lewi cozi va

at-least (three (quantity 1)), cat 1, now (sleep 1).


There is at most 1 cat so that it sleeps in the moment.

juti vaci zuni va dogi va lewi cozi va

at-most (one (quantity 1)), cat 1, now (sleep 1).


There are from 4 to 42 cats so that they sleep in the moment.

zeru ka ra bawu ka ma mepi ma bawu da ka dopi mepi da lewi cozi ra

quantity 1 2, more 1 3, three 3, more 4 1, four (three 1), now (sleep 2).


There are the same amount of sleeping cats as the dogs eating meat.

zeru ka ra dogi ra zeru ga la lezi la ceju ka ga lewi cozi ra nisu la ca tuzi ca

quantity 1 2, cat 2, quantity 3 4, dog 4, equal 1 3, now (sleep 2), eat 4 5, meat 5.


I eat twice.

cyfu ka ra rapi zuni nisu ka ta

i-you 1 2, two (quantity (eat 1 3)).


I eat the second time.

cyfu ka ra rapi nuzu la nisu ka ma

i-you 1 2, two (ordinal 3 (eat 1 4)).


All I do is sleeping.

cyfu ka ra cozi ka ciki nypi ka

i-you 1 2, sleep 1, not (happen 1).


He runs fast.

femi vizi la

fast (run 1).


The rapidity of his run is admirable.

lagu ka femi vizi la

admire 1 (fast (run 2)).